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Charlie Edwardsen, Sr., Interview 2, Part 1
Charlie Edwardsen, Sr.

Charlie Edwardsen, Sr. (Aaluk) was interviewed on March 10, 1982 by Bill Schneider and Wendy Arundale at his home in Barrow, Alaska (now known as Utqiaġvik) for the Chipp-Ikpikpuk and Meade Rivers Oral History Project. In this first part of a two part interview, Charlie talks about place names and historic sites along the Chipp and Ikpikpuk Rivers. He also talks about lakes for fishing, caribou hunting, camp locations along the Chipp River, families that used the area, and place names in the Cape Halkett area. His wife, Mary, is also present during the interview and periodically adds comments from the background. (IHLC Tape #00046)

The transcript with Iñupiaq spellings was completed by Kathy Itta (now Ahgeak).

After clicking play, click on a section to navigate the audio or video clip.


Distinction between Chipp and Ikpikpak Rivers.

Names for rivers and sites in the area.


Names for parts of the rivers.

More about names for parts of the rivers.

Other features in the area.

Review of sites.

Lakes and fishing in the area.

More about Ayaqhaat.

More about Qiukkan Imaŋa and caribou hunting.

Quksaurrauraq, Aumalik, and Tittaaliq Rivers.

The Qarlugiksauraq area.

Their cabin at Kigalasuk.

The camps at Chipp 1, 2, and 4.

How the camp at Chipp 3 burned and about the sites at Chipp 4-9.

Their camp at Chipp 10 and other camps and place names.

Imaġruaq Lake and a family that lived there.

Re-checking place names.

Place names around Cape Halkett and travel in that area.

Re-checking place names.

More historical sites.

Three domes that served as a landmark.

Click play, then use Sections or Transcript to navigate the interview.

After clicking play, click a section of the transcript to navigate the audio or video clip.


Bill: This is Bill Schneider and Wendy Arundale on March 10, with Charlie Edwardsen, Sr. and maybe Mary Edwardsen will be in here in a bit. Talking about places on the Ikpikpuk River and the references to numbers will be keyed to the maps that we've got here and Wendy, you're going to do that with a pencil? Right, did we ask about it? Wendy: Do you have a pencil? Right, okay. My list here. Charlie: This is a nice river, straight. Wish this was like that. Bill: That Chipp is really winding, huh? Charlie: Uh-huh. Bill: When you say the Ikpikpuk River which segments do you mean there? Charlie: Uh-huh. Bill: When you say the Ikpikpuk River which segments do you mean there? Charlie: See, this, the Ikpikpak, the Chipp is what they call the Chipp River. That's the Natives call it Ikpikpak. This, then it, then it branches off here see, right, just below Isuliumaniq it branches off. Bill: So from this point here? Charlie: To here Wendy: There's a Chipp and the Ikpikpuk. Charlie: This used to have been ah, see, it goes together. That's ah, yah, that's it there. This is the Ikpikpuk. Ikpikpagruaq, they call it. Bill: Okay, that's what we're gonna label here, A. Charlie: Uh-huh. Bill: And how does that go then? What happens up here? Charlie: Oh, it goes clear down on the...this is Alaqtaq. Bill: Okay. Charlie That's it. Wendy: Okay, so the Ikpikpagruaq starts at the point where the map shows the Chipp and Ikpikpak splitting apart? Charlie: Yes, written apart. Wendy: Good. Bill: We'll call that A just for our safety. Charlie: And the natives call this Ikpikpak. Bill: The other side, the other branch. Charlie: Yah, the other branch, they don't call it Chipp. The Natives call it Ikpikpak. And this Ikpikpagruaq.

Bill: How about this one here? Charlie: Alaqtaq. Bill: So that stays the same? Charlie: Yah, that stays the same, yah, Alaqtaq. Bill: What does Alaqtaq mean? Charlie: I don't know. Just a name of somebody I guess or... Bill: How bout this river over here? Charlie: That's Mayuaġiaq. Goes into the...that's the name here, Mayuaġiaq. Bill: That's what we've labeled B here. Charlie: Mayuaġiaq, yah, that goes right into the Ikpikpagruaq too, and it just goes right across. They call that bluff right there sand dunes right there Iqsiññat. Bill: I've labeled that C. Is that where, where the two rivers come together? Charlie: Uh, no. It's just right above where the two rivers come together. There's a river below it a little, little quick. I mean, it's hardly any water in it. Wendy: Could you say that name again, Charlie? Charlie: Iqsiññat. Wendy: Iqsiññat. Bill: That's what we've labeled C here. Is that where this...where these little brown dots are? Charlie: Yah, there's a cabin there. Daniel Leavitt's cabin. Bill: Oh, I see. Charlie: Daniel Leavitt's cabin's right there. That's what they call it, Iqsiññat. That's what they used to claim...that's where the dragon used to be. Bill: Oh, what's the story about that? Charlie: They said there was a dragon there a long time ago. then if any boats come by that don't leave anything or something for them to eat they eat, they eat them. Two brothers killed that dragon. Bill: Oh, really. Charlie: The call it Ugruŋnaqpak. Bill: The dragon? Charlie: Yah, the dragon yah. They call it Ugrauŋnaqpak. And these two brothers can dive just as long as an ugruk underwater. So they killed it. Bill: I'll be darned. Charlie: No, he used to live ah, right...that, that cabins here. That's there that used to been their cabins. Around in there Amaġuaqs, and Shugluk's and Nayukok's. Bill: That's on Smith Bay, yah. Wendy: Let me look at the point that, oh, okay. Charlie: Imaġruaq Lake used to be real good fishing in that lake too. Bill: Let me back up here a minute Charlie. I want to make sure we have this spot marked here where the dragon was at Daniel Leavitt's camp. Charlie: Right where that, the sand dunes are, that's what they call Iqsiññat. So this creek here, that's Mayuaġiaq, goes right down, right there where the X is. Bill: Okay, we've got that marked as Daniel Leavitt's camp. This is what we're going to call C. Charlie: Yah.

Bill: Where is the place they call Suklak? Charlie: What is that? Bill: Suklait? Wendy: Suklait? Charlie: Suqḷaich. Wendy: Suqḷait? Charlie: Suqḷaich is...Mayuaġiaq and goes into, its about, just about right in here. Bill: Okay, what does that refer to? Charlie: That's just...I don't know...nothing, I guess. See, quite a few Halkett people was, not Halkett, but Natives were living there like the Leavitts. The Leavitts lived there too. And uh, people from Qalluvik that lives down Qalluvik they always move. In the fall, fall time when it's fishing time they go up to Suqḷak and they fish right there. Bill: All fishing. Charlie: Yah, they go fishing then and uh, used to be a bunch of ice cellars right there too. And there's some, some old sod of ice cellars right there too. And there's some, some old sod houses too, right there too that's all caved in. Bill: Okay, let me ask a few more general questions and then we'll go through your list. Wendy: Okay, I didn't see where Charlie pointed when you were talking about Suqḷak. Bill: Oh, probably here where... Charlie: It's, it's just right in here. This is kinda bay there, there's a creek runs down and they fish from in that creek too. Wendy: So it's a particular spot or an area, larger area? Charlie: Yah, oh they went to there too. There were, when I one time, I was driving dog team, I went right to it and I was chasing two wolves and I got lost. And when I got lost and I heard of that, that Suqḷak before and I said to myself, "That must be that." So, I start cutting across and we were, we were right...around here and I just cut the snowdrifts and I missed it and I wind up hitting this knoll here. Bill: Oh, way up, huh? Charlie: Yah, I missed it, but when I got to that high knoll, I know where it is, I got a trap on it. Then I went down back to what we call Quaqruqaġruaq. Our camp was right there. Bill: Okay. Charlie: Then I, it was (unintel). Then the only reason why I start cutting across if, if I hit this bluff clear on up, I don't know where I'm at. But, I didn't cut them enough. Bill: Not quite sharp enough? Charlie: But that saved me a lot of miles too, so then I just went right to our camp. Bill: Straight down.

Bill: How about different parts of the river that are called different names. Like there's a spot where there's bluffs that has a special name right? Charlie: Oh, on...the bottom on the Ikpikpagruaq I don't really know most of the names but there's these creeks that run into this lake here, this is Pittaq here. Bill: This lake #40? Charlie: Yah, #40, that's Pittaq. Bill: Okay, that's what we're going to call D here. And you want to give us that name again? Charlie: Pittaq. Bill: Okay, that's what D is. Charlie: And see, in all them creeks runs right up to these here and they drain into there ah, Taġġaq and Iḷavguŋulak. This one here too. Bill: Which one's Taġġaq? Charlie: Taġġaq is the one that, this is the one, that Taġġaq. See, it goes right down. Wendy: Taġġaq. Charlie: Taġġaq. See, this is, this is Iḷavguŋuluk here, goes right in there and this one here is Taġġaq. See, this, winds around. That's Taġġaq there, right here. Bill: This one here? Charlie: Yah, that's what I was talking about, that bluff like a corral. Bill: Yah. Charlie: That's it right here. Bill: Okay, that's what we're marking it E here. Wendy: E is Taġaq? Charlie: Taġġaq. Wendy: Taġġaq? Charlie: Yah Taġġaq. Bill: And what did you call that bluff and corral? Charlie: Taġġaq. Wendy: The bluff and corral are called Taġġaq too? Charlie: It's just a bluff, it's not a corral. It's just a round bluff like that with an opening on the end. Bill: Making a natural corral? Charlie: Natural corral. Bill: Okay. Charlie: I took her to it too last winter. Mary: Yah, we been there. Charlie: I was showing her around. And that other place was Iḷavgaŋuluk. It's right in here. Bill: This one right here. Charlie: Yah, that's the one. Bill: We'll call that one F and do you want to say that name again? Charlie: Yah, Iḷavgaŋuluk, Little Luke. Bill: It means what? Charlie: No, I was that's Luke's name, it's uncle's name. Bill: Uh okay. Charlie: Little Luke Saganna. Have you heard of him, from Fairbanks? Bill: No. Charlie: That's where he used to... Mary: Here, Iḷavgaq, samma inaittuq.

Mary: Here, Iḷavgaq, samma inaittuq. Bill: Okay we're talking about parts of the river and the names associated with them. Where is that place you call Aumalik? Charlie: Aumalik's on another map. See, it's right here, but this is not Aumalik, this is Qaqsrauqaġvik. There's Aumalik here. That's Qaqsraugaġvik; it runs right down to here. Bill: Okay, what is marked as Aumalik on the map we'll.... Charlie: Yah, it's Aumalik on the map but the original name is Qaqsraugaġvik. Bill: We'll call it G. You want to say it once more? Charlie: Qaqsraugaġvik. See, Aumalik comes way up just right below Simiutaq. Bill: Let's look at the next map here. Charlie: Simiutaq, see. Wendy: It's upside down. Charlie: That's the mouth of the Aumalik here. This is Aumalik River here. This one here. Bill: Oh, the one that's marked as Tittaaliq, okay. Let's call that H. And that should be called what? Charlie: That's Aumalik that's original Aumalik River. Bill: Okay and where's that place Simiutaq? Charlie: That's Simiutaq is right there. That's the break of the Ikpikpak. Here's Simiutaq is right here. That's too...that pike. That's the point of it. See, this, this bluff comes right to a point and bluff on both sides. It separates the river and they call it Simiutaq. This is flat here. Charlie: Yeah, Simiutaq Bend, it might be the bend but Simiutaq is right...that's Simiutaq there. Bill: Okay, I'll mark that as I. It refers to that place where it funnels together. Charlie: See Simiutaq Bend, they call it. That's the mouth of Simiutaq River. Anyway that's why they call it, I guess, Simiutaq Bend. That, that's where you start climbing it and it goes right, right both sides of that bluff here. Bill: Okay, so we marked that as I, Simiutaq. Charlie: And that bluff is...makes you can't climb it from either side. Bill: It's that steep? Charlie: Then you can go right down the very tip of it going down. You gotta be careful. Bill: I'll be darned. Charlie: I mean, in the summer time it's alright. In the winter time trying to get down with a dog sled. See, one time I was coming down it, my sled crumbled and my dogs was behind it. The sled went around. Bill: And you rolled down? Wendy: Sounds exciting. Charlie: Yeah, no lantern at all. See, the time I was telling you about them old peoples that I met that time. They were right, right in just about...right in here where they were close to the bluff where they was, were hunting. Bill: That's where you killed the caribou? Charlie: No, we killed the caribou...we went up on the ridge and we killed the caribou right under here. Just before you get to into the river. See, this part here you can't climb the river at all. There's no place to climb it, it's a bluff. Bill: Pretty steep all the way. Charlie: Yeah, pretty steep. Yeah, a little ways up before you get into this creek here, it's kind a starts getting low again. Bill: Now the place where they were camped, what did you call that? Charlie: Oh they call it, they call all that Aumalik River anyway. I don't know what they call it but they were camping there. Bill: Uh-huh, okay. Charlie: I got a mastodon tusk there too. Bill: Oh, from that spot?

Bill: How about this river here, what do you call this one? Charlie: I don't, Bronze Creek. I don't know what they call it, but that's what we call it, Bronze Creek. We go up the river and Fry Creek, that creek right there. We been all over. We been clear up oh, quite a ways...where's that...valley of the willows...Kayyaaq. Bill: What's a Kayyaaq? Charlie: Kayyaaq it's a branch. They call it Kayyaaq. Bill: What's a Kayyaaq? Charlie: Kayyaaq it's a branch. They call it Kayyaaq. Bill: Does that refer to this particular branch? Charlie: Howard Hill, yah. Bill: By Howard Hill? Charlie: By Howard Hill, they call it Ka-...that's a fork where this one you go to Umiat to the... Bill: Right. Charlie: And that's, that's...they call it Kayyaaq. Bill: Where should I mark that as Kayyaaq. Charlie: Where the river comes together, where both come together, they call it Kayyaaq. Bill: Would that be true of any river or just here? Charlie: Just there. Bill: Just here. Charlie: Just here. That's the name of that Howard Hill where they call it Kayyaaq. Bill: And that means branch? Charlie: Branch, yeah. See where there, there's three rivers together that makes a Kayyaaq. Makes a branch of three. They call it Ikpikpak Kayyaaq, the Eskimos. Bill: How about this place, Valley of the Willows? Is there a name for that? Charlie: That's all I know. They might have a name, I don't I don't Valley of the Willows. Qiruiḷaq is...This is Qiruiḷaq River here. Let's see...that's cat train track.

Bill: Let's go through that list Wendy. Wendy: Okay, I was just wanting to follow up on one thing you were asking earlier. You were asking about where the old people who know, on the verge of starvation, where are the caribou... Charlie: Oh, them guys. Wendy: I just didn't see where Charlie was pointing on the map. I thought it was somewhere here in the Aumalik. You know, when you were telling about the time when you went and got the caribou. Charlie: Yeah, see, they're right down here. That's...this...ah, Akiqpak they call it Akiqpak. Wendy: That's Akiqpak? Charlie: Akiqpak right there. That's the mark of Akiqpak. Bill: Let's mark that as K. Charlie: And the other one right here is what I said that square deal there that... Bill: Like when the pan, like if you put dirt in a pan and pressed down?

Charlie: That's Uġvik. Bill: Where's that? Charlie: See, it's right, I think it's this one right here. See, you can see it kinda square. Bill: Oh, I see this little imprint here. Okay, let's mark that L. That's Uġvik. Charlie: Uġvik yeah. That's the creek that comes out of that what my uncle used to say you can just have one of them traps and get all the fish you want. All the fish that comes out of there, out of them creeks. Bill: That's the akialu. That's what he used the akialu. Charlie: They use the ah, ... Bill: Willow traps? Charlie: Yeah, willow traps, yeah. Qalu. They use a...they call it Qalu. Wendy: Qalu? Charlie: Qalu. See, all these got fish in them. Bill: All the lakes? Charlie: All the lakes, and there's a lot of ling cod in this lake. Bill: In that one we'll call M. Charlie: And that, see that lake is ah, we just set a net right down in here. Bill: On the... Charlie: On the edge. Bill: By that outlet there? Charlie: Just by that outlet and we got, with just a 12 inch mesh net the end of our net was 4 fathoms deep and the other one was 12. Bill: Oh my gosh. Charlie: And, and that's real deep. Bill: What do you call that lake there? Charlie: Oh, they call all these lake Bill: They call all of them? Charlie: All them lakes together, see, they're connected all with creeks. That's why they call them Ayaqhaat. Just like a line, lines hooked them together. Where you're playing that Eskimo deal. Line the...whatever... Bill: Oh, line game? Charlie: Yah, that is what they call them, Ayaqhaat. Wendy: Cat's cradle? Charlie: Uh-huh. That's how they are. They're all...just about all of them are just hooked together. that's why they're called Ayaqhaaq Lakes. Ayaqhaat. Bill: How much area does that take in? All this, or... Charlie: No, just north of ah, Tagli. Tagli is a creek there too and I think that also this mound. This mound right here. Bill: Where's that one to? Charlie: That mound, that is Nuisatchiaq. Bill: What I've marked as N here? Wendy: Could you say that again? Charlie: Nuisatchiaq. Wendy: Nuisatchiaq? Bill: Can you see it on this one here a little bit clearer? Is it over here? Charlie: See, see, this is the one here. See, it drains down into Tasiqpak Lake. That's Tagli this here. Bill: That river there? Charlie: Yah, that river, Tagli. Bill: What we've labeled this O here is Tagli River, okay. Charlie: And that's cat trail. I've been on that. Bill: We were looking at this place up here. It was called... Wendy: Nuisatchiaq. Charlie: Nuisatchiaq yah, that's right. They call it Nuisatchiaq or Nuisatchiuraq. Wendy: Nuisatchiuraq? Bill: What does that one mean? Charlie: Oh, it's out first. The mound comes out first and the land, without seeing the land, that hill that mound. It shows from all directions, like a, a land marker. It's a land marker anyway. Bill: Okay, good. Wendy: So, it's the first thing you see, essentially. Charlie: Then that way you'd be traveling towards it, but it be a while before you get to it. That's how the mounds are up there. Some, some mounds you can travel all day and you can't even get to it.

Wendy: When you spoke of the Ayaqhaat earlier does Ayaqhaat mean the string like? Charlie: String, yah, that's Ayaqhaat. Bill: So it's these lakes that are connected, huh? Charlie: They're connected, you can see them, see? Wendy: All strung together. Charlie: They're strung together. Bill: Yah, I just wondered how far it went. We've got these. Charlie: See, they're all connected see, look here and that's what they call Ayaqhaat. Wendy: Now would you use that term to apply to lakes that are connected like this in another area or is it just in that area? Charlie: No, no, it's just that area, just that area. That's what they call Ayaqhaat. Not other place, that's...where I was telling you that his grandfather had his camp here and made some snow scarecrows and herded caribou right into his camp all the time, when he was trapping there? Bill: Oh, yah, what was that place called? Charlie: Qiukkam Imaŋa. Bill: Okay. Let's call that P. Charlie: See, yes it's there Qiukkam Imaŋa. Bill: We'll call that P. Wendy: Qiu, Qiu. Charlie: Qiukkam. Wendy: Qiukkam?

Charlie: Qiukkam Imaŋa. Wendy: Imaŋa. Ok. Bill: How did that corral work again? Charlie: He put snow blocks, then he had his camp there and as soon as the caribou come right down and they run into these scarecrows. They can see them just when they gets to them. Then they start backing up and as soon as they start backing up you can't see them going down and they see both sides then. Scarecrows on both sides and they just go right down, start trying to keep away from them but they wind up right down in more like a corral, where his camp is. Bill: So caribou would be coming from the south? Charlie: Yah, they're coming south. Yah, they're going, going across this way. Bill: Going east to west, yah? Charlie: Then that's how they migrate. When the wind changes from the east wind they go into the wind. When the wind changes from the southwest, they go into the wind again. They just migrate back and forth. Bill: He used this in winter time. Were they iñuksuk? Charlie: Yah, iñuksuk. Bill: Snow iñuksuk. Charlie: They make their snow iñuksuks. Bill: And they, then you set them up like this? Charlie: I guess so. Then you can't see them coming this way but you can see them looking back. Lined it with snow blocks. Just a piece of ground, stick them like snow man. Also that's on them banks, these are high banks on them and they dig holes in the snowbank too. And dig 'em holes so caribou can fall in. Bill: Oh, snowbanks on near where the drifts are on the lakes. Charlie: Yah, yes on the lakes. This time of year they're always... and then you ...they pee on the end of the lake, on end of the square boxes here on both sides and they're always digging for it. And they just start digging and they just fall in and they never come out. Bill: Are they digging for the salt? Charlie: Yah, salt. Human urine or dog urine. They put 'em there or they really go for it. Bill: That's really interesting. Charlie: Uh-huh, and they don't even hunt them. They just dig them holes and just flatten it out and cover it up with thin snow, and they just fall right in it.

Wendy: Charlie, earlier we were talking about Quksaurrauraq and Aumalik rivers and you were showing us where the Aumalik ought to be. Can you show us where the Tittaaliq... Charlie: Tittaaliq, yah. Wendy: Should be. Charlie: That's Tittaaliq, that's it. Yah, that's the Tittaaliq River there. They call it Aumalik anyway. This one here. That's ah, no. Tittaaliq is the other one what they call Aumalik right here, it goes right up and it goes way up flows into the Meade River too. Wendy: Okay, then where's the Aumalik? Charlie: The original Aumalik is there. That's what they call Tittaaliq. The Tittaaliq River is up in I think it might be one of these here. Bill: One of these maybe? Charlie: Where's that Tittaaliq Ridge site? It's ought be right, right around here someplace. It's west of Knife Blade Ridge. Wendy: So the Tittaaliq is west of Knife Blade Ridge? Charlie: Yes, west of Knife Blade, yah and see this? Bill: We should really turn this around Charlie, so that it's more lined up. Charlie: Going up. Bill: Yah, so we don't get confused. Wendy: Now when you say going up, do you mean, do you usually mean going away from the ocean? Charlie: Yes, going up, that's what we mean. Bill: Towards the hills? Charlie: Yah, towards the hills. We call it going up but it's originally going down. from the top. Wendy: That's why I wanted to make sure I was understanding you right. Bill: So this, what they have marked as Aumalik really means... Charlie: that's Qaksraugaġvik. Bill: and Aumalik is really up here, what they call Tittaaliq? Charlie: Tittaaliq. Bill: Okay, and we think the Tittaaliq is to the west? Charlie: Tittaaliq is to the west some... Bill: West of Knife Blade? Charlie: Yah, not, it's someplace up in there. It might be this Bronze Creek too, what I call it Bronze Creek. See lotta these maps, they didn't put the right names on the right places. That's what happen. And this old man told us that's not, not the regular rivers. The old timers tell us that too. They say the names are switched around. Bill: Now who did the switching around on that? Charlie: See, I don't really know, I have this color in this river here. Lots of color. Bill: In the Aumalik. Charlie: And they change it to this river. I won't be surprised this river might have color. There's a lot of rock in this too. We went up and you gotta watch your prop and when you're coming down you're just sliding down. Bill: Well maybe there's gold there, who knows. Let's work on that list, Wendy. Wendy: Okay. I hope I'm pronouncing...

Wendy: Qarlugiksauraq, you say it. Charlie: Qaglugiksauraq. Wendy: Okay. Bill: Okay, let's try to find that on the map. Charlie: That's ah...oh, let's turn it the other way. It's gonna be on my right, left side now. Let's see if you can see where it comes in here. Bill: Okay. Charlie: No, it's right here, it's right here, that's the one there that's Qaglugiksauraq River. Bill: Okay, that refers to the whole river. Charlie:'s a little creek that runs out it and goes into the lakes too, it's called Qaglugiksauraq. Bill: We've marked that as Q. Charlie: But it's right on Ikpikpak so, see right there where 85 is and 82. that's that creek. Bill: Is that also a historic site? Charlie: Yah, that's where Al Hopson, and Leo Kaleak, and ah, Owen... Bill: Ahkivgak? Mary: Kiiriq. Charlie: Kiiriq, Kiiriq used to stay. See, they used to go up there with, with inboards, big boats, but nowadays you can't even go up there with big boats in the summer time. You gotta go up in the break up only . Bill: When you're...excuse me. When you're going up the river, do you hit that the old site before the stream or afterwards? Charlie: No, we hit the stream. Bill: The stream. Charlie: The stream, yah. And ah, we just know where it is, they always tell us where it is. When these guys were there they go up there and also they had a camp at the branch of the Simiutaq, right there. They got an old cabin, and abandoned cabin right there too. Bill: I'll mark that as R. Wendy: This is the cabin at...a camp at...okay. Charlie: It used to been but it was the river's decaying out and part of the camp was there. But there's an old boat there too, at that place. Wendy: And who used to live there? Bill: That'll be marked as R. Charlie: Kiiriq used to live there before, they say, and Shugluk, they lived there too. There're people one after the other when they want to stay anyplace there.

Bill: Do you have a little more time? Charlie: Sure. Mary: Yah, I'll have to go up. Bill: Okay, Wendy? Wendy: Okay, we've talked about Simiutaq. Charlie: Simiutaq. Wendy: Kigalasuk, have I got that right? Charlie: What's that? Wendy: Kigalasuk. Charlie: Kigalusuk that's where our camp is . It's way down, it's way down. Ah that, oh, I 'm going up started going up. That's here, right here see. That's where the river goes right down to the bank again. That's Kigalasuk right there. We've got a cabin there. Bill: Which side of the river should I mark it? Charlie: It's on the east side of the river. Bill: Okay, I'll mark that with an S, and we should say that name again. Charlie: Kigalasuk. Bill: Okay. Charlie: See our cabin is just about right in there. Bill: Okay, where do you get fresh water then? Charlie: We get it from the small lakes. Bill: Okay. Wendy: An that's Kigalasuk is what you call Chipp 10? Charlie: Chipp 10, yah.

Wendy: Can you show us where the other were talking about Chipp 1 through 10 yesterday, can you show us where some of those other places are? Charlie: Chipp 1 is way See, it's right here. See this little creek used to have broke out and it's a river now, going through there. Bill: Oh, that is connected with... Charlie: Yah, it broke out and connects right through this and right through there and it breaks out here. This is no longer any river anymore. It comes right out through here and there on the back of it. Wendy: So you have a new channel? Charlie: And this used to be Aviullaavich right here. That's Aviullaavik. That's an old historic camp there. Bill: Okay, let's mark that one T. Wendy: Aviullaavik? Charlie: Aviullaavik yah. Bill: And I want to mark Chipp 1 here too. Which side of the river is that Chipp 1? Charlie: On Chipp 1 is on the west side of the river and Junior Brower...ah, Kenneth Brower's got a cabin there too. On the east side there. Bill: What do they call that one? Charlie: Same thing. Bill: And but this is an old historic site here? Charlie: Uh-huh, yah. That's an old historic site. Bill: Number T. Charlie: And see, this the river comes right down through here now. Bill: I'll be darned. Charlie: Right down through there. It goes right down through, hitting that little pond there. Comes right out there. Bill: So this site isn't on the river at all? Charlie: No, it's, no river here any more and we, we get out our fresh water from this little lake here. Bill: Okay, let's mark that one U. Charlie: Yah, where we get our fresh water. Bill: And you were saying something about the history of that little lake there too. Charlie: And there's an old sod house right here too, on the edge of that lake, yah, Chipp 2. Bill: Where is Chipp 2 now? Charlie: Chipp 2 is right here. Bill: Okay. Charlie: No, wait a minute, no, it's right here on that mark, right there, right there. That's it right there. See off of this is broke down and comes right up there too. Wendy: You might sketch that in, Bill. Bill: Comes in here? Charlie: Yah, comes right in there, right in to that. But see, this is Quġannaq. That's Quġannaq River. Comes right out through here and it goes clear up onto them lakes too. See, Quġannaq. Wendy: Quġannaq. Charlie: Quġannaq. Bill: We'll call that V Charlie: Quġannaq. Bill: And that refers to that whole river system? Charlie: Uh-huh, and it goes clear up . See it goes clear up to... where's number 6...where's number 90? They're right, right ah, 69, lake 69. There's some cabins right there now. Wendy: Okay. Charlie: That's where Quġannaq flows right into, right up to it. Wendy: Who has cabins there now? Charlie: Luther, Luther Leavitt's got a cabin. But the North Slope Borough is putting up a ... Bill: Right here? Charlie: ...building right between the two lakes. Bill: We'll mark that W and what do you call that place? Tony?: Quġannaq. Charlie: No, it's not Quġannaq. It's just a lake. The Quġannaq is a river that comes outta here. We don't know the name of that. Bill: That's the one that we pointed out here. Charlie: Yah, yah, and Arnold Brower's camp is right here, That's Chipp 4. Chipp 4 is right on the bend right there. Bill: On this west side? Charlie: On the east side. Bill: Oh, on the this side? Charlie: Right there, there's a cabin there too. Bill: That's Chipp 4. Charlie: Yah, Chipp 4. Wendy: And that's Arnold Brower, Sr. Charlie: And that's Arnold Brower , Sr.

Bill: And how about Chipp 3? Charlie: Chipp 3 is burned. Family members: There's two cabins on Chipp 1. Charlie: Wait, wait, wait a minute, Chipp 3 is right here, right on, right on the edge of it, right there. Bill: Right there? Family member: That one burned. Charlie: That's burned, that's one that burned one of them. Wendy: How long ago did that burn down? Family member: I don't know, it was spring time. Charlie: He was watching it. Family member: It was spring time of '78. Charlie: They were out there, that's his uncle's place. They had to comes...they has to walk to go get him to Chipp 2. Bill: So this is Chipp 4? Charlie: This 42, they call it , they call it Qaluaqpalik. 42, lake number 42. Bill: We'll call that X. Wendy: Qaluaqpalik? Charlie: Yah, Qaluaqpalik. Bill: Okay, Chipp 4 is here. Charlie: And you go up from Chipp 4 around and right there is Bobby Brower, Jr.'s right, a little further over. Bill: Over here? Charlie: Yah. Bill: On the east side? Charlie: Yah, on the north side. Bill: Chipp 5? Charlie: Chipp 5 and Marchie's is right here, there's another one right...another cabin here on the end. Family member: That's Chipp 5, that Chipp 5. Charlie: Right there. That was just put on lately. Family member: It's on the other side. Charlie: On the same side as the... there's a cabin right there too. Bill: Charlie, what do you call that one? Charlie: Ah, Joe, Joe... Family member: Hazel Panigeo. Charlie: It's Joe's. Family member: No, Joe Panigeo. Charlie: Joe Panigeo. Family member: Chipp 5 and then the other one is Chipp 6. Bill: Okay, this is Chipp 5? Charlie: No, that's I think, they call it Chipp 5 yet. Family member: Yah. Charlie: The whole thing. Bill: This one here? Charlie: Yah, yah and then there's one right here across from there on this side of the river on the north side of the river, Bill: Right here? Charlie: Just about right on the edge of the river. Yes, that's Marchie Nageak's. Bill: What do you call that one? Charlie: No name, just that's...I'd call it 6 anyway. Bill: Okay. Charlie: That used to be 6. And going right up there's another one right here on the end, right here. Bill: Here or there? Charlie: Right there, that's Jr., Tom Brower Jr.'s place. Bill: Chipp 7? Charlie: Chipp 7, yah. And after you go on up... Bill: What do you call this spot here where the river comes together? Charlie: Oh, I don't know what they really call it, there's branches out to...this is Ikpikpak. They'll call it a Kayyaaq too. See, that's Ikpikpak and Ikpikpak and Ikpikpagruaq Kayyaaq. See that's...and ah, see that... Family member: Pausan's camp. Charlie: What? Family member: Pausan's camp. Charlie: Pausan's camp, here right... See that creek here? Here's the mark of it, Chipp 9. Family member: Arnold Brower, Jr. Charlie: Arnold Brower, Sr.'s place. Family member: Arnold Brower, Jr. Charlie: No, it's Sr. Bill: Its easier if just one person talks. This is what we're going to call Chipp 9. Charlie: Yah, Chipp 9. Bill: Okay, how about Chipp 8? Charlie: Chipp 8 is...7 and 8 is right down, right here. Right there where that little, little creek comes out. Bill: On the east side. Wendy: And you said Chipp 9 is Arnold Brower Sr.'s? Charlie: Sr.'s, yah.

Bill: How about other camps? Wendy: You were mentioning Pausan. Charlie: Pausan's. Wendy: Oh, Pausan. Charlie: Pausan's camp is right at Chipp 9. It's just a little ways from there about maybe 300 yards or so from there. From Arnold Brower's camp. Wendy: And that's Pausan. Charlie: Pausan, yah. Wendy: Pausana? Charlie: Pausana they call it Pausan or Pausana they call it. Bill: Chipp 10? Wendy: Now is there a camp at Chipp 8 or is that just a spot? Charlie: No, there's a camp. Wendy: Who has that one? Charlie: Tom Brower, I mean Jr., Arnold Brower, Jr. Wendy: Okay Bill: Is there a Chipp 10? Wendy: Yes Charlie: Chipp 10 is right there. Wendy: That's Charlie's. Charlie: Yes, that's our camp. Bill: What's next, Wendy? Charlie: This bluff, this bluff right here. It's a bluff. It's a point of this hill and the hill coming from this way. They call it Isuliumaniq. Wendy: You must be reading my mind, Charlie. That was the next one I was going to ask you. Bill: That's that bluff that goes underneath your Chipp 10 or above it. Charlie: Yah, yah, this is swamp here and it goes up like that. That's a bluff it comes to a point right there and that's what they call Isuliumaniq. Bill: The point? Charlie: Yah, it comes to a point on both sides. See, when you come and it's high. They call it a Isuliumaŋiq. Bill: Right there? Charlie: Yah. Bill: Okay, we'll call that Y. And, in Iñupiat that.... Charlie: End. The end of the two, both sides. Bill: Ah, the end, okay. Mary: That's where they meet. Charlie: That's where they meet, and that's the end of it. Isuliu, Isu. That's the end of it. That's what it means. Bill: Good, we'll call that Y.

Wendy: Okay. We talked about an old place you called Pausana. Is that the same as the place near Chipp 9? Charlie: Yah, that's the same place. Wendy: Okay, and in Imaniġruaq, imaniġruaq? Charlie: Imaġruaq? Wendy: Imaġruaq? Charlie: No, that's in Smith Bay, way down. Mary: Uvaluuni talmaqł̣uguŋnaġaa. (She may have mispronounced it) Charlie: Imaġruaq that's here, there's Imaġruaq Lake. Mary: Taimaqł̣ugunaġaaluuniuva suna. (She may have mispronounced something) Charlie: Oh, okay Imaġruaq. Wendy: Okay, I just had it spelled wrong. Charlie: Imaġruaq Lake Wendy: Imaġruaq Lake? Charlie: I-M-A-K-R-U-A-K Bill: We'll call that Z. Charlie: And that man that was buried up here, they used to stay there. It's of them cabins belonged to them but it's all decayed out there too. Bill: That's old Amaġuaq? Charlie: Amaġuaq, yah. Wendy: So he's buried there? Charlie: No, he's buried up here when they's right up's either at Uġvik or Akiqpak. I don't know which place they buried them, a couple. Bill: Just a question on Amaguaq while we're here, is he related to Roy Ahmaogak? Charlie: No, no. Bill: Different? Charlie: Different. Mary: Ahmaġugaaq and Amaġuaq. Charlie: is Amaġuaq. Mary: Amaġugaaq and Amaġuaq. Charlie: Amaġuaq is the old man. Amaġuagaaq is Roy. Wendy: Okay, it's not the same word, then? Charlie: Not the same person. Mary: No, no. Charlie: Amaġuaq is a man from the point down here, Nuvuk. Nuvugmiu. Amaġuaq and his first wife was Natchiġuna. That used to be Brower's first wife. Charles D. Brower. Bill: Oh, really?

Wendy: Let's see if I can pronounce this one right. Uniyyauruq. Charlie: What's that? Wendy: I must have it spelled incorrectly. Uniyyauruq. I'll have to go back and check the spelling. We of the places we talked about was Kuluktuq, Kuluktuq. Charlie: Quġluqtuq. Wendy: Quġluqtuq? Charlie: Quġluqtuq, that's the Price River. Wendy: Okay, that's the Price River. Charlie: Price River, Quġluqtuq. Wendy: I was guessing that was probably it, but I wasn't sure. Bill: That refers to the whole river? Charlie: Yah, the Price River. It comes up right above Simiutaq. Goes it is. here's Price. That's it, Price River, it goes right up. Bill: Oh, I think that place Uniyyauruq was the place. Charlie: Oh, you're talking about Uniyyauruq. They used to stay a Akiqpaq. Wendy: Now, that's a person's name then? Charlie: Yah, that's a person name, Uniyyauraq. Bill: Okay, and that was a creek, Akiqpaq Creek? Charlie: Yah, that's it. Bill: Where is that located? Wendy: That's at K, I think. Charlie: K, that's it Akiqpaq. Bill: Okay, good. Wendy: Now there's another one that I wanted to be sure. I wasn't sure if it was a person's name or a place Tagli. Charlie: Tagli. That's a creek we were talking about too. That's it right... Wendy: Maybe we did that one and I didn't know. Charlie: It goes into Tasiqpak Lake. Tagli. It's gotta have a name on it too. Tagli, it's this creek, alright, right here. Goes right up, it winds up. Bill: Is it this one that we marked O. Charlie: Yah, that's it, Tagli, yah. Tagli goes clear down to the Tasiqpak Lakes and you can... Bill: Did you... Wendy: Yah, we have that one. It's just I was working back and forth between two.... Bill: Is it marked as O? Wendy: Yah, it is. Bill: Good, good. Wendy: And another one Tiyuuraq? Bill: Which one is this one? Charlie: This one here, that's Tagli right there. That goes right into Tasiqpak Lake and goes right up in clear into them lakes. Bill: Is this part of it too? Charlie: Yah, it winds up. It's all over. See, it branches over this way again and goes up. Wendy: My goodness. Charlie: That's the same one. They been talking about a lot of ice cellars someplace in this area, on the mouth of it anyway. Bill: The mouth of Tagli. Charlie: Yah, the mouth of Tagli and see Mary Itta has got a allotment there. That's where the Halkett people used to go up and stay in the winter time, and summer time too.

Bill: When you say Halkett, do you mean what? Charlie: Isuk. Bill: Isuk. Wendy: Isuk. Bill: Is that Halkett too? Charlie: Cape Halkett that used to be...that's the point from both sides too. Wendy: Right. Charlie: And there's a little island there too, but maybe that island's all demolished by the wind too. They call it Isuk. That's another. Wendy: Another isu. Charlie: Yah, isu like Isuliumaniq. They call is Isuk on both sides. It's a point. Bill: Okay, good. Charlie: It don't show here Point. It ought a show there. It's way down here, Cape (unclear), it's way on this. No, it's down in here, it's right in here. Bill: Let's do a check here. Charlie: ...used to live on the river go back and forth, that's what I was telling you before. Richard Tukle. He's his dad that used to go back and forth. Wendy: Hi. Charlie: Up the Ikpikpak Mary: That's Flora Ipalook. Wendy: Nice to meet you, Flora. Charlie: And he told us that they made sometimes three trips. Bill: That's what you were telling us. Against that current. Charlie: Against that current. They're giants. Mary: Superman. Charlie: Super people, that make me think like that. In some places you can barely go with a 70 horse outboard when the current comes down. Mary: Especially when it's flooded. You know when the water is high. Charlie: Then when you go down stream, you just going like an airplane. Mary noticed that our board was down. Mary: Yah, when you started going down the river, you notice it keeps slanting downward. I never noticed it when we're going up but when we start going down the river. Wendy: If you can see the pitch, it must be really? Mary: Yah, uh-huh. Charlie: It's just like steps you jump down, up and you jump down again. It's real interesting. That's why we like to travel in the early break up. As soon as it breaks up, as soon as the ice gets away we take off. Bill: Lots of good water. Charlie: Uh-huh.

Wendy: The next one on my list is Kaluqtuq. Am I pronouncing that correctly? Charlie: Kaq.... Wendy: Kagluqtuq Charlie: Qaglugiksauraq? Mary: No. Wendy: No, I'll check it and make sure I've probably got it spelled wrong. And then... Charlie: Quglugtuq? Wendy: I think we talked about that one, that one is Price River. What about Kalikpik? Am I pronouncing that one? Charlie: Ka... Wendy: Qalikpik. Charlie: Iqalliqpik. Mary: Iqalliqpik. Wendy: Qalliqpik? Charlie: Qalliqpik. Charlie: That's east of here. That goes way up through there, goes east. That goes in to Harrison Bay. Wendy: Okay. Charlie: That goes into Harrison Bay, Qalliqpik. Wendy: Qalliqpik. Charlie: And your brother fished there too, huh Patsy? Flora: Taikuŋa Nuiqsagmiut niksigiaguurusuli Qalliqpiŋmun. Wendy: Okay, did we talk about Siliumaniq. Charlie: Silimaniq. (I think he pronounced this the way it was written in English) Wendy: Silimaniq. Charlie: Yah, we talked about that, that's at that point. Wendy: Okay. Bill: Oh, where we marked Y here? Wendy: Okay, we have that. And we talked about Pittaq. Bill: Right. Mary: Ittaq. Charlie: Pittaq. Wendy: Pittaq? Charlie: Pittaq that's that lake here. Bill: Oh, maybe we haven't... Charlie: That's that lake and ah, Pittaq. Wendy: I think we have Pittaq, Bill. Charlie: And it goes all over. I mean it can hit it from Tasiqpak Lake too, following Mayuaġiaq. Bill: What's D? Wendy: D? Charlie: Piŋuġtuk. That we call that Piŋiġtuk. It goes right into Pittaq. Wendy: D is Pittaq. Bill: This one here. Wendy: Lake 40. Charlie: Oh, yah, this 40 here. Bill: This one here, okay, we'll change that. USGS______me. Okay, Maŋaral River. Charlie: Imaġruaq? Wendy: There were two rivers that were very much alike. One near Half Moon 3 and the other one I wasn't sure where it was. Charlie: Oh, that's Mayuaġiuraq. Wendy: May... Charlie: Mayuaġiaq. Mayuaġiaq, Mayuaġiuraq. Mayuaġiaq is that river that runs into here. Here it is, Mayuaġiaq. That's... Bill: That's what we've marked as B. Wendy: Okay. Charlie: That's Mayuaġiaq River. Bill: B, okay? Charlie: Mayuaġiuraq is ...Alaqtaq...this is Mayuaġiuraq here. This river here. It goes in from here an goes right there. That's Mayuaġiuraq. Bill: Okay, we'll mark that as Z. Charlie: Yah. Bill: We'll mark that as Z1. Wendy: Z1. Bill: Z1.

Bill: Talking about a few more of these sites. The last one was Z1 near this river. Charlie: Yah, Mayuaġiuraq. Bill: Okay. Wendy: We got Taġġaq. Charlie: Yah, we got that, that's...Ivguluk...That's E. F is Iavgaŋuluk. Wendy: After...pardon? Charlie: An F. Wendy: And F was? Charlie: Iḷavgaŋuluk. Wendy: Ilavgaŋuluk. Charlie: Ilavgaŋuluk. Wendy: Ilavgaŋuluk, okay. Charlie: Wendy: Ah, Ah, suaġak? Charlie: Ahsoak is this big point here, it's high. The point... Bill: We'll call that Z2. Now that's where the old timer was? Charlie: Yah, the old timer, that's where he used to stay there and trap. Bill: We'll call that Z2. Charlie: And ah, you got fruit right there too. You pick little berries there right on that bluff. Bill: Good berry plot? Charlie: Uh-huh. Bill: What did you call that, Ahsoak? Charlie: Ahsoak, yah.

Wendy: Then you talked about three domes connected by a ridge, is Siġvan? Charlie: The three domes is Aqsiiñ... Wendy: Aqsiiñ, Taqtu. Charlie: Aqsiiñ, Taqtu, and Siġvan. Wendy: Siġvan, not Isiġman. Charlie: Siġvan. Bill: Bet this N here is one of them, right? Charlie: Yeah, that's one, that's Aqsiiñ there. No, wait a minute, that's ah, Nuisatchiraq. Bill: N? Charlie: Yah, and Aqsiiñ is right here...200 it's...