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George Ayak’aq Peter
George Ayak’aq Peter

George Ayak’aq Peter was interviewed on October 11, 2005 by Louann Rank, Sophie Kasayulie, Marla Statscewich, and Frank Chingliak at the Yupiit School District's “Blue Building” in Akiachak, Alaska. In this interview, George talks about Akiachak community programs and his experiences as tribal administrator.for the IRA Council in Akiachak. He discusses federal subsistence management and details of the tribe's activities with housing, healthcare, daycare and youth programs, tribal court, education, village infrastructure, and economic development.

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1) His administrative history in local government, and his interest in Yup'ik subsistence values as compared with State and Federal definitions of subsistence.

2) Federal resource management incorporating State management practices, how villages are affected by state laws, elders' identification of subsistence sites, tribal government as unfinished work, and tribal subsistence lands versus Game Management Units.

3) Details of his position as Tribal Administrator and interactions with the Tribal Council, Akiachak's transition from a Second Class City to tribal government in the 1980s, tribal revenue, and the Self-Determination Act related to Federal contracts.

4) Tribal contracts such as those with HUD, IHS for clinical services, BIA under 638 compacting, and NAHASDA programs for housing. He discusses water and sewer upgrades, the length of his position as Tribal Administrator, and Akiachak youth involvement in the 5-member Youth Council.

5) Limitations of Tribal Court, unwritten traditional laws, traditional chiefs in the late 1880s, supervising 50 employees, the various community programs, and the VPSO as an employee of AVCP.

6) Future plans for health services such as ICWA under Federal 638 contracting, Akiachak's administration of the Community Health Aide program and Wellness Program under Indian Health Service, and the Youth Council's conference interest.

7) Tribal Council projects with the Yupiit School District, village road improvement difficulties, and State decision-making in regard to airport development.

8) A 2005 USDA pilot project to test market smoked salmon out of state.

9) Akiachak's day care program, differences between Akiachak and other villages due to having a tribal government rather city government, Head Start programs, and characteristics of various tribal and Council positions.

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Section 1: administrator -- tribal\ government -- positions\ government -- local\ Mt. Edgecumbe -- class\ U.S. Government -- class\ high school -- influence\ sovereignty -- tribal\ high school -- graduation\ subsistence -- values\ values -- traditional\ subsistence -- definitions\ subsistence -- State\ subsistence -- Federal|

Section 2: government -- federal\ management -- federal\ management -- State\ regulations -- impact\ regulations -- village\ elders -- interviews\ elders -- knowledge\ government -- tribal\ work -- unfinished\ hunting -- areas\ areas -- mapped\ areas -- subsistence\ Game Management Units\ subsistence -- traditional|

Section 3: Administrator -- Tribal\ position -- appointed\ Council -- Tribal\ Council -- composition\ council -- meetings\ Tribe -- member\ Council -- IRA (Indian Reorganization Act)\ Kasayulie, Willie\ Willie -- 1983\ government -- municipal\ city -- Second Class\ meetings -- public\ government -- dissolution\ leader -- powerful\ government -- strength\ revenue -- sources\ Self-Determination Act -- community support\ contracting -- federal|

Section 4: contracts -- tribal\ HUD (Housing and Urban Development)\ IHS (Indian Health Service)\ services -- clinical\ BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs)\ compacting -- 638\ NAHASDA -- North American Housing and Self-Determination Act\ sanitation -- upgrade\ water -- project\ Village Safe Water -- State\ administration -- State\ homes -- services\ position -- term\ youth -- involvement\ government -- youth\ Council -- Youth\ Kasayulie, Willie -- president\ youth -- issues\ funding -- State\ programs -- social\ Youth Council -- actions\ fundraising -- youth|

Section 5: Court -- Tribal\ authority -- limitations\ courts -- State\ Councils -- IRA\ laws -- traditional\ laws -- unwritten\ chief -- traditional\ gasgiq -- elders\ Anguturluq -- chief\ chief -- name\ chief -- final\ administrator -- responsibilities\ employees -- number\ Public Safety -- program\ Health -- program\ Day Care\ Director -- Youth\ realty -- employees\ Village Police Officers\ VPSO (Village Public Safety Officer)-- AVCP (Association of Village Council Presidents)\ VPSO -- Akiachak|

Section 6: health -- village\ Health -- services\YKHC (Yukon-Kuskokwim Health Corporation)\ programs -- 638\ contracting -- village\ allotments -- Native\ ICWA (Indian Child Welfare Act)\ scholarship -- programs\ Adult Vocational Training -- programs\ Health Aides -- administering\ Wellness Program\ IHS -- contract\ Council -- Youth\ conference -- attendance\ Conference -- Wellness\ San Diego\ NCIA (National Congress of American Indians -- convention\ convention -- Oklahoma|

Section 7: school -- district\ ECLT (Early Childhood Leadership Team) -- administration\ Council -- Tribal\ Yupiit School District\ development -- planning\ roads -- upgrades\ State -- involvement\ costs -- fuel\ airport -- planning\ FAA (U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration) -- decision\ Department of Transportation -- administration\ village -- limited control|

Section 8: USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) -- grant\ USDA -- Palmer, Alaska\ grant -- date\ business -- development\ business -- smokery\ project -- piliot\ salmon -- species\ salmon -- processing\ salmon -- shipping\ Washington State -- market\ market -- test\ plan -- business\ facility -- smokery\ product -- volume\ consultant -- market\ California -- market|

Section 9: day care -- center\ center -- new\ children -- number\ staff -- size\ Akiak\ Tuluksak\ government -- village\ village -- differences\ municipalities -- finances\ Akiachak -- grants\ gaming -- villages\ bingo -- village\ Head Start -- Akiachak\ Early Childhood Development -- program\ program -- funding\ AVCP -- funding\ job -- satisfaction\ government -- positions\ positions -- filling\ Council -- seats\ Council -- elections\ terms -- no limits|