This is a continuation of an interview with William and Effie Williams by Wendy Arundale on November 20, 1992 in the living room area of their house in Allakaket, Alaska. This is a continuation from tape number Oral History 93-15-15.
Digital Asset Information
Project: Gates of the Arctic National Park
Date of Interview: Nov 20, 1992
Narrator(s): William Williams, Effie Williams
Interviewer(s): Wendy Arundale
After clicking play, click on a section to navigate the audio or video clip.
1) Native involvement in river transportation
2) Effects of World War II and other big changes
3) Effects of Gates of the Arctic
Click play, then use Sections or Transcript to navigate the interview.
After clicking play, click a section of the transcript to navigate the audio or video clip.
Section 1: steamboat travel\ Kaltag\ Nulato -- downriver villages\ St. Michael\ Kotzebue\ Native villages -- brought out best food for boat\ Moses, Henry -- worked on steamboats\ Chief Henry\ Bergman, Billy\ Koyukuk River\ Fairbanks -- boats came all the way\ Natives -- pilots, captains\ Tobuk, David -- pilot\ Teddy H -- steamboat\ Tobuk, Frank -- licensed pilot and captain\ Bettles -- repaired boats in winter\ Teddy H -- Sam Dubin owned\ Dubin -- owned stores, boats, mail-run\ Nulato\ Dooley -- gas boat\ Koyukuk, Grafton -- Denali Center\ Koyukuk, Walter -- Grafton's brother\ Tobuk, Frank\ Dooley -- hauling freight too\ Nulato-Bettles run -- steamboat\ Bettles-Wiseman run -- kicker travel\ outboard motor -- got first one in about 1947\ muskrat -- trapping to make money for motor|
Section 2: Bettles -- radio\ stations\ airlines -- Kotzebue, Pt. Barrow, Nome, Galena\ Civil Aviation Administration -- built all in one summer, 1941\ draft -- no one local\ draft registration -- required\ change -- after war, all different\ Alaska -- became easy living with wages\ white people -- meant jobs cutting wood, etc.\ wood cutting -- families cut up to one hundred cords to sell, no chainsaw|
Section 3: pipeline -- started work on park after\ rivers -- hunting along\ sheep -- hunting\ boundary -- told not to cross\ Hunts Fork\ Alatna River\ attitudes -- officials don't like people to go up there\ attitudes -- Park Service and residents\ Hunts Fork\ hunting -- used to be the best up there\ Simon, Pollack -- went with to John River\ Alatna River\ John River\ hunting -- black bear, moose, sheep, caribou\ canoe -- traveled up|