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Fred Goodhope, Jr.
Fred Goodhope, Jr. is Iñupiaq from Shishmaref, Alaska. He grew up in a reindeer herding family, with his grandfather and father both being herders in the Goodhope River area and around Deering, Alaska. After the herds shrunk in the 1930s, in 1958 his father applied to the Bureau of Indian Affairs to re-start a reindeer operation. They based their herding out of Shishmaref and the Espenberg River area. Fred attended school in Shishmaref and helped his father with the herd which by 1972 had grown to 5000 reindeer. In 1977, Fred took over managemnand of the Goodhope Herd and learned to fly as a way to better watch over the herd. After the herd crashed from caribou infiltration, Fred went on to do other work, including as a surveyor of Native allotments and as a seasonal laborer doing odd jobs. He considers himself a reindeer herder, so it was hard for him not to be able to herd.