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Elenore McMullen, Interview 2
Elenore McMullen

Elenore McMullen was interviewed on October 15, 1997 by Lydia Robart in Port Graham, Alaska. In this interview, Elenore provides an historic overview of Port Graham and the traditional lifestyle of the Sugpiaq people. She also talks about serving on the village council, job opportunities, changes in the community, the impact from canneries, race relations, working in the cannery, and the changes and impacts from World War II and the military in general.

Digital Asset Information

Archive #: Oral History JBPG97005

Project: Nanwalek and Port Graham
Date of Interview: Oct 15, 1997
Narrator(s): Elenore McMullen
Interviewer(s): Lydia Robart
Location of Interview:
Funding Partners:
Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Subsistence Division, Minerals Management Service
Alternate Transcripts
There is no alternate transcript for this interview.
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1) Port Graham's village government system and being the council chief

2) Historic overview of Port Graham

3) Travel in the early days, and when people moved to Nanwalek

4) Fishing and use of Johnson Slough

5) Life at Johnson Slough and travel around the area

6) Work and changes in the community

7) Community changes and relations between Natives and non-Natives

8) Canneries and their impact on the community

9) Women working at the cannery

10) Canneries and fishing and their effects on the community

11) Change and impacts from World War II and the military

Click play, then use Sections or Transcript to navigate the interview.

After clicking play, click a section of the transcript to navigate the audio or video clip.


Section 1: Port Graham/ village government/ village council -- five members/ village council -- active in community/ chief/ community -- history of|

Section 2: Port Graham -- history of/ geographic features/ Cook Inlet/ place names -- meaning of/ weather/ subsistence -- hunting/ subsistence -- fishing/ Exxon Valdez|

Section 3: nomadic people/ old lifestyle/ travel/ kayaks -- skin boats/ trapping/ Russians -- selling furs to/ Nanwalek -- moving to/ Dogfish Bay/ Russian Orthodox Church/ Moonin, Dimitri|

Section 4: fishing/ fish camp/ chukluk -- use of/ drying racks/ fish -- cutting/ Red Salmon/ Meganack, Antone/ travel/ Johnson's Slough|

Section 5: Kamluck, Dick -- uncle/ cannery/ tent -- lived in/ Johnson Slough/ travel/ Portlock/ Dogfish Bay -- travel to/ Russian Christmas|

Section 6: food -- traditional/ work/ Conservation Corps -- employment/ porcupine -- lived on/ fish -- Silver Salmon/ fish trap/ McMullen, Elenore -- father/ change/ cannery/ name calling|

Section 7: Natives -- discrimination of/ racism/ races -- differences/ fishing -- commercial/ holiday -- celebration/ baking|

Section 8: change/ cannery -- seasonal work/ housing -- temporary/ cannery -- impacts/ Nanwalek/ fish traps/ community -- changes/ alcoholism/ games -- Aleut Baseball|

Section 9: cannery -- work/ McMullen, Elenore -- grandmother/ fish -- salmon/ cannery -- working at a young age/ fish processing/ canning|

Section 10: good times/ cannery -- closing of/ watchman/ baking -- learning/ Christensen, John/ gardening -- learning/ outsiders -- contributions/ fishing -- commercial/ fishing -- seining/ Kachemak Bay/ boats/ change/ economy|

Section 11: change/ military -- impacts of/ Elenore, McMullen -- brother Marvin/ World War II/ military -- changing values of Natives/ special forces/ Nome/ Atuu/ Japanese -- invade Alaska/ veterans/ veterans -- treatment of|