Fred Goodhope, Jr. was interviewed on March 23, 2005 by Bill Schneider and Kumi Rattenbury in Nome, Alaska during the Annual Reindeer Herders Association meeting. In this interview, Fred talks about his family history with reindeer herding, use of dog teams versus snowmachines for herding, the 1930's crash of reindeer, his father's decision to start herding again, and the Bureau of Indian Affair's role in bringing reindeer back to the Seward Peninsula in the 1950's. He also talks about the caribou crisis, losing his herd, and the economics of herding.
Digital Asset Information
Project: Reindeer Herding: The Present and the Past
Date of Interview: Mar 23, 2005
Narrator(s): Fred Goodhope, Jr.
Interviewer(s): Bill Schneider, Kumi Rattenbury
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1) History of reindeer herding in the family.
2) Taking control of the reindeer operation and then losing the herd to the caribou.
3) Caribou influx in the Seward Peninsula.
4) Earliest experiences with herding and family.
5) How his father started herding.
6) Effect of snowmachines on the reindeer.
7) Caribou migrating through the Seward Peninsula.
8) Challenges on the range and changes that would need to occur to re-establish the herd.
9) Antler market and what it takes to start herding.
10) Passing on the knowledge of reindeer herding through the family.
11) Other occupations besides herding.
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Section 1: Goodhope River -- Western part of Deering\ animals died off -- 1930’s\ Fall 1958 -- BIA\ BIA -- reindeer program\ father and man from Deering -- reindeer operation\ 800 animals -- loan\ combined operation -- 1600 animals\ increased size of herd\ Gray, Lawrence\ Hadley herd\ Winter 1958 -- moved animals to Cape Espenberg\ school -- Deering\ herding\ school -- Kotzebue\ Shishmaref -- moved to\ reindeer operation -- Espenberg area\ Goodhope herd\ Fred Goodhope Sr.'s BIA herd -- loan payback to Davis, Larry\ Goodhope Sr., Fred -- loaned Weyiouanna, Clifford\ herd size -- grew to 5000 head|
Section 2: NANA -- Kotzebue herd\ father sold 1500 reindeer -- NANA Corporation\ stray caribou -- fall 1977\ reindeer went south with caribou -- summertime\ numbers -- dwindle\ actively herding -- since 1958\ brother -- Kotzebue area\ worked together\ 1977 -- took over herd\ Colorado -- 1979\ flight school\ bought an airplane -- Missouri\ Rowe, Jim -- Nome\ Cessna 185 -- flew to Nome\ caribou -- from the east\ Hadley’s -- problems with caribou\ Sheldon, Doug -- NANA reindeer\ Karmun -- caribou migrating into ranges\ 1987 -- losing animals\ 1992 -- 482 animals left\ corral -- reindeer\ de-horn animals -- June, July\ round-up animals -- Espenberg|
Section 3: spring 1995 -- last time he actively herded\ caribou --influx of\ migrate north -- Seward Peninsula\ animals -- separation\ Karmun, Herb\ reindeer, caribou -- coming together again\ caribou -- Seward Peninsula\ lost reindeer herding operation\ reindeer -- arrive in fall\ caribou follow reindeer\ Seward Peninsula -- southern part\ Goodhope River|
Section 4: 1958 -- moved animals from Deering to Cape Espenberg\ dog teams -- herd reindeer\ reindeer -- run behind\ Gray, Lawrence\ Hadley\ Shepard dogs\ run -- keep warm in winter\ herders -- Selawik and Buckland\ animals -- drive to range\ rangeland allotment -- location of\ rangeland -- size of\ butchering, skin -- learned from father\ Shishmaref -- training people from\ taught others\ clean animals -- good market|
Section 5: grandfather\ father -- learned to herd from father\ trained to herd -- given animals\ Espenberg area herd -- Barr family\ reindeer die-off , 1930’s -- people moved away\ father -- goldmines in Deering\ father -- started herding\ seal hunt -- stray reindeer\ lichens grew back\ BIA -- supplied material, deer and land\ family operation\ father -- trained all the children|
Section 6: reindeer -- tame\ sled deer\ snowmachines -- 1960’s\ push animals further\ animals -- became afraid of people\ herd-dogs -- too slow\ camp -- snow machines|
Section 7: spring migration -- caribou travel north\ end -- Cape Espenberg\ open water\ caribou -- ice floes\ early fall\ caribou travel south and west -- Seward Peninsula\ over grazed -- winter range\ December -- caribou go east\ reindeer -- bring caribou into range\ natural instinct -- go back to birthplace|
Section 8: caribou -- summer\ Goodhope range -- open to caribou hunting\ loss of income and livelihood\ self-sustaining herd -- 1000 animals\ reproduction -- slaughter\ market -- meat\ Kotzebue\ Nome\ Shishmaref\ Wales, Teller -- reindeer herds\ sell meat -- Barrow, Yukon|
Section 9: father -- cutting antlers\ July -- antlers too hard\ 6$ per lb -- early years\ expensive -- round-up\ needed helicopters -- terrain\ herd -- on foot\ highest price -- $70lb\ price dropped -- $25 per lb\ children -- need training\ dedication\ hard work -- away from family|
Section 10: family -- help\ no herd -- lost interest\ other interests -- t.v., video games, basketball\ Shishmaref -- value of herding\ caribou -- hunting\ no interest in herding\ caribou calving -- Seward Peninsula\ reindeer -- reintroduction\ caribou -- presence of\ Karmun, Herb -- separating herds\ spring vs. fall -- travel on the land\ helicopter|
Section 11: surveyor -- seasonal\ St. Lawrence\ odd jobs\ grandfather -- loss of herd\ over grazing -- animals died off\ Goodhope Charlie -- grandfather\ father -- gold miner in Deering\ started own herd\ BIA herders -- teachers\ Hersh, Vern -- Nygard, Ed \ BIA -- flying support\ Fish and Game -- stopped flying\ hard for a herder without a herd\ herders -- willing to train more|