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Nels and Rose Hedlund, Part 1

Nels and Rose Hedlund talk with Priscilla Russell and Andrew Balluta on July 27,1985 in Chekok, Alaska. In this first part of a two part interview, the Hedlunds locate places on a map, and talk about their uses, their Dena'ina names, and what these names mean. They discuss the history of trade and warfare between the Dena'ina and the Yup'ik in the region, and Nels describes the route traveled by Yup'ik people migrating into the Iliamna area from the Kuskokwim River. They also discuss their own subsistence and trapping activities.

Digital Asset Information

Archive #: Oral History 98-27-11_PT.1

Project: Lake Clark National Park
Date of Interview: Jul 27, 1985
Narrator(s): Nels Hedlund, Rose Hedlund
Interviewer(s): Priscilla Russell, Andrew Balluta
Location of Interview:
Funding Partners:
National Park Service
Alternate Transcripts
There is no alternate transcript for this interview.
There is no slideshow for this person.

After clicking play, click on a section to navigate the audio or video clip.


1) Rose Hedlund's personal background and the areas where she has lived

2) Camping and subsistence activities during her childhood

3) Her father trapping and the different routes he used

4) Trapping and her marriage to Nels Hedlund

5) Trapping routes and Yup'ik place names

6) Their marriage and travels together

7) Traveling and trapping early on in their marriage

8) Locations in the Lake Clark and Iliamna Lake region

9) Travel route from Bethel to Nushagak River

10) Territory boundaries between Yup'ik and Dena'ina people

11) The abandonment of a Dena'ina village on the Mulchatna River

12) Trapping territories and boundaries between Yup'ik and Dena'ina people

13) Place names and descriptions of those locations

14) Yup'ik and Dena'ina place names and descriptions of those locations

15) An old, abandoned Dena'ina village and the story of a famous warrior who came from there

16) Dena'ina and Yup'ik territory boundaries

17) Movements of different groups of people into the area

18) Movement of Yup'ik people into the area

19) Place names on the Nushagak River, and Dena'ina and Yup'ik territory (poor audio quality)

20) The importance of fish to the people of the area

21) Locating Mink Creek on a map

22) Prehistoric village sites

23) Dena'ina names for important places in the Chekok area

24) The last village on the Mulchatna River that was abandoned

25) Naming practices and the uses of nicknames

26) The abandonment of Chekok village

27) The flu epidemic and the demise of the old villages

28) Origin and identity of people in the area and the languages they speak

29) People who speak the Yup'ik language

30) Reindeer herding in the Lake Clark area

31) Introduction of reindeer herding and reasons for its failure

32) Problems involved in herding reindeer

33) Problems trading reindeer meat and conflicts between Yup'ik and Dena'ina people

34) Trade and warfare between Yup'ik and Dena'ina people

35) Reasons for warfare between Yup'ik and Dena'ina people

36) Old Iliamna village origins and relocation

37) Dena'ina place names and the locations of old villages

38) Dena'ina village place names and their meanings

39) Old village sites from the Russian period

40) Fish camps and difficulties faced when fish did not come

41) One year when large trout came next to the shore instead of salmon

42) People traveling to saltwater for subsistence resources

43) Areas they used to travel to and trap in

44) Trapping and sewing skins

45) The Karshekoff family and their relatives

Click play, then use Sections or Transcript to navigate the interview.

After clicking play, click a section of the transcript to navigate the audio or video clip.


Section 1: birthplace\ Chekok\ Anchorage\ Dillingham\ Mulchatna\ Pedro Bay\ travel -- seasonal\ trapping\ family -- members\ Hedlund, Rose -- aunt\ Zacher, Mary|

Section 2: camping\ berry picking\ fish -- availability\ hunting -- birds\ hunting -- rabbits\ moose -- lack of\ caribou -- lack of\ reindeer -- herd\ Iliamna\ reindeer -- purchase\ reindeer -- meat\ subsistence -- resources|

Section 3: Hedlund, Rose -- father\ trapping\ trapping -- income\ trapping --routes\ Pedro Bay\ Big Point\ Young's Creek\ Knutson Bay\ Dena'ina place names|

Section 4: trapping\ Mulchatna River\ marriage\ children\ dog team\ Mosquito Cabin\ Mosquito River\ people -- Dutna|

Section 5: Trapping -- routes\ Mulchatna River\ Mosquito River\ Pile Bay\ transportation -- aviation\ Yup'ik place names\ Swan River|

Section 6: Hedlund, Rose -- father\ marriage\ marriage -- length\ army -- discharge\ travel|

Section 7: marriage\ travel\ Dillingham\ Mulchatna River\ Mosquito River -- cabin\ travel -- seasonal\ transportation -- boat\ dogs\ fishing -- seasonal\ trapping\ ?Vale, Red\ Yup'ik -- trapping\ trapping -- beaver\ Nushagak River\ Old Stuyahok\ Mulchatna River\ Koliganek\ Mulchatna River|

Section 8: Nushagak River\ Mulchatna River\ hunting -- moose\ reindeer -- herd\ Mosquito River\ reindeer station\ travel -- lack of\ transportation -- dogs\ people -- Newhalen\ Koktuli River\ Dutna Lake\ Kokhonak\ Yup'ik -- trapping\ territory -- Yup'ik\ territory -- Dena'ina|

Section 9: Bethel\ travel -- route\ Kwethluk River\ Tikchik Lakes\ Koliganek\ Nushagak River\ Yup'ik -- trapping\ Klutuk\ Aniak\ King Salmon River\ Mulchatna River|

Section 10: Bethel\ travel -- route\ Kwethluk River\ Tikchik Lakes\ Koliganek\ Nushagak River\ Yup'ik -- trapping\ Klutuk\ Aniak\ King Salmon River\ Mulchatna River\ Jensen, Mary -- grandmother\ Balluta, Andrew|

Section 11: flu epidemic\ Wilson, Katie\Wilson, Katie -- brothers\ Paule, Andy\ Mulchatna River\ Kijik\ Twin Lakes\ Holitna River\ Kuskokwim River\ Jensen, Mary|

Section 12: territory -- Yup'ik\ territory -- Dena'ina\ trapping\ Stuyahok\ reindeer station\ Mosquito\ Stuyahok Creek\ Mulchatna\ Koktuli\ village -- relocation\ New Stuyahok\ Dena'ina place names\ Ekwok\ Yup'ik place names|

Section 13: Koktuli\ birds -- swan\ Quguktuq\ Yup'ik place names\ Jack Rabbit Hills\ Mulchatna River\ Swan River\ Swan Lake|

Section 14: Koktulik\ travel -- portage\ Chulitna River\ people -- Nondalton\ Portage Village\ Yup'ik place names\ Iliamna\ Dena'ina place names\ Newhalen|

Section 15: village -- old\ warrior\ story\ running -- speed\ bidarki -- destruction\ story -- Yup'ik version\ people -- Russian|

Section 16: Iliamna Lake\ Newhalen\ Kokhanok\ Kuskokwim River\ Bethel\ Kwethluk River\ travel -- route\ Mulchatna River\ Koktuli\ Chulitna\ Tazimina River\ portage\ old village -- Yup'ik\ Tommy Creek\ cache posts\ Nushagak\ language -- similarities|

Section 17: Newhalen\ people -- Aleut\ Kodiak Island\ Katmai\ people -- Yup'ik\ language -- Yup'ik\ Perryville\ Kuskokwim River\ Mulchatna River\ Tazimina\ Kwethluk River\ Bethel\ travel -- route\ ?, Nick|

Section 18: Olympic, Nick\ Newhalen\ people -- Yup'ik\ warfare -- Yup'ik|

Section 19: place names\ Nushagak River\ people -- Dena'ina\ people -- Yup'ik\ territory\ people -- Aleut|

Section 20: fish -- importance\ fish -- availability\ fish -- brook trout\ fish -- Dolly Varden\ fish -- rainbow trout\ Koktuli\ Tommy Creek\ fish -- whitefish\ fish -- candlefish\ Mink Creek\ village -- remains\ graveyard|

Section 21: Mink Creek\ Chekok Creek\ Canyon Creek\ Knutson Mountain\ Fox Bay\ Knutson Bay\ village -- site|

Section 22: house -- large\ Townsend, Joanne\ research -- archaeological\ Katmai -- eruption\ fish ponds\ Chekok\ Knutson Bay\ Canyon Creek|

Section 23: Canyon Creek\ Roadhouse Mountain\ Dena'ina place names\ Moose Lake\ Chekok\ Nick\ Kuskokwim River|

Section 24: Chekok\ Hedlund, Rose -- grandmother\ Singha, Agafia\ Mulchatna Village\ Alokonak\ Telaquana\ fish -- availability\ game -- availability\ Lapp, Lillian -- grandmother|

Section 25: Chekok\ Singha, Agafia\ Nondalton\ Kankanton, Simeon\ husband -- second\ naming\ nicknames\ Koktelash, Pete|

Section 26: flu epidemic\ Kuskokwim River\ Hedlund, Nels -- mother\ disease -- impact\ disease -- deaths\ village -- relocation\ Kaskenak\ Naknek\ Kijik\ Bristol Bay\ Iliamna\ Nondalton\ village -- old|

Section 27: Hedlund, Rose -- sister\ Kuskokwim River\ Bethel\ Napakiak\ village -- burning\ Mulchatna\ disease\ serum\ Nome\ Chekok -- old village\ ?, Walter\ people -- Kuskokwim\ people -- Newhalen\ village -- remains|

Section 28: Newhalen\ Kokhonak\ language -- Aleut\ language -- Yup'ik\ Kwethluk\ Kuskokwim\ Delkittie, Buck\ Foss, Bert\ Kodiak\ Old Sava\ Unalakleet\ Port Heiden\ Perryville\ Eskimo -- southern\ Naknek|

Section 29: Olympic, Nick\ village -- abandonment\ Katmai -- eruption\ Naknek River\ language -- Yup'ik\ Naknek\ Cusma, Vladimir\ Cusma, Maxim\ Jensen, Gus\ Jensen, Annie\ Eagle Bay\ language -- Dena'ina|

Section 30: Eagle Bay\ reindeer station\ reindeer -- herding\ Reindeer Bay\ Kukaklek\ Old Iliamna\ Nondalton\ Cusma, Maxim\ reindeer -- care\ reindeer -- distribution\ Lapland|

Section 31: Lap -- people\ ?, Hollis\ Bethel\ Kuskokwim River\ Skagway\ reindeer -- herd\ Nondalton\ Kijik\ wolf\ caribou\ reindeer station|

Section 32: Bethel\ Lap -- people \ reindeer -- herders\ reindeer herds -- size\ wolf\ caribou\ Kuskokwim River\ meat -- reindeer\ trade -- meat|

Section 33: trade -- meat\ reindeer -- herding\ reindeer -- meat\ Kuskokwim River\ people -- Lapp\ reindeer -- market\ trade -- Yup'ik\ warfare -- Yup'ik|

Section 34: trade -- Yup'ik\ Kuskokwim River\ Muck River Guys\ boats -- canoe\ canoe -- birch bark\ Bethel\ seal oil\ hides -- seal\ Stony River\ Nushagak\ Yukon River\ warfare -- reasons|

Section 35: warfare -- reasons\ Kuskokwim River\ fishing -- competition\ Stony River\ Dena'ina -- origins\ Hedlund, Rose -- grandmother\ Hedlund, Rose -- grandfather\ Telaquana\ Mulchatna\ Balluta, Alec -- grandfather|

Section 36: trade -- coastal Dena'ina\ trade -- inland Dena'ina\ warfare\ Jensen, Gus -- mother\ Iliamna\ Old Iliamna\ village -- relocation|

Section 37: Old Iliamna\ Iliamna River\ Dena'ina place names\ Newhalen|

Section 38: Dena'ina place names\ people -- Aleut\ story -- fighting\ bidarki -- swamping\ Old Iliamna\ Old Sava\ Russians\ Russians -- descendants|

Section 39: Russian period\ Old Iliamna -- relocation\ fish -- availability\ warfare -- defense\ Old Kijik\ school\ church -- Russian Orthodox\ graveyard -- Russian Orthodox|

Section 40: fish ponds\ fish camp\ fish -- importance\ fish -- trout\ Breece, Hannah\ fish trap\ canneries -- fish|

Section 41: fish -- numbers\ fish -- bundles\ fishing -- net\ smokehouse\ fish -- Dolly Varden\ beach\ fish -- salmon\ movement -- reasons|

Section 42: travel -- seasonal\ clams -- gathering\ hunting -- seal\ people -- coastal\ people -- inland\ people -- Tyonek\ trading\ Kuskokwim River\ Lime Village\ Constantine, Gustingen|

Section 43: trapping -- areas\ Mulchatna River\ Tazimina Lakes\ Moose Lake\ Dena'ina place names\ hunting\ National Park Service\ transportation -- dogs\ trapping -- beaver|

Section 44: beaver -- population\ trapping -- beaver\ travel -- walking\ transportation -- three wheeler\ travel -- snowmachine\ crafts -- selling\ sewing -- skin\ mukluks\ dolls\ hats\ mitts\ sewing -- teaching\ Hedlund, Rose -- daughters\ fishing -- net\ fishing -- spear|

Section 45: Karshekoff, Stephen\ Karshekoff, Marka\ uncle Tonka\ Laura -- Nickoli's niece\ Zackar, Martha\ Karshekoff, Alexie\ Karshekoff -- grandfather\ Rickteroff, Sava\ Kodiak Island\ people -- Russian\ people -- Aleut\ relatives\ names|