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Fred Hope
Fred Hope

Fred Hope was interviewed by Robi Craig and Kristen Griffin on December 17, 1998 at the Sitka Tribe of Alaska offices in Sitka, Alaska. At the time of the interview, he was is in his mid-sixties, and appeared to be in excellent physical condition, despite walking with crutches as he recovered from recent hip surgery. In this interview, Fred talks about growing up in the Cottages Community and his relationship with Sitka National Historical Park, and about the historic relationship between the Kiks.ádi and the Russians. Specifically, he discusses the1804 Battle between the Kiks.ádi and the Russians, and the work he and his brother, Herb Hope, did to document, interview, and recreate the Sitka Kiks.ádi Survival March. The Sitka Kiks.ádi Survival March is the name given to the epic journey the Sitka Kiks.ádi clan made following the battle to escape the Russians. This survival march allowed the clan to remove itself from Sitka proper and travel to Chichagof Island. They settled on Chichagof Island and, as the Hopes describe it, established a trade embargo of sorts against the Russians residing in Sitka.

Digital Asset Information

Archive #: Oral History 98-39-07

Project: Sitka National Historical Park
Date of Interview: Dec 17, 1998
Narrator(s): Fred Hope
Interviewer(s): Robi Craig, Kristen Griffin
Location of Interview:
Funding Partners:
National Park Service
Alternate Transcripts
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1) His personal background and boyhood connections to the Park

2) Resource use in the Park

3) Fishing at Indian River

4) Seasonal variation in fishing on the Indian River

5) Changes he's noticed in the Park, especially at Indian River

6) Indian River water use, and playing in the Park as a boy

7) Various uses of the Park over time

8) Changes to the land at the Park, and the legacy of the Russian/Tlingit battle and stories told about it

9) His and his brother's research project about the Russian/Tlingit battle

10) The Battle memorials, and military use of the Park during World War II

11) Begins the Kiks.aacute;di story about the Russian/Tlingit battle, starting with the early settlement and use of the Sitka area

12) Changes the Russians brought to living conditions, trading, and hunting technology

13) The Tlingit making war against the Russians over hunting and selling sea otter fur

14) The story of the Tlingit/Russian battle continued

15) The story of the Tlingit/Russian battle continued

16) The 1804 Battle between the Kiks.ádi and the Russians, and the Tlingit escape from the fighting

17) The Tlingit retreat and the route they traveled

18) Resettling after the battle and blocking trade into Sitka to hurt the Russian economy

19) The trade blockade on Sitka and negotiations with the Russians to resume good relations

20) Coming back to Sitka after the battle, and signaling Angoon when the first village was established after the retreat

21) The origins of the Kiks.ádi people

22) The Kiks.ádi settling on Baranof Island

23) The Kiks.ádi clan crest, and things he learned during the survival march reenactment

24) The survival march route, and things he and his brother saw and did on the trip

25) Learning to camp out on the march, and his thoughts on the totem poles in the Park

26) The Tlingit halibut hook and how it was used

27) How people in Sitka feel about the Park

Click play, then use Sections or Transcript to navigate the interview.

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Section 1: Sitka/ Hope, Fred -- father Andrew/ Hope, Fred -- mother/ Kiks.ádi/ Sitka National Historical Park/ school/ Park -- use of/ picnic|

Section 2: plants -- gathering/ plants -- Goose Tongue/ plants -- food/ roots -- gathering/ fishing -- smelt/ fish -- sharing|

Section 3: Indian River/ fish -- Pink Salmon/ Cottages/ fishing -- gaff hook/ fish -- Humpies/ fishing -- technique/ fish -- selling/ fishing -- restrictions/ fishing -- commercial/ fishing -- seining|

Section 4: fishing -- Fall/ fish -- Coho/ fishing -- trolling/ fishing -- snagging/ fishing -- Winter/ Indian River -- head of|

Section 5: Park -- changes/ military/ bridge/ river -- flood/ accident/ water level -- changes/ river -- changes|

Section 6: Indian River/ river -- use of/ Sheldon Jackson School/ hatchery/ trees -- playing on/ clams -- digging/ river -- pollution|

Section 7: fishing -- halibut/ Jamestown Bay/ Teacher's Island/ Cameron, Mrs./ cockles -- gathering/ Indian River/ military -- effect of/ sand -- removal/ earthquake/ blockhouse/ Sheldon Jackson School/ logs -- collecting/ lumber|

Section 8: land -- changes/ Conway Dock/ land -- rising/ Sitka/ Hope, Fred -- brother Herb/ battle/ ANB Hall/ march/ history|

Section 9: story -- discrepancies/ Point House Story/ battle -- Kiks.ádi and Russian/ celebration -- battle memorial|

Section 10: battle -- memorial/ Kiks.ádi/ Park -- military use of/ guns/ Park -- restrictions/ Cottages/ Park -- sneak into/ memorial -- end of|

Section 11: battle -- memorial/ battle -- story/ Hope, Fred -- uncle/ Howard, David/ Kiks.ádi/ Sitka/ Baranof Island/ Chichagof Island/ food -- prevalence of/ Sitka Sound/ homes -- seasons/ subsistence|

Section 12: Russians/ lifestyle -- changes/ trading/ Sitka/ fur -- sea otter/ fur -- value of/ Tlingit/ hunting -- sea otter/ fur -- trading/ Klukwan/ Juneau/ Auke Bay/ / bow and arrow/ guns|

Section 13: Russians/ Tlingit/ slaves -- Aleuts/ boat -- kayak/ hunting -- sea otter/ furs -- selling/ war/ Old Sitka/ fort/ fort -- attack|

Section 14: Kodiak/ Baranof/ Russians/ Sitka/ medicine men/ battle -- prediction of/ tools -- axe/ fort -- building of/ Place of Young Trees/ placename -- meaning of|

Section 15: fort -- building of/ battle -- first/ medicine men/ battle -- prediction of/ Russians/ Totem Park/ Baranof/ Russians -- attack/ location -- strategic|

Section 16: battle -- length/ Kiks.ádi/ elders/ battle -- evacuation/ warrior -- behavior/ Indian River Trail/ Baranof Island/ travel/ boat -- canoe|

Section 17: boat -- canoe/ travel -- hiking/ survival march -- route/ Hope, Fred -- brother Herb/ battle -- retreat|

Section 18: Baranof Island/ march -- length/ Peril Strait/ Point Moses/ village -- reestablishment/ boat -- canoe/ Point Craven/ Sitka -- trading/ Chatham Strait/ blockade|

Section 19: Russians/ trade -- decline in/ Angoon/ trade -- resumption of/ Tlingit/ subsistence -- continuation of/ fish -- herring|

Section 20: subsistence/ Sitka/ Olga Strait/ travel -- boat/ Kiks.ádi/ village -- evidence of/ Point Hayes/ Point Craven/ Lindenberg Head/ Lake Eva/ Angoon/ bonfire/ fire -- pitch/ pitch -- gathering/ Point Moses|

Section 21: Kiks.ádi -- origin/ Sitka -- arrival to/ boat -- canoe/ flood/ rivers/ Stikine River/ subsistence/ moving/ Wrangell/ Kake|

Section 22: moving -- reasons/ Baranof/ Shee Atika -- meaning of/ Kake/ fish -- herring/ fish -- King Salmon/ seals/ food -- abundance/ Redfish Bay/ Pelican/ Kiks.ádi/ skills -- development of|

Section 23: Kiks.ádi/ clan crest/ frog/ clan crest -- origin/ clan crest -- meaning of/ recognition/ identity/ march -- reenactment/ reenactment -- lessons/ hunting -- deer/ hunting -- location/ goats|

Section 24: luck/ travel -- route/ Katlian/ trees -- waste of/ logging -- impact of/ Hope, Herb/ storytelling/ boat/ subsistence -- coastal/ camping|

Section 25: firestarting/ Hope, Fred -- father/ subsistence skills -- learning/ totem poles/ Kasaan/ totem poles -- lack of connection/ art/ Tlingit/ totem poles -- colors|

Section 26: Park -- restrictions/ carving/ boat -- canoe/ fishing -- halibut hook/ sharing/ fishing -- halibut/ hook -- barb|

Section 27: Sheldon Jackson High School/ Park -- walking/ Park -- appreciation of/ Park -- serenity/ Park -- totem poles/ Park -- values/ Lover's Lane|