1804 Battle between Tlingit and Russians at the Fort Site

Battle and Survival March

(excerpts from Fred Hope interview)

Click on a section below to hear audio.

8) Changes to the land at the Park, and the legacy of the Russian/Tlingit battle and stories told about it.

land -- changes/ Conway Dock/ land -- rising/ Sitka/ Hope, Fred -- brother Herb/ battle/ Alaska Native Brotherhood Hall/ march/ history|

9) His and his brother's research project about the Russian/Tlingit battle.

story -- discrepancies/ Point House Story/ battle -- Kiks.ádi and Russian/ celebration -- battle memorial|

10) The battle memorials, and military use of the Park during World War II.

battle -- memorial/ Kiks.ádi/ Park -- military use of/ guns/ Park -- restrictions/ Cottages/ Park -- sneak into/ memorial -- end of|

11) Begins the Kiks.ádi story about the Russian/Tlingit battle, starting with the early settlement and use of the Sitka area.

battle -- memorial/ battle -- story/ Hope, Fred -- uncle/ Howard, David/ Kiks.ádi/ Sitka/ Baranof Island/ Chichagof Island/ food -- prevalence of/ Sitka Sound/ homes -- seasons/ subsistence|

12) Changes the Russians brought to living conditions, trading, and hunting technology.

Russians/ lifestyle -- changes/ trading/ Sitka/ fur -- sea otter/ fur -- value of/ Tlingit/ hunting -- sea otter/ fur -- trading/ Klukwan/ Juneau/ Auke Bay/ / bow and arrow/ guns|

13) The Tlingit making war against the Russians over hunting and selling sea otter fur.

Russians/ Tlingit/ slaves -- Aleuts/ boat -- kayak/ hunting -- sea otter/ furs -- selling/ war/ Old Sitka/ fort/ fort -- attack|

14) The story of the Tlingit/Russian battle continued.

Kodiak/ Baranof/ Russians/ Sitka/ medicine men/ battle -- prediction of/ tools -- axe/ fort -- building of/ Place of Young Trees/ placename -- meaning of|

15) The story of the Tlingit/Russian battle continued.

fort -- building of/ battle -- first/ medicine men/ battle -- prediction of/ Russians/ Totem Park/ Baranof/ Russians -- attack/ location -- strategic|

16) The 1804 battle between the Kiks.ádi and the Russians, and the Tlingit escape from the fighting.

battle -- length/ Kiks.ádi/ elders/ battle -- evacuation/ warrior -- behavior/ Indian River Trail/ Baranof Island/ travel/ boat -- canoe|

17) The Tlingit retreat and the route they traveled.

boat -- canoe/ travel -- hiking/ survival march -- route/ Hope, Fred -- brother Herb/ battle -- retreat|

18) Resettling after the battle and blocking trade into Sitka to hurt the Russian economy.

Baranof Island/ march -- length/ Peril Strait/ Point Moses/ village -- reestablishment/ boat -- canoe/ Point Craven/ Sitka -- trading/ Chatham Strait/ blockade|

19) The trade blockade on Sitka and negotiations with the Russians to resume good relations.

Russians/ trade -- decline in/ Angoon/ trade -- resumption of/ Tlingit/ subsistence -- continuation of/ fish -- herring|

20) Coming back to Sitka after the battle, and signaling Angoon when the first village was established after the retreat.

subsistence/ Sitka/ Olga Strait/ travel -- boat/ Kiks.ádi/ village -- evidence of/ Point Hays/ Point Craven/ Lindenberg Head/ Lake Eva/ Angoon/ bonfire/ fire -- pitch/ pitch -- gathering/ Point Moses|

21) The origins of the Kiks.ádi people.

Kiks.ádi -- origin/ Sitka -- arrival to/ boat -- canoe/ flood/ rivers/ Stikine River/ subsistence/ moving/ Wrangell/ Kake|

22) The Kiks.ádi settling on Baranof Island.

moving -- reasons/ Baranof/ Shee Atika -- meaning of/ Kake/ fish -- herring/ fish -- King Salmon/ seals/ food -- abundance/ Redfish Bay/ Pelican/ Kiks.ádi/ skills -- development of|

23) The Kiks.ádi clan crest, and things he learned during the survival march reenactment.

Kiks.ádi/ clan crest/ frog/ clan crest -- origin/ clan crest -- meaning of/ recognition/ identity/ march -- reenactment/ reenactment -- lessons/ hunting -- deer/ hunting -- location/ goats|

24) The survival march route, and things he and his brother saw and did on the trip.

luck/ travel -- route/ Katlian/ trees -- waste of/ logging -- impact of/ Hope, Herb/ storytelling/ boat/ subsistence -- coastal/ camping|

The Battle

(excerpts from Louise Brady interview)

Click on a section below to hear audio.

2) Learning the cultural history of the Park and the battle site, and reviving the Tlingit battle memorial.

Olson, Charlie/ Park -- significance of/ battleground/ march -- survival/ Brady, Louise -- father/ Hope, Fred/ songs -- clans/ Southeast Alaska Clan Conference/ elders/ tour/ Jacobs, Mark/ Brady, Louise -- mother/ picnic/ fall/ memorial -- battle/ memorial -- revival/ songs -- memorial|

5) What the story of the battle represents to Tlingit and why it's important.

battle/ place -- history/ survival march/ history -- Tlingit/ history -- Russian/ Brady, Louise -- mother/ Cottages|

The Battle

(excerpts from Mark Jacobs Jr. interview)

Click on a section below to hear audio.

[Kiks.ádi clan leader Al Perkins gave his permission for this non-Kiks.ádi telling of the Kiks.ádi battle story to be included.]

5) The battle between the Russians and the Tlingit at Sitka.

Lituya Bay/ battle -- Russians & Kiks.ádi/ clans/ battlesite/ battle -- skirmish/ Second Russian American Conference/ speech -- publication/ Alaska Magazine/ University of Alaska/ Russians -- occupation/ boat -- canoe/ shore -- rocky|

10) The battle between the Russians and the Tlingit and the difference between Russians and Indians flying a white flag.

Easter -- Russian/ church -- Russian Orthodox/ battle/ Kiks.ádi -- refuge/ trees -- use of/ land -- sacred/ tree -- Tlingit name/ white flag|

11) The skirmish between Chief Katlian and Alexander Baranof during the battle.

Russians/ boat -- whale boat/ Chief Katlian/ helmet -- battle/ battle -- attack/ Baranof, Alexander/ Baranof, Alexander -- clothing/ land -- sacred/ graves -- shaman|

12) The Kiks.ádi abandonment of the Fort Site and march across the island to escape the Russians, and the peace negotiations that followed.

fort -- abandonment/ history/ Angoon/ Kiks.ádi/ white flag -- explanation of/ battle -- march/ Deisheetaan/ Hanus Bay/ Point Craven/ Baranof, Alexander/ peace -- negotiations/ Chief Katlian/ party -- peace/ party -- deer dance|

13) Conclusion of Russian and Tlingit peace negotiations, and the establishment of the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) program during the 1940s.

peace -- negotiations/ Russians/ gift -- bronze eagle/ Kiks.ádi/ museum -- Juneau/ Great Depression/ President Hoover/ program -- unemployment/ CCC Program/ President Roosevelt/ New Deal/ CCC Program -- benefits/ Alaska Native Brotherhood/ Moller, Dan/ U.S. Forest Service|

23) The site where the Tlingit defended themselves against the Russians.

Park -- military use of/ Lewis, George Sr./ blockhouse/ archaeologists/ battle site/ defense site -- location/ Jacobs, Mark Jr. -- father/ battle site -- ceremony/ armistace|

The Battle

(excerpts from George Hall interview)

H98-39-12, Part 1

Click on a section below to hear audio.

11) Fort design, and the battle with the Russians.

fort -- shape of/ Lisianski -- measurements/ Sitka/ fort -- design/ fort -- logs/ battle -- Russians and Tlingit/ Chief Katlian -- battle leader/ Old Sitka/ Russians -- attack|

13) The battle with the Russians.

battle -- story of/ children -- left at fort/ Russians -- burnt fort/ archaeological survey -- logs/ fort -- location of/ Nakwasina/ Sitkoh Bay -- fort/ Kake/ Angoon/ Hopkins, Sally/ Russians -- attack/ Castle Hill/ boat -- baidarka/ ship -- Neva/ Lisianski/ Kodiak/ boat -- battleship|

Memorial Potlatches

(excerpts from Louise Brady interview)

Click on a section below to hear audio.

3) Reviving the battle memorial, and her personal connections to the Park.

Kiks.ádi/ memorial -- battle/ memorial -- importance of/ Brady, Louise -- mother/ memorial -- end of/ World War II/ Park -- use of/ culture -- learning/ Park -- artifacts/ Park -- connections to/ battle -- women's role|

Irene Jimmy -- No Photo Available
Memorial Potlatches

(excerpts from Irene Jimmy interview)

Click on a section below to hear audio.

2) Her childhood memories of a potlatch held in the Park, and collecting resources from the Park.

Sitka/ Park -- use of/ Jimmy, Irene -- mother/ potlatch/ Park -- importance of/ Park -- ties to/ spruce roots -- collecting/ weaving -- basket/ berries -- picking|

17) Battle memorials held at the Park.

Park -- use of/ potlatch/ Kiks.ádi/ battle -- memorial/ Kiksháa/ memorial -- revival of/ songs/ people -- loss of/ artifacts -- loss of/ culture -- loss of/ memorial -- future|

18) Battle memorials at the Park, and her personal connections to the Park.

Park -- use of/ battle -- memorial/ Kiks.ádi/ Jimmy, Irene -- mother/ Park -- importance of|

Memorial Potlatches

(excerpts from Ellen Hope Hays interview)

H98-39-01, Part 1

Click on a section below to hear audio.

14) Kiks.ádi Memorial and how it changed.

memorial/ gatherings/ battle/ World War II/ nephews -- drafted/ barricade -- military/ uncles/ memorial -- ended|


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