Project Jukebox

Digital Branch of the University of Alaska Fairbanks Oral History Program
Ted Swem, Interview 2, Part 2

This is a continuation of an interview with Ted Swem by Bill Schneider on July 6, 1993 at his home in Evergreen, Colorado. In this second part of a four part interview, he talks about the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA), choosing the staff of the land study team, President Nixon's trip to Canada with plans for an international park, and agencies and committees included in the land withdrawals.

Digital Asset Information

Archive #: Oral History 93-15-27

Project: Wrangell-St.Elias National Park
Date of Interview: Jul 6, 1993
Narrator(s): Ted Swem, Sr.
Interviewer(s): Bill Schneider
Location of Interview:
Funding Partners:
National Park Service
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1) Alaska study teams in the early 1970's related to ANCSA

2) Merrill Mattes' background and purpose of his involvement

3) His involvement and responsibilities for the ANCSA land studies

4) Final lands withdrawal study, as related to ANCSA

5) Choosing the staff of the land study teams

6) Study areas that were initially considered for land withdrawal

7) Study area, land withdrawals, and deadlines

8) Contract studies personnel in the study areas

9) President Nixon's trip to Canada, and plans for an international park

10) Land withdrawal and maps for the Wrangell Mountains area

11) Maps produced illustrating the lands withdrawal sequence of events

12) Agencies and committees included in lands withdrawals

13) Recommendations for national parks to the Secretary of the Interior

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Section 1: Mattes, Merrill\ Stenmark, Dick\ National Park Service -- identify areas for study\ D-2 provisions\ Means, Larry\ Reed, Nat\ first deadline -- March 1972\ preliminary withdrawal recommendations -- study areas\ deadline -- September 1972\ ANCSA\ map -- March 1972\ D-1 withdrawals\ D-2 withdrawals\ Stenmark, Dick -- Washington D.C.\ Mattes, Merrill

Section 2: Mt. McKinley study\ Gates study\ Katmai -- not involved\ historical study of Attu\ involved in early studies\ Luntey, Bob -- not involved\ regional office

Section 3: Hartzog, George\ Swem, Ted -- responsible for Alaska\ Washington D.C.\ planning -- freedom of effort\ regional office\ Anchorage office\ Alaska representative in Seattle office\ NPS\ withdrawals -- acreage\ D-1 lands\ D-2 lands\ map\ Native interest\ village corporations\ regional corporations\ BLM\ withdrawal -- March 1972 map

Section 4: lands -- final withdrawal\ studies -- 1973\ final proposals to Congress\ March withdrawal\ National Park Service -- organization to study areas\ start studies\ D2 withdrawals -- backgrounds\ ANCSA\ 80 million acres -- possible NPS land\ D2 withdrawals\ agencies -- four responsible for withdrawal\ lands -- not designated but withdrawn for study only\ Fish and Wildlife Service -- overlap with NPS\ Yukon-Charley\ Noatak\ Seward Peninsula\ Arctic Wildlife Range\ NPS\ Collins, George\ Sumner, Lowell\ Alaska Planning Group -- rationale\ agencies -- overlap\ March -- September 1972\ study -- implementation\ study -- organization\ study -- staffing\ study staff -- first meeting June \study -- limitations\ field trips\ boundaries -- agency\ first recommendation -- July\ withdrawals -- September

Section 5: Hartzog, George\ staffing -- personnel NPS\ planning team\ regional office\ story -- finding office head\ Gale, Ben\ Rutter, John\ Hartzog, George\ Denver, CO\ Henson, Al\ San Francisco\ Henson, Al -- office head\ Alaska Study\ kickoff meeting\ Albright, Stan\ National Park Service -- history of involvement in Alaska\ Kauffmann, John\ Wrangells\ Gates\ Marshall, Bob\ Noatak\ team captains -- areas of expertise\ Henson, Al\ Noatak -- preliminary withdrawal\ Alaskan Conservation Society\ Alaska highways\ withdrawals -- acreage\ Native allotments\ mineral value -- BLM

Section 6: Gates of the Arctic\ McKinley\ Wrangells\ Lake Clark\ Yukon-Charley\ Aniakchak\ Seward Peninsula\ Kobuk Sand Dunes\ National Park Service -- earlier studies\ Washington D.C.\ preliminary withdrawals\ Task Force Report\ Stenmark, Dick\ landmark areas\ sand dunes\ volcanic areas\ Aniakchak\ Mt. Veniaminof -- "Mt. V"

Section 7: legal suit\ negotiations -- state\ Alaska State Land Use Planning Commission\ ANCSA\ Herbert, Chuck\ mineral values -- lands\ fieldwork -- time line\ Department of the Interior\ final withdrawals\ McKinley\ Lake Clark\ Katmai\ Herbert, Chuck\ issues reopen\ 1972-1973

Section 8: issues reopen\ 1972-1973\ contract studies -- initiated\ National Park Service -- further investigations\ negotiations -- land\ Henson, Al\ Dennis, John\ contracts -- negotiations\ Team 4\ Rogers, Urban\ Lake Clark\ Aniakchak\ Hall, Dr. Ed\ Noatak\ Copper, Dr.\ Gates\ Young, Steve\ Arctic Institute\ Hartzog, George\ Norwood, Len\ BIA\ Belous, Bob\ photography\ , Bob\ Sierra Club\ Lake Clark\ , Scott\ Anchorage\ Fairbanks\ Kauffman, John\ Reeser, Bill\ Harding Ice Field\ Reeser, Stanley -- Secretary of the Army\ Jackson, WY\ Bane, Ray\ Nelson, Dick\ National Park Service\ Bettles

Section 9: Swem -- retirement 1976\ final recommendations\ 1972\ Nixon -- Canada trip\ Horton, Jack\ Hickel, Walter\ Morton Administration\ Canadian-USA international park\ Kluane\ Wrangells-St. Elias\ Arctic Wildlife Range\ White House\ Wrangells report -- master plan for Wrangells\ Canadian project\ Kluane\ international park -- proposed 1940's\ Rutter, John\ Gale, Ben\ Fritz, Paul\ regional office -- copy of plan\ Horton, Jack\ Swem, Ted\ Canada -- trip to\ Bureau of Indian Affairs\ Chretien, Jean\ Campbell, Prime Minister -- Canada\ Nicol, Jack\ international plan -- didn't fly\ nationalism -- Canada\ Nixon, Richard

Section 10: Wrangells -- not sure if wanted it\ position -- to study\ Yukon-Charley\ designations\ study team -- continued to produce documents\ maps\ Anchorage office

Section 11: study period\ withdrawals -- authorized by Congress\ recommendations -- December 1973 submitted\ preliminary withdrawals\ final withdrawals\ recommendations to Congress\ acreage requirements\ Geological Survey\ Bureau of Land Management\ Bureau of Mines

Section 12: Alaska Planning Group\ Bureau of Outdoor Recreation\ Fish and Wildlife Service\ National Park Service\ Reed, Nat\ Bohlen, Curtis "Buff"\ Wheeler, Doug -- Natural Resources, CA\ Assistant Secretaries\ National Park Service\ Bracken, Frank\ Public Land Management\ Forest Service\ Bureau of Land Management\ multiple use lands\ Bracken, Frank

Section 13: final withdrawals -- September 1973\ National Park Service -- study areas\ negotiations -- State of Alaska\ Alaska Planning Group\ environmental impact statements -- develop draft\ Hartzog, George -- left National Park Service December 1972