George Moses, Sr. was interviewed on August 11, 1988 by Robert Drozda and Vernon Chimegalrea in Akiachak, Alaska. Vernon was the Yup'ik language interpreter during the interview, and the following English translation of the Yup'ik audio from 88CAL155 was done by Fannie Andrew. The written Yup'ik transcription and English translation of 88CAL161 was done by Lucy Coolidge Daniels of the Alaska Native Language Center, with computer entry, proofreading and editing by Sophie Manutoli Shield and Irene Reed. In these excerpted sections of the interviews, George speaks in Yup'ik about the historic sites of Pugcenar and Cungartuli, the meaning of the place names, the uses of the sites, fishing and hunting muskrat, and spring camp at the mouth of Qagerlualek.
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Pugcenar, Cungartuli and Cingigartuliq with many fish, used in cooperation with Tevneq.
Pugcenar and Cungartuli for blackfish and muskrat.
Mouth of Qagerlualek, spring camp site used by the people of Akiacuaq.
Mouth of Qaqerlualek as hunting camp site.
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BIA ANCSA Tape 88CAL155. August 11, 1988 in Akiachak, Alaska. ANCSA interviewer: Robert Drozda. Interpreter: Vernon Chimegalrea (Note: The following written English translation of the Yup'ik audio is by Fannie Andrew.)
George Moses: And this Cungartuli, right below this Pugcenar, here's Pugcenar huh? Vernon Chimegalrea: Yes. George Moses: Below Pugcenar is an original fall camp where there were many fish. There were many fish there and because of that, these people made their living mainly from fish. And Cungartuli was mainly used to catch and process fish. It was used as a spring, and also a fall camp, because fish was plenty there. Blackfish and other fish. It was a fishing area. And back there across from that area in the Akuluraq area of Cingigartuliq, at the lake areas of Pugcenar are many fish not too far from here (pointing to map). These areas work in cooperation for gathering fish. These areas close to each other - Pugcenar, and Tevneq. Someplace around here is Tevneq. Is it this one?
BIA ANCSA Tape 88CAL161. August 23, l988 in Akiachak, Alaska. ANCSA interviewer: Robert Drozda. Interpreter: Vernon Chimegalrea. (Note: Alaska Native Language Center Yup'ik transcription and English translation is by Lucy Coolidge Daniels, with computer entry, proofreading and editing by Sophie Manutoli Shield and Irene Reed.)
George Moses: Una up'nerkillermi uitaaqlun' tuani, up'nerkilleqluku... This one would stay at the spring camp site there, having it as his spring camp site...
Vernon Chimegalrea: Cungartulimi? At Cungartuliq?
George Moses: Ii-i. Uksuilleqluku tuaten. Ing'ucetun iciw', aug'utun Qass'utun, Ikangutaq-llu. Yaaqliqengraagnek wan' canimelucaagnek iciw' taukuk tua-i, taum wani uitalleqlukek, taugaam tayima, picurlaggaanerminek tuaten uitaviksuumiirtellikii tayim', taugaam wani caniani yaani Pugcenermi uitaluni. Iciw' uilinqigcami allamek, taugaam tua-i tuaten ayuqlun' ayuqucimitun. Tua-i tauna tuaten aturluku waken ullagturluku pilleqluku, imanganek iciw' can'giirnek. Tauna Cungartuliq. Cali-llu up'nerkami aturluku cali kanaqlagnek, iciw' makunek, amllernek tauna aturluku. Yes. And also used it as a fall camp. Like that one yonder, you know, like that Qass'uq and Ikangutaq. Though one is beyond the other, because they're near each other, you know, those two, that one stayed in the both of them, but after she met with tragedy, perhaps she no longer wanted to stay there. But she stays at this one, over there at Pugceneq. You know, because she acquired a new husband, but she is as she always is. That's how that one was used, always going to it from here, for blackfish, you know, blackfish. That Cungartuliq. Also using it in the spring for muskrat, you know these, using that area for many different (subsistence) things.
George Moses: Tauna tua-i pilleqluku Pugceneq. Tua-i nutaan aklukluku-am piuq, tuani taumeg uingellermini ing'ucetun Cungartuli-tun. Tua-i-am aklukluku, unguvalleqluku avatii-llu tamalkuan tauna piuq. Yaavet-llu yaa-i kiatiini. Qagerlualegmun-ggur uumun, tauna painga cali nunallruluni, taukut tua-i tayima. Akiacuarmiut ukut nunakestellri apqapigtesciigatanka taum wani nunam Qagerlualgem Paingan wani, una-w' tua-i. Tauna Qagerlual-gem Painga up'nerkillruluni tua-i amlleret taukut aturluku, ukut-wa tua-i Akiarcuarmiut tayim', ukut-llu, augkut avanelnguut ua-i cali Nunarpagmelnguut, taukut- llu cali ilaluteng allaneg Akiacuarmiunek, cali tamana uitalleqluku. Painga. Up'nerkilleq-luku tuaten, waten piqtaarluteng pilaameng. That Pugceneq was her stomping grounds. There she settled down to utilizing that place there when she got that other one as her husband, like that Cungartuliq over there. As usual, it was hers to utilize (for "supplies, goods", esp. clothing?), her life, and the surrounding area, too, so that one did so. And to that one yonder upriver from it-- to this one called Qagerlualek-- its mouth also being a former settlement, so those are. These from Akiacuaq, who were the inhabitants of that place here, I can't say for certain, of Qagerlualgem Painga's here, this one, that is. Qagerlualgem Painga was a spring camp site, used by those many, people from Akiacuaq, that is, and these, those that are over that way, these who are still at Nunarpak, and those had others from Akiacuarmiut with them, also using that as a dwelling place. Its mouth. Also as a spring camp site, because they do this, now that. (The translator translated what the informant was saying word for word, which is all right but listening to the informant on the tape is also confusing, but I think what he is trying to say is that people from all over the area used this site for subsistence living, like places from Akiacuaq, people from down river, and from Nunarpak.)
Vernon Chimegalrea: Una-qaa Qagerlualgem Painga, uum Pugcenrem kiatiintuq? Is this Qagerlualgem Painga upriver from this Pugceneq?
George Moses: Ii-i, yaa, tua-i kiatiintuq. Ukut tua-i iciw' qaillun atullratnek aptellrukevtegnga man' ukut taukut Paimiullerneg ayagluku qaillun ukunun Akiacuarmiunun atullruciatnek qaillun. Tauna tua-i tauna Pugceneq, I mean. aa... Yes, yes, it's upriver from it. These, you know, you asked me how these were used, there, starting from Paimullret, how the people of Akiacuaq, used them. Now that one, that Pugceneq, I mean...
Vernon Chimegalrea: Qagerlualek?
George Moses: Qagerlualek tua-i tamakut wani waten ullaketaarluk' pivikngamegteggu ellaita waten ikayuqluteng tamana piaqluku. Pivikluku piaqluku, unguvalleqluku. Tauna tua-i tuaten atullru- lliniat taun'. Tua-i-llu tuaken nugtarrluta, qamavet, Nuqaq, Nuqameg atengqertuq, tauna tua-i kiani. Qagerlualek. Because those used it as a place (to hunt), going back and forth to Qagerlualek, accomplishing that by helping each other. It was their place to hunt, their means of survival. That, then, is how they used that one. Then they'd move on from there, to the area upriver, to that one called Nuqaq, that one upriver.