Walter Akpik, Sr. (Utik) was interviewed on March 14, 1982 by Bill Schneider and Wendy Arundale at this home in Atqasuk, Alaska for the Chipp-Ikpikpuk and Meade Rivers Oral History Project. Kathy Itta was the Iñupiaq language translator during the interview. In this interview, Walter talks about his childhood memories of hunting, fishing and trapping and traveling to different camps depending on the season. He also talks about first living in Atqasuk, being a reindeer herder, purchasing supplies, and suffering hardship. Finally, he identifies and discusses historically used places on the Meade River. (IHLC Tape #00039)
Walter Akpik spoke in Iñupiaq during the interview. The transcript contains the spoken Iñupiaq written out and its corresponding English translation in italics, both provided by Kathy Itta (now Ahgeak).
Digital Asset Information
Project: Chipp-Ikpikpuk and Meade Rivers Project Jukebox
Date of Interview: Mar 14, 1982
Narrator(s): Walter Akpik, Sr.
Interviewer(s): Bill Schneider, Wendy Arundale
Transcriber: Katherine Itta Ahgeak
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His memories of camps starting when he was about 10 years old.
His family's winter camps at Napaqsralik and McClure Island.
Sea ice and pressure ridge build up he remembers from when he was young, and how such ice conditions could threaten present day oil rigs.
Tigvaġiaq, where he and his family and grandparents lived when he was a teenager.
Good winter fishing spots and the types of fish found there. Also, how his grandparents earned enough money trapping to buy a boat.
First living in Atqasuk.
Initial reindeer herding experience.
Later experiences herding and traveling with reindeer.
A traveling experience with Tuniq.
Charlie Brower, Sr. and the store in Barrow.
Travel after marriage.
Suffering, shortages, and how life has changed.
Some place identifications and name pronunciations.
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After clicking play, click a section of the transcript to navigate the audio or video clip.
Bill: This is Bill Schneider and Wendy Arundale. March 14, 1982. And we're going to talk with Walter a little bit about his growing up and his experiences. Okay. Walter: Unipaaġiniaqtuŋa uvamnik maybe ten years old. Unipaaġiniaqtuŋa itqaumauraqtamnik. Utqiaġviŋmiñ aullaqtuŋa tatqavuŋanmun Beechey Point tuŋaanun tatqavuŋanmun taġium siñaagun umiuramik iñuktigun usiaqsiqouta Apausatkutigun. Iḷagivlugitkiuvva taapkua Apausatkut samma tatqavuŋaqsaġataġapta iḷisimauraqtuŋa. Sumun tamarra nunaaqqiñun, nunaaqqiñun taqavani iñuuruanun tikitchaġigapta tamarra iḷisimauraqtuŋa. Uuliktumun tulagiagaqsiḷgiññapta iḷisimalgitchuŋa tupiġaaġruit Uuuliktumi qatiġruaqtun siakłauriqpaŋniqsuat tavra tautuktuuraaġitka qiñiqługitkii tavra. Uuliktumi tatkimña Uuliktuq paŋmapak qamma iñuqaqtuq taniŋnik. Uuliktumi tavrani Iñupiat tamatkua Kuukpiŋmiunllu tamatkualu samma Kuukpiŋmiut maanitchianiittuat Uuliktuġmiullu Piŋumiullu tavruŋa atautchimusugrukhutiŋ imma iŋuusuuniqsut. Tautugataŋagagitka tavra, tulagiaqapta. (I will tell the story of myself maybe ten years old. I will tell of what I can remember. I left from Barrow toward the east, toward the direction of Beechey Point along the edge of the sea. We were traveling in a small boat with some people, riding with Apausan and his family. We were related to his family, and I can remember as we started out. Whenever we came across populated settlements, I was faintly aware. When we started to land at Uuliktuq, I also was aware of the many tents at Uuliktuq, white as can be. They were all there, enjoying the good weather. I can see this in my mind because I looked at them there. At Uuliktuq, Uuliktuq nowadays is occupied by some Caucasians. Right there at Uuliktuq the Iñupiaq people from the Kuukpik River, and the people who were a little to this side of the Kuukpik people, the people from Uuliktuq and the people from Piŋu would all gather here in large numbers--this is the way they lived. I saw them there, when we went to land.)
Walter: Tavraŋŋaasii tavra tavrani sumiitilaamnik naluvalliqsuatuun itkaluaqtuaŋaa, piiguŋagaluaqtuŋa samma suqpanuktilaaptiŋnik aglaan iḷitchuġimmagiksiḷgitchuŋa itqaumagiga Cross Island Napaqsraliŋmun tavra ikaaġutiniġaatigut sunauvva Cross Island Napaqsraliŋmun. Iḷisimmaġiksipiaġataqtuŋa takanani Napaqsraliŋmi ukiisaaqsirugut. Ukiisaaqsikapta tavra iḷisimalluataqtuŋa iñusalait family-lit tamarra iḷisimagitka family-ḷaaguruat Ikpitkullu tamarra iḷisimagitka Aquvlaatkullu tamarra iḷisimauraġitka iḷisimauraaqł̣ugit ukiigaqsirugut. Takanani aġvaŋmigaatigut. Aġvaŋammigaatigut takanani Napaqsraliŋmi, ukiaġmi. Aġvaktakkaluaqput aġvaktakkaluaŋat ukiaġmi ulittuam uaqługu aġviuganikkaluaqtinnagu uluutiŋammiñiġaa. Imma iḷaŋŋaŋagaluaġaat qanutun taimma. Tamatkiġaluagnagu aġviq taima uluutivulgu aullautiniġaa ukiaġmi aġvaktakkaluaŋat. Tavraniasii ukiiḷḷakkalualgiññapta allamik ukiuqsaġmagu aullautilgitkaatigut tatqavuŋanmunsuli apqanun. (Unintel.) Island igluliuġutigaatigut Coney Island-mi aapatkut, naniġiaqtuqsaqhutiŋ (Unintel.) Island tavraŋŋa nuulgił̣ł̣uta tatkivuŋanmunsuli McClure Island tapqamun suli, uŋasipiaŋitkaluaqtuq samma. McClure Island-miñ tavrani ukiigaqsilgitchugut. Ukiivḷuta ukiupak tavrani tiġigannun naniġirriñiġmik aapaa iḷisautivluŋa tiġiganniaqtuliqsuŋa. Tiġiganniaġuusiruŋa ukiupak. Tiġiganniat ukiupak aapagalu naniqtitaġivuk tiġiganniaġniġmik ilitchuġivluŋa. (And then from then on I can barely remember, it was as if I hardly know where I was, but again I can distinctly remember that they took us across to Napaqsralik, which was Cross Island. I began to be distinctly aware of this there when we started to winter at Napaqsralik. When we started to winter there, I can clearly remember all the people with us, people in family units. I knew Ikpik and his family, also Aquvlaaq and his family. Knowing them, knowing who they were, we began to winter there. They also killed a whale down there at Napaqsralik, in the fall. The whale that they killed was washed out to sea by a flood before they had a chance to divide it up, although they had taken some from it already. Before they had a chance to divide it up, their whale was washed out, in the fall. After we had wintered there and when it became falltime again, they took up traveling again, to the east, to the islands. My parents built us a house at (Unintelligible) Island, and after we had wintered there for a while, we moved from there again to the east, McClure Island--to another island. It is not very far. We began to winter again at McClure Island. Wintering there, my father taught me how to set traps for foxes, and I began to trap fox. I was able to get foxes all winter. My father and I trapped fox all winter when I learned how to trap them.)
Walter: Tavrani ukiiḷḷapta aapaga imma pisukataqłuni taunuŋa pisukataqhuni imma natchiġniuraaġniqsuaq imma ukiumi. Ilitchuġirugut suamanna ivuaqsiñiqhuni iglukput tapqam qitqaniinmiruaq. Ivuruq, kiisaimmauna iglukput qalliuraqpaum, ivuvluni, tapqam qitqaniinmiruam tapqaq tamanna siḷiguraġmiruaq qitqaniinmiruaq tammna iglu qalliuraġaa. Tavra aksrakataġvigisiññaaġuqługu siku aksrakataalavḷuni qutchiksivḷuni ivuruaq tatpaaŋŋa aksrakataqami iglupta killiŋanun tavruŋa nutqaqtuq. Suġauttavut, iḷisimmaġipiaġataqtuŋa suġauttavut aakagalu aatauraġalu Uiññiq anittiġivut manna ivuruaq qallimman. Suġauttavut aniłługi tatpauŋanmun agraqsimmaisa aptarugut, iglukputkii ivuaqsigaa, aapagaimma piiñmipkaqługu. Uvva tavrani nutqaġmiuġlu ivuruaq siku aksrakataqłuni iglum killiŋanun aksrakataqsiññaqhuni tavra ivuruaq nutqaŋaruq. Nutqapiallakhuni. Aapagaasi qaimmivḷuni, aannagulitchiallakhuni. Aqpamik qairuq, ivuruaq naŋaqługu qaiḷiġniqsuq. Tavra taamna iḷisimapiallakkiga sagluluŋa uqautigiyumiñaitkiga taamna ivuruaq, iglupta killiŋanun siku aksrakataġami qutchiksivḷuni marra ivvuq iglupta qulaani pammaqpaaġruk, paggaqpaaġruk qutchiksivḷuni. Tavra taaptumiŋa quliaqtua utiŋagaluaġitka uqsriqirit, uqsruqirit (niuqtuqtit uqsrumik) tamaani pisuŋmata, taġiukun niuqtuun pigaluaqpan naagga tapqam qaaŋagun qitqagun pigaluaqpan iḷaanni siḷa qanuqsriiqpan suġautaŋit tammaġniaġnivḷugit, niuqtuutaallu, samma uulisaaġniaġnivlugit, taaptumiŋa quliaqtuaġutiŋagaluaġmigitka. (While we were wintering there, my father had walked down to the ice to hunt seal. We realized that an ice pressure was taking place, and our house was in the center of the island. The pressure built up, and the ice began to come in. Finally the ice got real close to our house, the ice coming in constantly. Just when the ice was going to crash down on our house in its path, the ice crashing down getting higher and higher, when the ice came in, it would roll down from the top of the ridge. Just when it seemed like it was going to reach our house, it stopped just short of it. I distinctly remember how my mother and sister, Uiññiq, and myself taking out our belongings when the pressure ridge got close. As soon as we took them out we would haul them up toward the tundra. We were very busy, because our house was about to be destroyed by the ridge while my father was gone. The ridge which was coming in, rolling in, just stopped short of our house. My father came running a while later. He had barely missed the pressure build-up and made it back home. I can clearly remember this. I would not be able to lie and talk about the pressure ridge and how the ice came rolling in, getting higher and higher. The ice was right there, way up there above our house getting higher and higher. I have told the oil drillers of this. When they wanted to get oil from here, even if they put the oil rig up in the area or on the center of an island, sometime when the weather changes, that they would lose all their equipment including the rig, that they would be lost. I have told them of this.)
Walter: Tavraniasii Ukiigalualgiññapta nuulgitchugut Foggy Island Tigvaġiamun. Nunapiam pavrumasaaguraŋaniinniqsuaq Tigvaġiaq ukiiyyaġvigiḷgitkikput igluliḷḷaḷgitchugusuli tatpauŋa, Tigvaġiamun. Ataatatkuk taavaŋŋaġmaŋnik ukiiyyautigaatigut tatpauŋa. Tavrani (Unintel.) Island-mi sumiimña McClure Island-mi ukiigaluaġapta two-ŋni. Tatpikuŋa Tigvaġiaġmun ukiiyyautilgitkaatigut. Aatauraġa uiñiŋman, tuvaaqatiniŋman Kisiŋmik. Tavra, tatqamna samma tamanna Tigvaġiam area-ŋa iḷisimaviuraġataġiga kukiḷḷuqtusikama uvamnik, kukiḷuliqama qimmiqaqłuŋalu, qimmiñiguraqłuiŋalu qimmiaġruŋnik kukiḷuliqama iḷisimmaġiviuraġiga Savviuġvik, Savviuġvik tamanna iḷitchuġiviuraġataġiga Tigvaġiami samma ukiirugut maybe three years. Tigvaġiami samma ukiisiŋagaatigut. Nukatpialuguġama uvva quliaqtuaqtuŋa tamaani piigutugiviuraqama sumik. Puqiksiviuraġataŋaruŋa sunik nuna tamaani ilitchuġiviurallakkiga suraġaġviit, iñullu tamaaniittuat, tamaaniittuattuaq iñuich ilisimavlugit taipkua Utuat takattuma iḷaŋi, Tagluksratkut ilitchuġivḷugit tatqavaniġmiut tamarra naamaŋŋaisa qiñiqługit. Uumalu Siḷamiutchiam aŋayuqaaŋi qiñiqługit, aa, Silaammiutkut qiñiqługit, tavrani Tigvaġiami samma tavrani ilitchuġimmaġiksiḷġataŋaruŋa. Tavraniasii ukiivluta three years ataatatkuk iñuuniaġiaġutilgitkaatigut kuukun tagraqłuta Savviuġvik samma tatpauŋasugruktugut, aa, Sikusiuḷaḷigaamun. (And when we had wintered there, we moved once again to Foggy Island, to Tigvaġiaq. Tigvaġiaq was not too far from the mainland. We went to build a house at Tigvaġiaq. When my grandparents came from the west, they took us up there to winter, after we had wintered two years at McClure Island. They took us up there to winter after my older sister got married to Kisik. I am familiar with the area around Tigvaġiaq, because I began to be able to go around by myself, having young dogs. I became familiar with the area around Savviuġvik since we wintered at Tigvaġiaq for maybe three years. This is when I became a teen-age boy, when I began to remember things clearly. I became educated in this area as to the places where people would go, and the people who lived here. I know those people who lived around this area, the relatives of Utuan, Takluksraq and hia family. I saw those people when they were complete in number. I also saw Silamiutchaq's parents, and also saw Silammiuq and the rest. I matured there at Tigvaġiaq. We stayed there for three years and my grandparents led us to look for a living, traveling by boat up the Savviuġvik River.)
Walter: Siiqsinniġmun, Siiqsinniġusuuruamun tatpauŋa tasamma Siiqsinniġusuuruamun inillautilgitkaatigut. Siiqsinniġusuuruaq, iqaluusuuruaq ukiuġruami qaaktuġnaqtuaq sikuḷaiḷaaq, qagruuraŋa sikugaluaqami siḷaŋŋuġmagu agniġiiġman sikuuġiumammiruaq. Qaaktuaqsivḷugit aasii sulukpaukkat. Qaaktuġnaġaluaqtuq taamna kiḷuḷiḷaaŋa tamanna iḷuqani qiqsraq. Suitchuq qaaŋa qiqsraq. Iḷuqani patinŋaruq, imaqsriutchuq. Naagga tamarra imaqsriutkaluaqtuq tasamuuna qiqsram ataagun saġvaqtauġuuniqsuaq tavruŋa sikusiuḷamun, kuuŋmun. Qagluuraq taamna aŋiŋitkaluaqtuq samma qaakkuġvivlugu inna iqaliuch nayuġuuvlugu piñikkaŋat ukiumi. Aŋmaġuurallu aŋayuqaksraurallu tamatkua iqaliut aŋipiaŋitchuat atiqaqsimammiut. Tamarra Utuan iḷisimavḷugittauq atiŋiññik iḷisautiŋammigaatigut. Aŋmaġuurallimakua qatiġiġniqsut aŋipiaŋiłłutik, sulukpaukkaniñ mikivlutiŋ. Aasii aŋayuqaksrauranik tamatkuniŋa atiqaqsimammiut narraaŋit kaviaġuraqhutiŋ aŋipiaŋiñmivḷutiŋ. Tainnasiñik iqaluupkaqsimaruq, sulukpaukkatlu tamatkua mikigaluaġmiñiqsut aŋiŋitkaluaqsimammiut. Tamarraptauq tavrani piiyuiñmiñiqsut taaptumani sikusuiḷami, Savviuġviŋmi Siiqsiunniġmigguuq. Tavrani ukiiŋarugut, ataataga umiiramik tauqsiḷġataqsiḷġataqługu, tauqsiḷḷasivḷuni tiġġiganniaqsimaruk. Umiuraq iḷaŋaniiḷḷasivḷugu Pigiirisi qaimman upinġirriġapta taunuŋa tavra umiiraq usiḷḷiqł̣ugulu tauqsiqługulu Pigiirisimiñ tauqsiḷḷasivḷuni tiġiganniaŋamammiuq. Qanusipayauranik qiŋñiqtakkaluanigḷu qianġaqtuluit itiġiaqpait tavraniinnapta Siiqsiññiġmi pisukkaaġniqsuq ataataga. Pisukkaaġviksraŋiññik pisukkaaġviksrananik paqinniqsugut tavrani Siakuglu qiruktaġnialgił̣ł̣unuk imaigurranik tamattumani kuugmi Savviuġviŋmi. Tainna agiuqtaramun patitchumiñaqtuamun itipiaŋił̣ł̣uni ittuamun tavrani patutipqaqtuat iqaliuch katiłłutik patutipkaqhutik tuquŋaniqsut aasii qiqillakługit. Samma six inches-luunnii seven inches-guŋitkumi iqaliut qaliġiiksił̣ł̣utik tainna tuqullaŋniqsut tavruŋa. Siakugluasii qiruktaġniaqhunuk tavrani paqinŋagivuk tiġiganniat pakikługich kilakługu tamanna siku sikułauraq sikkutigiganikkaŋa paturranun taapkunuŋa iqaluŋnun niqiginikkaŋit paqiłługit tavra ukiupak niqigimmigivut tainna anauttaqługit tavra sukiaqsivlugu anauttaqługit qauġuummivlutiglu atimikkun imaigurrat. Iqaliut nakuummiñiqsut tainnaqtuat atakkii qiqqutillaksiññaŋarut. Ukiisaġigivut taapkua. Ataataga tavrani tiġiganniŋaruq qanusipayauranik. Tavraniitkaluaqapta taimma taunuŋa utiġuta itqutimmigaatigut imma ukiiḷḷakkalualgiññapta maybe two years tavrani Siiqsinniġmi. Savviuġviŋmi. Savviuġvik tamanna siiqsinniqaġuumaruaq. Tavrani iḷitchiŋaruŋa ataatatkunniñ ilitchiŋaruŋa ilitchipiaġataqłuŋa train-iġaaŋa ataatatkuk tavrani upinġigapta kukiḷugniġmik nanmauniġmik tatpauŋa nunamun nanmammivḷuta, nanmausuumivḷuta imma. Qanupayauraq iñuusaġniġmik ilitchiruŋa ataatatkuŋniñ taapkuŋnaŋŋa. Qakiqsiñaatkuŋniñ. Nukatpiallaġupiaġataqtuŋa piḷgusipiallaktuŋa. Sumik sapiqsriñiġiñŋaruŋauvva supputitulgusimmivḷuŋa. (We traveled quite a distance up the river to a place where it didn't freeze up, to Siiqsinniq. We traveled to a place where the sun shone lots and settled us there. The place was warmed by the sun and had lots of fish in the middle of winter. It was possible to get fish here because it didn't freeze up. Even when the surface would freeze it would melt when the weather got warmer and we would then seine for grayling. One would be able to seine in that one place, but the rest of the river would be frozen. It was completely frozen, solid ice on top. But although there was no water to be seen, the river would continue to flow underneath the ice. Although the (Qaġluuraq) was not very big, we seined for fish there since the fish stayed there all the time in the winter. There was also other fish that Utuan identified for us, the Aŋmaġuurat, which were smaller than the grayling and were white and the Aŋayuqaksraurat which had reddish bellies and were not very big either. These were the kind of fish that were there along with the grayling which were not very big either. This was the place they called Siiqsinniq on the Savviuġvik River. We wintered there until my grandfather was able to purchase a boat. He trapped enough foxes until he was able to buy a boat. When Peterson came, he was able to pay for a portion of the price of the boat. When Peterson came, when we went to summer down there, he was able to load up the boat and buy it with the foxes that he trapped. He trapped all types of foxes, the cross fox, blue fox, weasels. My grandfather was able to buy something when we stayed there at Siiqsinniq. We had found something for him to be able to buy something with when Siakuk and I were gathering driftwood on the Savviuġvik River. We found fish on a shallow part of the river which had been frozen in. They were about six inches in thickness- the fish had all died layer after layer. Siakuk and I found this fish, and we also found that foxes had been eating them through the ice. We also used them for food by cutting the ice up into squares. The fish would break whole from the ice. We found out that fish which had been frozen in like this tasted good, since they had just simply been frozen in. We stayed by these fish through the winter, and my grandfather caught all kinds of foxes there. After we stayed there for awhile they took us inland after we had stayed around Siiqsinniq for maybe two years. On the Saviuġvik River where I noticed it has lots of underground springs. It was there that I really learned and became knowledgeable about making a life. It was here when we summered that my grandparents trained me on how to travel, to travel with backpacks inland. I learned how to make my own living in every way from my grandparents Qakiqsiñaaq. I became a young man, I really learned to do things and felt able to do anything. I also learned how to use a gun.)
Walter: Uvva taamna itqaumauraqtaġa unipkaaġiiraallakkiga tatqavani iñuuniaġniġa unipkaaġillakkiga taaptumuŋa tape-mun. Iñiut tatqavaniirrusimiġnik quliaqtuaġuugaluaġuŋnaqtut immaptauq qanuġli taimma. Aasii tavraŋŋa tamanna aġiugaptigu Utqiaġviutigaatigut umiuratchiaŋavlutakiuvva. Utqiaġviutiŋagal igut iḷuqata. Tiŋiġaaqsiuraaqhuta tainna Utqiaġviñun tikillaŋarugut. Utqiaġviŋñin aasii tavra tikiññapta Utqiaġviŋñi ukiisauraŋaḷgitchuk ataatatkuk tavra tamauŋa Atqasuŋmun ukiiyyaqsaġmaŋnik tavra naluuraŋitchuŋa aullatipiaġataġitka, nayupiaġataġitka. Ukiisuuniqsut taimani naluvyaŋauraaġmatun inŋaġma Atqasullmi tavrani ukiisuuniqsut tatqavani ukiiġaaqqaaqhuta (?) maybe six years tatqavani ukiiraġaqqaaqhuta utiqhuta tavra tavruŋa Atqasuŋmun utqutiŋagaatigut. Igluqaŋammiñiqsuk tavrani. Tavra igluktik tasuqsiññaġaak tavrani Atqasuŋmi. Iglusuli napaniqsuaq tavrani Atqasuŋmi, Atqasupiami takanani. Iñuqapiaŋiñmiuq tamarraaglaan iñiuttauq allat tavrani ukiiḷḷaasuugaluaqsimammuit Aaŋatkullu makua marra Quŋutchitkulluimma tavrani ukiiḷḷaasuugaluaġmiñiqsut iqaluŋniaqhutiŋkii tavra. Iḷaanni tamaani Atqasuŋmi. Tavra tamaani Atqasuŋmi iñuuniarraqsikapta iñuuniarraqsimmaŋnik ataatatkuk, aapatkuk ukuak Atqasuŋmi tavrani inillaumasiutchuk. Aullaaġuuruk tatpauŋa Itqiuramun, tatpauŋa naniġiaqtuġiaġuumaruk. Aglaan uvaŋa ataatatkuŋniitchuuruŋa iḷaanni, naniġiaqtuqłuŋaptuaq tamaani. Iḷaanni aapatkuk malġisuugaluaġmigitka tatpauŋaġmaŋnik. Aglaan tuttuitchuq, tuttupianik manna tuttuitchuq nalaiñ. Tuttiutchuq. Manna Qunŋich kisimik tamarra, suqpatigun tautuŋnaqtut. Qunŋit iñugiaksivḷutiktauq tamaani. Agḷvḷutik qunŋiq nauvluni. (I am telling the story of what I remember of my life in the east into this tape. People have probably told of their lives in that area also. After we were done with this place, they took us to Barrow in our new boat. They took all of us to Barrow. Using a sail on the boat, we finally reached Barrow. When we reached Barrow, my grandparents did not try to spend the winter there. When they started to winter here in Atqasuk, I really knew what was going on because I traveled with them. I stayed with them. In those days when I was very young and hardly knew what was going on, they used to....winter here in Atqasuk. After we had wintered in the east for maybe six years, when we returned they took us inland to Atqasuk. They had a house here too-- they merely took back their house here in Atqasuk. The house was still standing down there at old Atqasuk. There were not very many people either although there were some who would come to winter also: Aaŋaq and Quŋutchiq and the rest of them would also winter here to fish. Sometimes here in Atqasuk. When we started to live here in Atqasuk, when my grandparents began to make their living (my parents did not stay long in Atqasuk, they would go up to Itqiuraq to live. They would go up there to trap) I myself stayed with my grandparents sometimes, also trapping around here. Sometimes I would follow my parents when they went up there. But there were no caribou, there were not that many caribou in the area. But here and there, we would be able to see reindeer. The reindeer grew in number.)
Walter: Nukatpiaġuviuraġataġmiuŋalu qunŋiḷaanun nigaqtuġiaquvluŋa upinġaami Utqiaġviŋñi, Utqiaġviŋñi nigaqtuqtuatigun aiyugaaqtaulgitchuŋa mark-si ñiaqtuarguuq taamma taamani Siñiġani. Skull Cliff takanna siñiġaŋik malġuk takatkuak malġuk siñiġak Siñiġanik pisuumagaik. Nigaqtuqtuani iḷautquvluŋa aiyugaaġmanŋa taavuŋalgitchuŋali. Sunauvva tavra qunŋiḷaaqsriuqsaqluŋa piḷgiññigaanŋa. Uvvauvaŋa nukatpialuk. Taamna manager-ŋat tavrani chief herder-niqsuaġliqaa Isauġana taimña. Tavra taaptuma iñugisuaqsigaaŋa qunŋiḷaagutquvluŋa, nigaqtuqtuanun uvva aiyugaaqtauŋasiññaġaluaqtuaŋa. Qunŋiḷaagutquvluŋa ukiupak. Tavra, samma qunŋiññaktauraġluŋa piñiaġnivluŋa, qunŋiññaḷasiñiaqtuŋagguuq samma. Tavra ukiupak qunŋiḷaani taapkunani iḷauvluŋa qunŋiññaksimaruŋa samma ukiupak maybe eleven qunŋiññaŋamaruŋa. Sammagguuq tuqutchiḷḷasiñiaqtuŋa tuttumnik. Tavra tainna nukatpialuguġmiuŋalu iñuuniaqtuani tamatkuniŋŋa tamarra piigulaiñŋuraqługit uumuŋa tape-mun quliaqtuaġiuraaqtuŋali uvva uvamnun uvaŋa nalaunŋaramnik. Samma tape-paq una (how long?) (When I became a young man I was invited by the reindeer herders to go and lasso reindeer in Barrow in the summer. I was invited by the lassoers who were going to mark the reindeer at Siñiġaq. They called those two (Siñiġaq) Siñiġaq, at Skull Cliff. When they invited me to be a part of the lassoing, I myself went there too. It so happened that they were trying to make a reindeer herder out of me, a young man like me. Their manager was the chief herder, the man Isauġana. This man wanted me to be one of his men, to be a reindeer herder, when I had just been invited to the lassoing. He wanted me to be a reindeer herder all winter. He said that I would be able to have my own reindeer. I joined the reindeer herders that winter, and I earned eleven reindeer through the winter. They said that I would be able to kill my own reindeer. I am telling the story of my lifestyle when I was a young man, what I can remember, what I had the chance to see and experience.)
Walter: Uvva qunŋiḷaaġuqataqama nukatpiaguqama uvva uvamnik quliaqtuagiuraaġaqsiḷgitchuŋa. Taunana Kuugaaġruŋmi ittugut qunŋiḷaagurugut samma Naullani takanuŋa ukiiyyautigaatigut. Naullani ukiiqqaapiaqtugut, qunŋiḷaani tavra ukiisaaqsiruŋa. Ukiupak Isaugatkuk ukiisigaatigut. Sumik mattumiŋa tauġaaqqimik innaqutaqayiuñmiuŋa. Ukiupak Saiḷatkuglu samma taamna ukuaġa ukuaġiraġa paŋmapak Marjorie Saiḷatkuk kisian baby-gigaak. Miqłiqtuġigaak taamna Marjorie akkupak tamarra tamaani samma maani ukuaġigiga. Saiḷatkuk taapkuak Siġvayautkuk nutaġaurukkii. Qunŋiḷaagurugut ukiupak. Takanani ukiigaluaqapta imma allamik taunani pituġaqhuta upinġaaġmagu upinġaalġiñmagu taamna umialigiraqput Isauġatkuk imma aġiusuŋnaqłutikkiaq imma uumiŋa Uvyuatkuŋnik simmausiġuŋnaqsimarut Uvyuatkuŋnik, Alunitkuŋnik. Alunitkuk taipkuak Uvyuatkuk, Aviŋŋasuŋmik iġñiḷigaak. Tavra ukiigaqsiḷgitchugut samma tamaani mark-sigaluaqapta Tatchim Isuani mark-sigaluaġapta tuttut mark-ługit nuġġait mark-ługit niŋaqtuqługich Tatchim Isuani takanani upinġaapak upinġisiŋaratigut mark-sisivḷuta. Tavra, qunŋit aggisikamigit unnuiruam uvlaatchaurami upinġaami aggisikamigich aggisimmagit tavra isiqtitchaqsimmagich tavruŋa siñiġauramun tapqamun isiqtitkaqsimmagit nigganik paaġuugivut. Nigaqtuutiligaaqhuta. Isianipqauraġman aasii tarvruŋa aġnasallut samma three-ḷunnii naaggaqaa malġugluunniimma immuliviit, immuliviḷiuŋaravut nuġġaġnun makkunuŋa milukkaluaqtinnagit immulisisuugaatigut utkusigaurasugruk samma ukkusiurasugruk inna niġumiaġutiligaaq silvitiqługu malġugñiḷḷu iḷaanni piŋasuniḷḷu immuliḷiġuurugut. Taamna Aluniq maqittaqtigivlugu maqittaqtigisuugikput immuŋnun. Immuktuġuurugut maqisiññaqługu qunŋiñin immuktasugruguurugut niuqqaqapta, tea-tuutigivḷugit. Coffee-tuqpalaitkaluaġugnaqtugut imma coffee-qapigruaŋiłłutaqanuq imma. Aglaan tea. Immulisugrukługu niuqasugruguurugut tea-mik, immuŋiññik qunŋit. Nakuurut, suraġaŋaitkaluaqtut tuttumiñ anisiññaqtaq immuktuqtuni tamarra vaitimaupiaġataqsimammiruaq. Nukatpiat uvagut suaŋarugut pirraġiqsugut, nigaqtuqaptalu nigaqtuqaqta qunŋiñik nuġġait maakługit. Siutiŋit kivluqługit maaktuġuugivut, kipiriuññaqtaqługit maaktuġuugivut. Aasi tamarra maaligaanik tainna ukiumi qunŋiqaġuurut taipkua. Nalunaigivḷugit. Companiġuġmatakiaġaglaan Companiġuġmata companiġuqłutik tainna qunŋich qaunagiḷiġmatigit allaŋŋuŋasuŋnaġmiuq imma qunŋiḷaaguruat akiññagniŋat. Imma akiññaktaġñiŋat qanuqługich piiguuraaŋammigitkauvva, aglaan qunŋiññaŋagaluaqtuŋa imma tainna tamatkunani iḷaukama. Tavrani ukiiyautiaqsiḷgitkaatigut inna qimuktinik tatpauŋa Kuugaaġruŋmun, pammagguuq Kuutchiamun ukiiyyaġniaqtugut. Uvyuatkuk tatpauŋautigaatigut. Qunŋit iḷauqługit tatpamaŋa nunamiñ tammaŋaruat iḷḷatiraġaqhutik qimuktillu. Qimuktit suaŋaiññiqsraŋiññik qimuksiqugaatigut Uvyuam inna utuqqaliuraaŋaruanik. Nuna qiqinŋaiñŋaan aputiliŋaiñŋaan nalaiñ manna nuna asiniitpaiñŋaan suamaruanik qimuksiquŋił̣ł̣uta nukatpiat uvagut pigaatigut, anniqsinniaġnivḷuta. Atuqqammiŋaitchuat samma qimuktit makua piyumalaaqamiŋ qimugu liqamiŋ qimuguliqtuat suamanivḷugit, anniqsinniaġnivḷuta manġit makua satqumivaiñŋaisa, aputainñŋaan. Iliññiġruaġnik makuniŋa suamaiġuraaŋaruanik qimuktiksraptiŋnik pigaatigut. Tavra tatpikuŋa ukiisaaqsigapta ukiivḷuta Uvyuatkuk ukuak qimmiqaqtuk nine dogs, qimmiqaġmiuk, qimmipianik. Tavra iḷaanni aluaqsaġuuruguk Uvyuaġlu qimuktiliqłuŋali iḷaanni malġuugnik qimuktiniqłuuŋnik qimuksiqłuŋa piraġigaanŋa, aluaqsautiaqsikamiñŋa Tikiġluŋmun. Ataatatkuk samma tamaani ittuk Tikiġlugmiittuk. Tavrani. Tikiġluŋmi iglukput nuutaniŋammiraġaimma taimani Tikiġluŋmun tavruŋa. Tatpamma ukiiruak iḷisimagivuk ataatatkuk Tikiġluŋmi. Alurriqisiuġamnuk aasii anaqammagu anaqami aisautiraġigaatiguk qimmiñiglu qimuktiglu tavra, usiḷḷiqhunuk aluanik. Qimmiŋi taavruma Uvyuam qimuktit taapkuak aisallatumipkaqługik qimaktitchuiñmiuk qimmit. Qimaktigviksrauraitchut. Qimuktik tavrani qimuktiŋni paqtilġataqhutik sivulliuqtaa itchuugaluaqtuq qimuktik taapkuak iqsigilaiñmigaik, qimmit taapkua. Iḷisimarut, iḷisimapiallaktut iḷiñŋarut. Qimuktiḷḷu qimmiḷḷu atautchikun iglillarut paqtił̣ł̣utik. Aisautitchiuraaqqamnuk tainna qimmich ukua igliġiñiŋat iḷuaqsivḷugu tainna aisautisuurugut. Qimuktik suamalatchiḷaitkikka tainna igliqtinŋuraaġuugitka iluaqsivḷugich qimmich paqtusimaruat tavrani. (I will tell the story of myself when I became a reindeer herder as a young man. We herded reindeer down there on the Kuugaaġruk. They took us to winter at Naullaq (Naullani). I started to winter there with the herders. Isauġan took us to winter down there. At that time I didn't use any tobacco or anything like that. We all wintered there, with Saiḷaq-and-them. My sister-in-law, Marjorie, was Saiḷaq's only child. Saiḷaq and Siġvayuaq were young then. We were reindeer herders all winter. We traveled to the coast when it became summertime, and maybe Isauġan quit, but he was replaced by this man Uvyuaq and Aluniq. Uvyuaq and Aluniq, those two, who had a son named Aviŋŋasuk. We started to winter again after we had marked animals around there down there at Tatchim Isua. We marked and lassoed the reindeer and their young ones all summer. Whenever the person took the reindeer home early in the morning during summer, when he brought them into the small lake, we would meet them with lassos. When they brought them in, we would separate the females that we got milk from. We used two, maybe three females for milking. Before the young ones drink milk from them, they gave us milk. We used to get a couple pails of milk from them, sometimes even three pails of milk. Aluniq was the milker. We would drink lots of milk from the reindeer whenever we stopped to eat, putting the milk in our tea. I don't think we drank too much coffee, but we added milk to our tea and drank lots of reindeer milk. It was good, even though nothing was added to it, we found it to be full of good vitamins. We were strong young men. When we lassoed the reindeer, we would mark them by cutting their ears. We marked them by simply cutting part of their ears off. In those days they would have marked animals in the winter, using the mark to identify the herd. When they began to run the herds through a company, perhaps the wages of the herders was affected. I have forgotten how they used to pay the herders, but I remember that I earned some reindeer when I was part of them. They took us to winter up to Kuugaaġruk by traveling with trained reindeer pulling sleds. They said that we would go and winter at Kuutchiaq. Uvyuaq and his wife took us up there to Kuutchiaq. As we were traveling some loose reindeer would join the herd, including pullers. Uvyuaq told us to hitch the weaker pullers, the older ones. While the ground was not quite frozen, while there was not very much snow, he told us young men not to use the strong animals, that we would get hurt. He said that when a reindeer had not pulled for a long time, they started out real strong, that we would get hurt if the hummocks were still out uncovered. He had us use some more experienced, older pullers, ones whose strength had diminished somewhat. When we started to winter up there, Uvyuaq had nine dogs. Sometimes Uvyuaq and I would go and get coal. I would use two large pullers and I would ride with them up to Tikiġluk. My grandparents were there at Tikiġluk. I had moved our house to Tikiġluk before. We know that my grandparents were wintering there at Tikiġluk. After we had gotten coal all day, we would start back home in the evening, using the reindeer and dogs to haul the coal. Uvyuaq's dogs would never get left behind the enthusiastic reindeer who were eager to return home. They were not afraid of the reindeer. Dogs and reindeer can travel hitched (?) together.)
Walter: Tavra tavrani iñuuniaqtugut ukiupak. Iñuuniaqłuta ukiivluta Tuniġlu Utqiaġviksuguk qimuksiaqhunuk piŋasunik qimuktiqaqhunuk Kraismaġiaŋaruguk. Tavraŋŋa Kuutchiamiñ. Kuutchiamiñ tavraŋŋa Kraismaġiaqamnuk qimuktikuruguk kisima taunuŋa kumaktiŋmuŋnun Qimiqqamun Imaiqsautim kiluanun Qimiqqamun tauktumuŋa kilunmun ittuaq tamanna qimiġaaq Kumaktuluniġmik pisuuraŋat tamattuma qaaŋanun qimuktikuruguk samma tatpikuŋasugruk. Kraismaqtugut Utqiaġviŋmi, qimuktivut nuutchaqtuallaasiññaqługit pituksimauraaqtuat iniŋiññin niġiŋaitchuamun maniġmun allamun nuullaasiññaqługit, ippaksraapak. Tavra aisaqsaġumaaqsikamnuk uqaqtuguk, tavarauvaguk tauġaaqqiġñiaqtuguk qanuk samna tauġaaqqiḷḷasiñiaqtuguk, uuktuaganiŋasuŋnaqsimaruguk imma taugaaqqimik, sigaamik. Makuniŋakii sigaanik imuranik piqapiaŋitchuq. (When we were wintering there, Tuniq and I went to Barrow for Christmas using three reindeer. We left our reindeer up there by the fresh water lake at the place that they called Kumaktuyuq. We spent Christmas there in Barrow, going to move our reindeer once in awhile which were tied up. We would move them to a place where they hadn't grazed. When we started to go home, we talked. Perhaps we will try some tobacco, perhaps we will have some tobacco. Maybe we had already tried tobacco. In those days there was not too many ready-to-roll tobacco.)
Walter: Uvva taugaaqqimik inna sigaallasiñiġmik quliaqtuaġiaqsiḷgitchuŋa. Tatqavuŋa Charlie Brower tauqsiġñiaġvitualuurukkii. Tatqavuŋa nigaqtuutiksraisuqłuŋalu tauġaaqqiksraqłuŋalu isumavluŋali tatqavuŋaqtuŋa, tauġaaqqiksraisuġukłuŋa samma. Tavra nigaqtuutiksramnik nutaatchauramik nigaqtuutiksramnik tauqsiqqaaqłuŋa taisiruŋa tauġaaqqiksramnik Taksiitu. Samma utkusigauraq taksiitu ukkusigaurattamatkua, paipaunnat tauġaaqqiksraqama tavrani Daviuram piḷḷakkaluaġaaŋa, aakaagguuq taugaaqqiksraisuġuma aitchuquŋitchaŋani, aitchuaniŋmigaaŋauwa. Aitchuaniŋmigaanŋauvva tauġaaqqiksramnik, aitchuquŋił̣ł̣uŋagguuq uqallautiŋagaluaqtaat. Nakuuruq, tavra tauqsianikkiga, pianikkiga. Maniŋmikkiaq piŋinkaluaġugnaġiga qaġulhinaamnik imma pisuŋnaġigaluunni taimma sumik tausiqtilaaŋa naluruŋa maniitchugutkii taimani. Tavra Charlie Browam Utqiaġviŋmiut nutagaugaluaġmata taiptuma aŋayuqaksram pamataġivluta tamauŋanmunaglaan Utqiaġvik naullasiḷġatagniŋanunaglaan paŋmapak iñiut Charlie Brower tiamña aŋayuqaksraq uqasugrukkaluaġamik iḷaanni quyanaaġumalugu iniut uqaqsiññaqtuat tamatkua naalaġnisuugitka. Paŋmapak. Charlie Brower Utqiaġvik taivruma taimña aŋayuqaksrak, aŋayuqaksraġuġataqhuni piiqsuaq Utqiaġvium kaŋiutaŋa uvagut maniiḷaat taimani aŋayuqaksram pamanŋagaatigut maniitkaluaġli iñuk isiġman suksraisuġmagaan apiqsrullagaa, maniitkaluaġli. Tamannaasii sumimusun piksraqtuuraagaqsivḷuni tamarra agliutivlugu. Aŋuniaqtauniġmanuna iñuk aŋuniaqtauruaq iḷisimavlugu Saalim atakkiiñ Iñupiaq iḷuqaan iḷisimagaa, Utqiaġvium iñua iḷisimagaa. Miqłiqtuuniŋaniñ aglaan Iñupiaq aŋayuqaksram miqłiqtuuniŋaniñ aglaan utuqqaliḷġataqtillugu iñuuniallasiḷġataqtillugu qaunagiḷḷagaa. Maniitkaluaġli. Tuvaaqatinikkaluaġman tamarra ilaat qaunagiuraqługu tainna. Suniallamman, tiġiganniaġnialavluniḷu pimman naaggaqaa umiaqtullavluni aġviqsiuqtini, ukiiyyaġniaġman sumun taima aullaġniaġman upaluŋaiyaqtillagaa isumaŋatun igluqpak taamna piqaġman. Palauvak kiuvva taimani Iñupiat iñuggutigituaġmatun itkaat taimani palauvak. Palauvak taimani iñuggutigitualugmatun itkaat, Iñupiat maniiḷaat. Tiġiganniaqamik tamarra piksraqtuatiŋ akiḷiġurallagaluaġait. Akiḷiġumiñaiñmagit taimma tamarra Saalim tavra iñuni taamna aŋuniaqtini igiḷaiñmigaa, akiḷiiḷaitchutin piksraġniaŋitchutin, innayiuñmigaa. Tavra isiġman suksraisuġmagaan apiqsrullagaa, uvvauvaŋa iḷagivluŋa. Uvva iḷagivluŋa, tainnasuiġataqłuŋa mikinimniñ qaŋa tiġiganniaġniallasiḷġataqtilluŋa Saalim taiptuma aŋayuqaksram ikayuusiaġa taiptumuŋa nalliqsruumaitkigasuli paŋmapak. Tavrani kukiḷukkatuaqama uniatka. (Tape stops). Charlie Brower taimani ikayuġuugaaŋa ataataa. Ataatamnik taiguġumiñaġiga. Tanikkaluaq Iñupiatun uqalgummiuq. Iñupiapiamiñ unnii Iñupiatun uqaġniŋa nakuułhaaqtuq. Uqallaguuruq unnii Iñupiagugaluaqtutin uvamniñ unnii uqaluŋmik nalumarutin. Iñupiat taipkua uqaluat uvva nalumagiñ. Tainnasiġauraallaruġunnii, Iñupiatun uqaqhuni. Tavra tainnasiq taimña Charlie Brower Utqiaġvium kaŋiutaŋa. Tavra uniatka tasmuŋautigapkit savaaksraġuġmata igluqpaum iḷuanun tauqsiġñiaġvium iḷuanun igluqpaum iḷuanun uniatka isiḷḷagitka. Kisimaŋiḷaaq, iñiuttauq tainnaġuugaluaġmiut. Isiqama, tamarra savaŋ ñiḷuaqsikapkit uniatka uniaġaunnatka ikayuġuummigaaŋa savaluutinik, kikiagnik, tavra nivliqama, tamarra savaluutit qanusit qaił̣ł̣ugit uluaqtuutit kautat, suttaima. Suġautchiġukkapkit suġautchiqługit agluniqugit siqquqtanik agluniqł̣ugit hard wood siqquqtanik agluliqsił̣ł̣ugit tamarra savaktittaġigai uniatka. Saalim ikayuġuummigaaŋa savaŋñiḷukkama taimani. Tavra Charlie Brower taimña nagliktauniqsraŋat iñiut taimma sumuŋaitchugnaqtuq, nagliktauvluni iñugnik iñuuruaguruaq. Nagga tavra Utqiaġviŋmiut kasumaqpakkamik taimñaunnii piiguqtaallaan iḷaanni piiguqtuatun aglaan pisuugaat, kaŋiutaŋa. Tavra uvaŋali paŋmanunaglaan piiguŋaitkiga ikayuusiaqaġniġa taavrumuŋa Charlie Brower-mun. (I was telling about how we started to use tobacco in those days. Charlie Brower's store was the only place to buy things in those days, and I set out to get some rope and tobacco. I was planning to buy tobacco. After I had bought some rope, I said that I wanted Tuxedo, the tobacco in small cans, that one used to fill pipes up with. David told me there that my mother said that if I came to buy tobacco, not to give me any. He told me this although he had already given me some, that my mother did not want me to have any. Anyway, it was all right, I had already bought the tobacco anyway. I don't think I bought it with money anyway, think I payed for it with bullets. I don't know what I used to buy it with, because in those days we didn't have any money. At that place Charlie Brower supplied the people of Barrow, even the young ones. He supplied the people of Barrow until the place got big. Nowadays many people talk about that old man and how they should thank him. I listen to those people who just talk. These days. Charlie Brower, that old man who lived in Barrow until he passed away, Barrow's forefather. That old man provided us with supplies, even if a man did not have any money, when he came in, he was able to ask him what he came to get, even if he didn't have any money. Then that person would get whatever he wanted, writing it down. When a man was a hunter, Charlie, knowing that the man was a hunter (since he knew everyone in Barrow, he knew everyone even the older ones he had known since they were children), he was able to take care of anyone, even if they didn't have any money. Even if the man took a wife, he would be able to take care of the man. If the man was going to go somewhere, he would be able to help the man prepare for what he needed when the store had the merchandise. In those days the Iñupiat really depended on flour. It was as if they depended solely on flour, the Iñupiat, who did not have any money. When they got any foxes, they would be able to pay for a little of the things that they bought, but when they were unable to pay, Charlie would not refuse the hunter. He never said that a man would not be able to get anything if he couldn't pay for it. When a man came in, he would ask him what he came to get, including myself. I was one of those that he helped, when I was just starting to trap fox. I have never forgotten to this day of how that old man Charlie Brower helped me out. Charlie Brower used to help me in those days, my grandfather. I can call him my grandfather. Although he was a white man, he could speak fluent Iñupiaq. He was sometimes even a better speaker than an Iñupiat. He would even say that even if you are an Iñupiat, I find that you do not know as much Iñupiaq as I do. You do not know the words of the Iñupiat of long ago. He was even able to say these things, speaking in Iñupiaq. Charlie Brower was this kind of man, Barrow's forefather. Whenever my sled needed work and I took them down here, I was able to bring them into the big house, in the store. I was not the only one, others did this too. When I came in, and when I started to work on my sled, he would help me by giving me tools and nails. When I would speak there would be all kinds of tools, saws, what have you. When I wanted to put things onto the sled, he would supply it, or put hardwood runners on them. Charlie would help me when I was trying to work in those days. Charlie Brower was a compassionate man, perhaps he has not gone anywhere, since he would show compassion on people. But then when the people of Barrow meet, sometimes it seems like they even forget him, the forefather of the town. I myself have not forgotten to this day how I was helped by Charlie Brower.)
Walter: Tavra tavrani iñuuni aqapta tamarra kiisaimma tuvaaqatinikkama tamarra sumun iglauraġaliŋarugut tuvaaqatinikamali. Tamarra nunamullu isumapayauraptun aulallasikama tamarra sumun piiruŋa(?). Uqpiksuum kaŋiani igluqaġmiuŋa tatqamma suli allamik, iñiut tautuŋmiraġigaat, iñiuḷḷi tautuŋmiraġigaat Uqpiksuum kaŋainiittuaq igluuraġa tatqamma maŋŋuraŋa niusauraġaluaġugnaqtut. Tavra qitunġatka piñialllasivut kiisaimma tamarra kiisaimma maniññaŋniallasikama tamarra tainna iḷaanni maniññagniurallasikama savaktuaniḷiami iḷauraġaġallasikama tamarra aŋuniaġniġali qimuksaiññauraaqhuni tainna iḷiruq qimmiñik kukiḷuutiqaŋiaqama. Skiituułhiñanik makkuniŋa isumaaġnaqtuanik suġauttanikkamali aŋuniaġniġa kiŋumuktuq. Kimuŋuktuq. Tainna isumaaġnaqłutik makua suġauttat saviłhat uqallayiułłutik naviaqsiruŋaalaitpaił̣ł̣utik, naviguuvlutik. (At the time when we were living there and when I got married,we began to travel to different places. When I was able to move around as I wished, we went to several different places to winter- Uqpiksuum Kaŋia, I also have another house over there. Other people have seen it, this little house of mine at Uqpiksuum Kaŋia. The support poles must be barely visible. My children were getting big and able and soon I was able to work for wages, for money. When I became able to work for wages, when I joined the rest in earning money, my hunting days went further and further behind me when I stopped using dogs. When I started to use equipment like snowmachines which cause worry, my hunting days went behind me. It went behind me, the metal belongings were worrisome since they could never say I am going to break, and they used to break.)
Walter: Uvva paŋmapak uvamnik unipkaaġiniga samma isua qalliuraaġuġnaqtuq iḷaanni pi, nagliqsaaġnaqtuaq nalaunmiraġigigali. Taimani maniitchuni maniñik piitchuni nagliksaaġnaqtuq. Nagliksaaġnapiaqtuq. Uqsruq, mattumiŋa uqsrumik tanŋit savaaġiraŋannik piiñŋapta nagliksaaġaqtugut iñiuḷḷu. Qiiyanaqłuni iglu iḷaanni niqiksraqapiaġnaił̣ł̣uni aŋuniaġvik iḷuiñman siḷa, niqiksraqapiaġnaił̣ł̣uni niġrutikapiaŋił̣ł̣uni iḷaanni taimani miqłiqtunikkama iḷitchuġigitka tamarra miqłiqtuniŋaiñŋaġmalukii tamarra aŋuniaġniq una iḷuaŋiññami taġiumiḷu nunamiḷu atiruq. Taġiumi suli iḷaanni aġvaŋniaġnaqsigaluaġman siḷa iḷiuñman iñiut suliqiḷaitchut. Siku iḷiuñman, aġvaŋniaġniq iḷaanni tuulaiqsinmiraqtuq, uiḷaiñman, imaq iḷiuñman aġviġit taimma qaigaluaqamik suraqtut taimma, suraqtut taunuunna nuŋuraqtutkii taimma. Iḷaanni upinġaksrat iḷaŋiññi aġvaŋitqayauraqhutiŋlu pimmata iñiut nagliksaaġayuktut. Siqpatiksraiññamiŋ niqiksraqapiaŋił̣ł̣utiŋ natchiġniaġniq iḷuiñman, siḷa iḷuiñman, aŋunialaitchut. Maniiñmiugut, maniqayiuñmiut iñiut, tavra kisianik Charlie Brower annaktuġvitualuat Utqiaġviŋmiut taniktauranik tamatkuniŋa aitchuqtiugurallavluni pisuugaluaġman iñuk. Nagliksaaġnaqtuamik iñiut uqaqtuat naalaġniuraaġuugaluaġitka inna uqaqpaktuat radio-kun kasumaqpakłutik takattumuuna uqsruqinikun. Nagliksaaġnaqtuamik uqalaitchut, aglaan tamarra kisianik tusaġnaġiraqtuŋa savaktigiravut makua tanŋit, tanŋit makua savaktigikkavut paŋmapak. Susunġiksigiikkavut, manikkaluam naaggaqaa igluvut unnaaktillasimmatigik, tamarra akiḷiḷiqsuqsiññaqługit aglaan nunaptugun akiḷiḷiqsuqsiññaqługit iñuusuurugut. Tusaġnaġiraqtugut. Uvva uvaŋa akiḷḷiḷiqsuutilguyumiñaitchuŋa tamatkunuŋa taniŋnun akiḷḷiḷiqsuutisulaitchuŋa. Aglaan ikayuqtauyumagaluaqtuŋa, ikayuqtauyumagaluaġuuruŋa iḷaanni suna savaaksraq. Piyaqquqtaġnaġumiñaitchuakun iḷaanniḷi iḷisimapkaġlugu isumasuugaluaqtuŋa. Aasiuvva iglaaqalgiñmiruaguut iglaaqaqhunuk ukuŋniŋa tannaŋnik iglaaqauraalgitchuguk. Tamarra nunaptigun qanuq tasamma savaaqaqtuat makua ikayuġumasuugaluaġitka uvaŋa iḷisimauraqsiññaqtamniŋli, iḷisimauraqsiññaqtamniŋli uvaŋa. Naluramnik piḷaiñmiuŋa. Ilitchuġiŋaraga kisian urruqsuutiginiuraqługuli iñuuniuraġuuruŋa. Atakkii tanŋiñ makua savaktigigivut maani nunami paŋmapak, savaktigiliutigivut. Tiŋŋutisuŋaiññatigun igliliġmiugut. Tiŋŋutisuŋaiññatigut taimña suna itqaġaptigu iglillasiŋammigaatigut. Tamattumiŋa maniuramik tainna aullatiksraptiŋnik tamarra piḷḷasivḷuta, manniññaŋniallasivḷuta, savaamikkun. Qanuġluta akiḷḷiqsuutiyumiñaitchugut uvagut Iñupiaguruaguut aglaan ikayuqtauluta iñuuruksrautilaaptiŋnik ilisimarugut. Uvagut maani nunami uqsruiḷaaġluni manna nuna savaaq igliḷguyumiñaitchuaq iiḷisimanaqtuq. Sunapayauraq uqsruqaġluniigliġuqtuaq, igliġiġuksiŋaruaq iḷisimagikput, Iñupiaq una aullaġniaqami uniani sivłiłługit gasoline-nik aullaqtuksrauruq. Naaggaqaa qimmimik aullayuitchuq. Tavrasuli tanŋit savaaŋannik savił̣haqsruŋmik taaptumiŋa aŋuniaġiaġumaakami taimma, sumun nunamun. Aŋuniaġukkami, qavviŋniaġiaġukkami, amaġuġniaġiaġukkami tamarra savił̣hanik tamatkuniŋa kisianik, snowmachine tamarra aŋuniaġutiŋiñ Iñupiam, tanŋit savaaŋit. Uqsruiyaaġlugu aullayiuñmiuq, gasoline-qaqtuqsrauruq uniani siḷviḷḷugit. Tavra Tainnatchinik uvagut Iñupiaguruagut iñuuniuraqtuksraugaluaqtugut inna taniŋniñ makunaŋŋa savaktigiraptiŋniñ piyaqquġnagumiñaitchuaq kisian tainna iḷisaurriginiuraqsiññagluguli uvagut iḷisimasiññaqtaqput aŋuniaġvikkaluaqput aŋuniaġviurakkaluaqput makkua aŋniaġviurakkaluavut suyumaaqsippatigik tamarra kiluutigiḷugit, iluaġumiñaġmagaan taamna savautiginiaqparruŋ aŋuniaġviuraqput tamarra kaŋiqsiuġlugit, piqatigiḷugit. Inna kamanniuqsiññaġluta, inna sunialalugit, aa, qanaaġnialalugit sunialalugit, aŋuniaġnigauwa piaqsigiñ, uvuunna piyumiñaitchutiiqsiññaŋiaġlugit, aglaan uqaqatigilugit tasamma suna iluaġniqsraqsiuġlugu piqqaaġlugit tasamma piyumiñatualuktugut, Iñupiaguruaguut uvagut. Tavra tainnatchinik uqalugnik uvva uumuuna tape-kun tasamma naalaktuaqtinniaġugnaġaasuqpani taimma, naalaktuaġniaġugnaġaat iḷaanni, tatpapkua tatpaani savaktigirapta. Tanŋuraaġniġmik, uqaġniġmik taniktun piqaŋitkaluaqtuŋa, arguaŋŋatiqaŋitkaluaqtuŋa, aglaalli taamna uqaluga Iñupiasun uqaġaluaġuma tasamma sumi naalaġñiniaġaat iłuaqsruqtit, ikayuqtit inna taniktun Iñupiatullu tainna savaguuruam samma uqalupayauratka iluqaisa tape-kun uvva tape-mun uvuŋa pituktatka, samma naalaġnipkaġniaġai tamatkunuŋa savaktigiraptiŋnun taniŋnun. Iñupiatun uqaaraaġaluaqtuŋa. Uvva, samma, uqaluksraqpaŋmik piqapigruaġianiaqsisuŋnaqtuŋa samma, tape-una mumigataġlugu pisaġaluaqtaġa uvva nuŋunniaŋitchugigaluunnii, suvigu taimma. Itqaiŋitkuma, aglaan uvva itqaqtiġruaġiga taimani qunŋiḷaagukama ataataa imurauramik sigaamik Camel-mik aitchuġmaŋa tavra quyaviññiaġaqtuŋa. Imurauraq, sigaallasiqqaapiaġama taimani tauġaaqqiḷḷatuvaił̣ł̣uŋa. Tauġaaqqiḷḷatuqpaŋaruŋa taimani. Qimuksirauraġniallaġma iḷaanni qimuktiġma alautchiŋik tamauŋa qiḷġullakługik sigarripasuktuġuuruaŋaa iḷaanni bowl-tauramnun, sigarriñaqtuamun bowl-taurat tamatkua naaviyammiruat sigaat, tainnaasiñik tauġaaqqiqaġuurugut. Ataataa aasi aitchuġmaŋa sigaamik imuraksraitchuamik tavra quyayumiñiaġaqtuŋa qavsiuḷaiñmigai atausiq tavra qaiḷḷaguugaa, tainnasiñik sigaagutiqaġuuvluni. Ataataga taimña Qatiqsiñaaq, imma iñiut iḷisimagaat qanuq, iḷaŋisa. Nalugaluaġaat makua nutaqqat Uvva, uvamnik quliaqtuaġiuraaqtuŋali uvamnigli quliaqtuaġiuraaqtuŋa. Uvva quliaqtuaġiŋaitkaluaqtuaŋaa uvamnik quliaqtuaġiuraaqpaalluktuŋa uumuŋa tape-mun. Samma uqaġniġa tavruŋaaglaan qanuq isukł̣iññiaġiga taamna uqaġniġa tavruŋaaglaan isukłitchuq. Uvaŋauvva atiġa taigaluġnigu isukł̣isiññaqsaqsimaraġa uvaŋauvva Walter Aqpiŋmik atiqaqtuaŋaa, Aqpiksraaġruum taiptuma iġñiŋa, Qakitkuk taipkuak tutaaluak. (Perhaps the end of my story is near. I also had to the chance to experience suffering. In those days when one did not have money, one suffered. When we did not have the oil which the white people started work on, we would suffer along with other people. The house would be cold and sometimes there would not be enough food whenever hunting conditions were not right, the weather. There would not be enough food, animals were scarce sometimes. I found this out when I had children, and even before when hunting conditions are not right, it is the same on land and sea. And in the ocean sometimes when it was time to go whaling and the weather was not right, the people would not do anything. When the ice conditions were not right, the whaling season would be too late when there was no open lead. When the water was not right, the whales, even though they came, they would disappear. Sometimes in the spring when they almost didn't get a whale, people would suffer. When they didn't have oil for heat or light and when they didn't have enough food, when sealing conditions were not good, when the weather was bad, they never hunted. And we did not have any money, people did not have any money. Charlie Brower was the only one who could save or rescue the people of Barrow, since he could give out white people's food. People who talk of suffering--I listen to them talking in big meetings, talking about oil and drilling. They do not talk of suffering, but I hear about the white people that we have for workers nowadays, the ones that we depend on for warmth in our homes or for money. We live by paying them with our land. I myself do not like to put myself in opposition to the white people, but I would like to be of help in anything to be done that would not cause any disaster. Sometimes I think of letting them know of my desire to help out in something that would not cause a disaster or mishap. And then we had visitors, we have visitors who are white. I always want to help the ones who work with the land with what I know, what I barely know. I don't talk of what I don't know. I try to make use of what I know and do my best in life. Because we have these white people working for us these days. They are working for us, and we are starting to travel only by planes. We are able to travel by plane whenever we forget something. They have made it possible for us to travel by airplane, and the use of money which determines what we do for a living, making us able to earn money for a living through a job. We who are Iñupiat can in no way make ourselves the opposition, but we have to be of help. We know that we must live in this way. It is easy to know that jobs would not be run well without the oil, whatever that requires oil in order to go. Whenever an Iñupiat is going somewhere, he has to start out by filling his sled with gasoline. He does not travel with dogs. Whenever he wants to go hunting, he leaves with the piece of metal which comes from the white man. When he wants to go trapping or hunting, he has to use things made out of metal. He uses snowmachines to go hunting with, the work of the white people. He cannot go without the oil, he has to have gasoline, filling up his sled. We who are Iñupiat use these kinds of things, and we should all try to live together with these white people who work for us, only letting them know what we only know, talking to them about potentially dangerous situations or what could cause a disaster, telling them what we know, when they want to do something on our hunting areas or hunting places. We have to let them know, to give them advice, if it would be all right if they used our hunting places. We need to find things out, going along with them. Instead of being aggressive or bossy and saying that you are going to destroy my hunting area, instead of telling them that they can't do anything there, you need to talk to them and find out what is the best way to go. The only thing we can do is to find the best solution, those of us who are Iñupiat. I am speaking these kind of words through this tape. Perhaps they will allow this to be listened to, maybe they will listen to it sometime, the ones who are our workers up there. Although I am not mischievous enough to fool around with the English language, but my words even if I talk in Iñupiaq, they will listen to it somewhere, the ones who fix the paperwork, the one who works in the Iñupiaq language as well as the English. Every word that I say as I am talking right now to the tape, they will let the white people who are working for us listen to the words. Even though I am talking in Iñupiaq. I think I am running out of things to say. I was going to finish this tape, but I probably will not finish it. I don't know how I'll do it if I don't remember anything else, but I now remember of the time when I was a reindeer herder and my grandfather would give me a rolled cigarette, I would be very grateful. When I first started to smoke cigarettes, because I liked tobacco so much. In those days,I really liked to smoke tobacco. Even as I would travel by reindeer, I would tie them up a have a smoke in a pipe. We used to smoke tobacco in the little bowls which were easily knocked over. We had that kind of tobacco, and when my grandfather would give me a rolled cigarette, I would be happy, even when he gave me only one. He used to smoke those kind, my grandfather Qatiqsiñaaq. Perhaps people know him, some of them, although the young people don't know him. I am telling the story of myself, although I was not able to talk about myself, I have finally told my own story into this tape. I am ending my speaking here. I was going to end the tape without saying my name. I have the name of Walter Akpik. I am Aqpiksraaġruk's son, the grandson of Qatiq and his wife.)
There is no transcript for the last section of the recording, where Walter identifies some places on the map and provides their Iñupiaq pronounciation. The following is a keyword outline for this section: Kuugaruaq\ Meade River\ Kuuglugruaq\ Kuulugruaq\ Kullugruaq\ Itqiuraq\ Little Creek\ Uqpiksuu River\ Uqpiksuum Kaŋia\ Saŋmaliq\ Tupaaġruk\ Qaagaġvik\ fishing - camps\ activities - drilling\ Ikpikpagruaq\ Ipiqqiraq\ Imnaaġuaġruk\ house - sod\ bones\ Numniq\ Anauliġiaq\ Isigaurraaġvik|