Project Jukebox

Digital Branch of the University of Alaska Fairbanks Oral History Program

Project Jukebox Survey

Help us redesign the Project Jukebox website by taking a very short survey!

Nina Nayukok, Part 1
Nina Nayukok

Nina Nayukok (Aŋŋiaġruk) was interviewed on March 13, 1982 by Bill Schneider and Wendy Arundale at her home in Atqasuk, Alaska for the Chipp-Ikpikpuk and Meade Rivers Oral History Project. Elizabeth Hollingsworth was the Iñupiaq language translator during the interview. In this first part of a two part interview, Nina talks about growing up living a subsistence lifestyle based on seasonal movements to different locations for hunting, trapping and fishing. She discusses traveling, going to trade fairs, going inland to hunt caribou, trapping, and living with the reindeer herders. Nina also talks about place names, going to school in Barrow, and how things changed when people started getting jobs. (IHLC Tape #00050)

Nina Nayukok spoke in Iñupiaq during the interview. The transcript contains the spoken Iñupiaq written out and its corresponding English translation, both provided by Kathy Itta (now Ahgeak). There is only a transcript for Sections 1-8 of the interview. Sections 9-13 have keywords outlining what is discussed.

Digital Asset Information

Archive #: Oral History 87-101-14

Project: Chipp-Ikpikpuk and Meade Rivers Project Jukebox
Date of Interview: Mar 13, 1982
Narrator(s): Nina Nayukok
Interviewer(s): Bill Schneider, Wendy Arundale
Transcriber: Katherine Itta Ahgeak People Present: Elizabeth Hollingsworth
Location of Interview:
Funding Partners:
North Slope Borough, Iñupiat History, Language and Culture Commission
Alternate Transcripts
There is no alternate transcript for this interview.
There is no slideshow for this person.

After clicking play, click on a section to navigate the audio or video clip.


1) How she used to travel with her family when she was young and where they went to trade.

2) Where they traveled to for trading and the way in which they used both umiaqs and sleds to get there.

3) How they were greeted at Kivaliñiq and what groups were represented at the trade fair there.

4) How she and her family would go inland to hunt caribou in the fall and winter.

5) Place names in the area of her family's hunting camps.

6) What the people did when they went hunting inland.

7) How she stayed in town to go to school when she was young. Also, she talks about how the annual patterns changed when people started getting jobs.

8) Trapping along the Ikpikpuk River and living with the reindeer herders.

9) Corralling reindeer, where the reindeer went to fawn, and how they moved back to Barrow when they were done with herding.

10) Where she and her husband would camp during the summer after they quit reindeer herding.

11) Where they lived during the winter and the places where they used to camp.

12) A place near their camp where stories say that the indentations in the ground were made by a great long-jumper.

13) How they trapped out of Iksuġvik and Imaġruaq and about other families who lived in the area.

Click play, then use Sections or Transcript to navigate the interview.

After clicking play, click a section of the transcript to navigate the audio or video clip.


The transcript only covers Sections 1-8 of the interview. Sections 9-13 have keywords outlining what is discussed.

Section 1: Bill: We're here with Nina Nayukok and we're going to talk a little bit about the history that she remembers, and Elizabeth Hollingsworth is going to help us with the translation. You've done a lot of traveling in your life? Nina: Yes. Bill: When you were a little girl? Nina: Yes, ever since when I was a little girl. Bill: Where did you travel with your folks when you were just a little girl? Nina: Up inland, and go qayyaaq, siñaagun, qavuŋa. Upinġaami, kivaliñiqtuat malikługit, aasii taima qavaŋŋaqłutik upinġaaguŋŋaan suli. Tainna maliġuaġuuratka. Ukiumi, ukiumiḷu piruat, araa alappuukkaluaq iḷaanni tarva iglautimmatigut ukiumi, siuġriuñmiugut. Just only Eskimo lamp-mik tamatkua seal oil-mik piqaqtuat kisiimik. Alappuu. Tamatkuniŋa piqaŋarut, iḷisimaŋagitka. Tainnatchini qauriŋaruŋa. Araa, qaŋa taima. Tarvali iḷisimaratka taimani, nalusuugait, immakiaq mikiruurauŋŋaġma qauriŋasuŋnaqtuŋa. Tainnaqługu iḷisimasuugitka iñuit. (Unintelligible) Tainna piŋaruŋa. Iñuguŋaruŋa. Simiḷiqaa, nunamiḷu maani, taġiumiḷu taunani aŋuniaqtuani aġviqsiuqtuani taimŋŋa maliġuaġuraqłuŋa inuuŋaruŋa, mikiŋŋaġmaimma, kiisaimmauvaŋa aglivuŋa. Siuġriuñmiut, tamarra qulliit kisimik tamatkua. Tainnali iñuguŋaruŋa. (Up inland, and go with canoes down the coast, to the east. In the summer, I followed the people who would travel to the east (Kivaliñaat, a term used to describe the people who would travel to the east periodically.), and then they would return from the east when it was still summer. I used to follow them in this way. In the winter, the ones who traveled in the winter, oh, sometimes it would be so cold when they would travel with us in the winter, and we didn't even have these Coleman stoves. Just only Eskimo lamps, the ones that burned seal oil for fuel. It was cold. We had those kinds of lamps, I was familiar with them. I came to, or became aware of my surroundings to those type of things. It was a very long time ago. The things I knew about long time ago, some people don't remember them. Maybe I became aware of my surroundings when I was very young. In this way I knew the people back then. I grew up in this way. Everywhere, also on the land around here, in the sea, I would follow whenever I could with the whaling camps and grew up in this way since I was real small, and finally I grew up. They didn't have any Coleman stoves, just the stone lamps. This is the way I grew up.) Elizabeth: Okay. She pretty much answered you question. Bill: Okay. Whereabouts did she travel as a little girl? Elizabeth: Sunaimña taiqqaaqtan, maani. Sumik imña taiqqaaqtan aullaaġviksi? (What did you call it first? What did you call the place where you camped?) Nina: Aullaaġvikput qavuŋa, qamma qavuŋa, upinġaami. Aullaaġuuruat. Kivaliñiqoutik. (Where we traveled to, to the east, in the summer. They used to go camping or traveling. Traveling to the east.) Elizabeth: Kivaliñiq? Nina: Ii. They call it "Kivaliñiqtut", qamuŋa iñuŋnun allanun, tauqsiqsuġiaqoutik. Tiġigannianik, tuttut amiŋiññik, tauqsiġiaqłutik, ivalunik, kamiŋnik, tainnaittuat. Aasii uqsruġutinik, avataqpanik...iḷisimaviuŋ avataqpak? Uqsruniglu avataqpaŋnik kaluqłutik... (Yes. They call it Kivaliñiq, when they go to those people into the east, to buy things. Foxes, caribou skins, going to buy those things, thread, boots, they were this way, they lived like that. And lots of oil and fat, seal pokes, do you know about seal pokes? They would bring with them lots of oil and fat in the seal pokes.) Elizabeth: She traveled with the...when they used to go into Kivaliñiq for trading. And they would trade seal oil, that's placed inside...when they used to use the sealskin... Wendy: Like a poke? Elizabeth: Yes. I think they use them mainly for floats now. But they used to use them to store seal oil, and they would trade for foxes, (Some discussion in Iñupiaq omitted here.) caribou skins and thread, the thread that they get from caribou... Bill: Was that the same as sinew? Elizabeth: Yes. And she traveled to the Arctic coast and she's been where they were whaling, but they traveled inland, and she remembers the time when they didn't even have any kerosene lamps and they used the sealskin lamps. Nina: Taina ittuanik quariŋaruŋa. (I became aware of my surroundings to those kinds of things.) Elizabeth: And that was also used to keep them warm when they traveled in the wintertime. Bill: You mean sealskin or soapstone. Elizabeth: I don't mean sealskin. Seal oil lamps, that's what I meant.

Section 2: Bill: When you went to Kivalina... Nina: No. I never go over there. Bill: Oh. Where did you trade said you traded with the Kivalina area... Elizabeth: No. Kivaliñiq sumiitpa? (Where is Kivaliñiq?) Nina: Immaqanuq avani, taavani avani. Tautuŋaitkiga. (Somewhere over there, over there. I haven't seen it.) Elizabeth: I'm not familiar with that area so maybe there's somebody else that can...It's not Kivalina, it's Kivaliñiq. Nina: Kivaliñiq, Kivaliñiq. Atiqaġuugaat Kivaliñiq, Kivaliñiġmik taipkua, tauqsiġiaqtaġuuruat upinġaami. (Kivaliñiq. They had a name for that place. Kivaliñiq. Those people, who would go trading in the summer.) Bill: Can you tell me where Kivaliñiq is, just generally, is it in the mountains or on the coast... Elizabeth: Iġġiqaqtuani itpa, naakka...(Is it where there was mountains, or....) Nina: Taimna aullaaġaġviat? (The place where they used to go?) Elizaġeth: Taġium siñaaniitpa? Nina: Uŋasiksut pamma paani, ii, kuuqaġaluaqtuq taġium siñaani, pisuuruat, kuuqaġaluaqtuq tamarra. (It is very far up there, yes, it had a river along the coastline.) Elizabeth: It's on the ocean, but it was also on the river. There's a river that goes down to the ocean, but it's close to the ocean more. Iġġiñik tautuŋnaqhuni? (And was it possible to see mountains?) Nina: Ii. Tatpaga iġġit tautuŋnaġuugaluaqtut. (Yes. Those mountains could be seen from there.) Bill: What's that river, do you know? Nina: Niġliq. Elizabeth: Niġliq River. Nina: Ii. Niġliq River tatqavani tikioougu. (We would reach the Niġliq river.) Elizabeth: Prudhoe Bay saniġaaniitpa? (Is it close to the Prudhoe Bay area?) Nina: Yes. Elizabeth: It's close to the Prudhoe Bay area. Bill: That's quite a ways. Nina: Qamuŋalu taamna qaaŋiqługu...(And we would also pass that...) Bill: Was that in summertime, that trading? Nina: Yes. Summertime, they start in June after Nalukataq. Tatqavuŋa aullaġuurut, just right after Nalukataq. Sikukkun. (They would leave after blanket toss to the east, just right after blanket toss. Through the ice.) Elizabeth: They'd go on the ice? Nina: Ii. Bill: From Barrow? Nina: Ii. (Yes.) Bill: they'd go there for trading? Nina: With umiaq. Umiapianik piqaqłutik. Tamatkua umiapiat qamutiqaqugit pisuugait. (With skinboat. They would have a sled to pull the boat with.) Elizabeth: And they used to pull their umiaq, the ugruk skin boats. Bill: You mentioned ocean before. Were you traveling out in the ocean or through the inland lakes.? Elizabeth: On the ocean. Wendy: So when you started out, was there still ice on the ocean? Nina: Yes. Wendy: And you would pull the umiaq on the sled, or? Nina: Aasii taimma...iminnauvva. Aasii taima auŋmagu, sikukkun qamutitayunaiġman umiaqtuqłutiŋ aullaqisuurut. Tamarra auŋmagu siku. (And was this way. When everything melted, when it became difficult to pull the sled (with the boat) on the ice, they would start out traveling by boat. When the ice broke up.) Elizabeth: Umianik qamuguuvarruŋ umiaqtik? (Did they bring a sled to pull their boats?) Nina: Ii. Qamukługu uniaq. (Yes. Pulling their sled.) Elizabeth: They carry their boats on a sled and when they get to the parts where there's no ice, and they could just take the boat off the sled and travel like that.) Nina: Iŋniqutaiñmiut, aŋuaqsiññaqłutik, tiŋilġautaqaqsiññaqutiglu. Tarvatualuk. Taimmasuli ukamaqłutiŋ pisuummiut. (Some Iñupiaq material missing here.) (And they didn't have any motors, they would just row, and sail. That was all. And they also traveled by towing their boats from shore. Hooking dogs to their boats and letting the dogs pull the boat while everyone else walked on the shore.) Elizabeth: Sometimes they would travel and pull the boat with their dogs. Their dog team, they would keep the boat in the water, and they would have the string attached to the dogs that are walking on land or on the ice. Wendy: How many people would travel together? Nina: Iñugiaguurut umiat samma, maybe ten-luunnii sippaqaqtut umiat aullaaġamik. (There would be many boats, sometimes there would be ten or more, when they went traveling.) Elizabeth: Ten or more boats sometimes. Nina: Tainna umiapianik, skinboats.

Section 3: Bill: And who would you meet, at Kivaliñiq? Elizabeth: Kivaliñiġmukkavsiasii utaqqivḷusi iñuit? (And when you went to Kivaliñiq, were there people waiting for you?) Nina: Tarva tarvani utaqqisummiut tarvani, imma iglaaksranik taavaŋŋa. Tarva qalliruni qamma tarvuŋa ininun qiḷaurraqłutik, aġġivḷutik tautukkamik iñuŋnik pisuumaruat. (They would also wait there for the visitors from elsewhere. Whenever they would get close to that place in there, they would begin to drum and dance, when they saw the visitors coming.) Elizabeth: There'd be people waiting there, in anticipation of the trade, and they would be watching, and as soon as they see the people, her people, coming in, they would start doing Eskimo singing. And as they were coming in, they could hear them. Bill: Were there people from Canadian side too? Nina: No. Tautuŋnayuitchut qavaŋŋamiñ. Elizabeth: There were never anybody from that direction. Bill: How about from inland? Elizabeth: Aasii Nunamiut? Nina: Tamarrakii Nunamiut tamatkua. (Well, they were the Nunamiut, those ones.) Elizabeth: They were the inland people that they're meeting. Nina: Siñaanuguurut tatpaani ukiiqqaaqłutik. (They would go to the coastline after wintering inland.) Elizabeth: These were the inland people. They would go down there to meet with the coastal people. That was their meeting place for trade. Bill: Were you a coastal person or an inland person? Elizabeth: Taġiuġmiuyaaguŋaviñ taimani? (Were you a Taġiuġmiut in those days?) Nina: Ii, Taġiuġmiuyaagugama. (Yes, when I was a Taġiuġmiut.) Elizabeth: Coastal. Nina: Utqiaġviŋmi iñuguŋaruŋa. Nuvuŋmi. I was born in Nuvuk. (I grew up at Utqiaġvik. At Nuvuk.) Elizabeth: She grew up at Point Barrow.

Section 4: Bill: And after the trading. Where did you go then? Elizabeth: Aasii taaptumuŋa pianikkavsi sumuguuvisi? Nina: Tamaani ukiisuurugut ukiumi. Tainna upinġaaġuiġman tarvani Utqiaġviŋñi tamaani. (We would winter around here in the winter. After the summer was over, right there, around Utqiaġvik.) Elizabeth: Utiġuurusi? (You returned there?) Nina: Ii. Tarvuŋa Utqiaġviŋmun. (Yes. Right there to Utqiaġvik.) Elizabeth: They'd go back to Barrow. Bill: And then would you stay in Barrow or would you head inland to hunt? Nina: Aasii ukiuġmagu mauŋa aullaaġtuani maliguuruŋa ukiumi. Utqiaġviŋñiitkaluaġmata. Tuttuitchukkii nalaiñ taimani. Aullaaġaqtuanun maliguuruŋa. (And then when winter came, I would go with people who went inland. Because there wasn't very much caribou in those days. I would follow the ones who went camping inland.) Elizabeth: Tuttuliaqhutiŋ? (Going to hunt caribou?) Nina: Ii, tuttuliaġaluaqhutiŋ, tuttuiḷḷiuqhutiŋ taimani. Tuttuiḷḷiuġuurut. (Yes, they would go hunt cariġou all right, but they had a shortage of caribou back then. There weren't enough caribou around.) Elizabeth: They'd come inland in the wintertime looking for caribou. Bill: You said you would head inland in wintertime? Elizabeth: Ukiumi amii mauŋaġuurusi nunamun? (You would come inland in the winter, right?) Nina: Ii. Taimani. Nunamun aullaaġmata maliguuruami. (Yes. In those days. When they went camping inland, I used to go with them.) Elizabeth: They would come inland. Nina: We got no siuġruk, just only qulliq, apuyyamun. (We got no Coleman stoves, just only oil lamps, to the snow houses.) Elizaġeth: Those were the days when they used snow houses for shelter as they were traveling inland. Bill: I was wondering if you, your family, ever went inland to get caribou for skin clothing? Falltime. Elizabeth: Tuttliaqtaġuuvisigguuq amiŋiññik pisukhusi annuġaaksravsiññik? (Did you go hunting caribou to obtain skins for your clothing?) Nina: Ii. Annuġaaksranik tamarra. (Yes. For clothing.) (Some discussion in Iñupiaq missing.) Elizabeth: Yes. In the fall. Bill: Ok, how many people would travel together inland that time? Elizabeth: Aasii qavsiuvlusigguuq aullaaġuuvisi tamauŋaġavsi? Nina: Uvagut kisipta, allanik piqatiqayuitchugut. (Just only us, we did not go with other people.) (Some discussion in Iñupiaq missing.) Elizabeth: Just with her immediate family.

Section 5: Bill: And where inland would you go? Elizabeth: Iḷisimavigit atiŋich sumun aullaġvisi? (Do you know the names of the places you went to?) Nina: Aullaaġuurugut Utqiaġviŋñiñ tamauŋa nunamun. Tamauŋa. Kuulugruamun qanuq samma. Tainna. Ikpikpaŋmullu. Ikpikpak and Kuulugruaq. (We would leave from Barrow to the land around here. Around here. Perhaps to the Kuulugruaq. Also to the Ikpikpak. Ikpikpak and Kuulugruaq.) Iḷisimagitka. Tamauŋa tuttusiuġiaġuurut. (I know them. They would go here for caribou hunting.) Elizabeth: Caribou hunting to Ikpikpak and Kuulugruaq. (Some Iñupiaq material missing.) Bill: Where did you stop on the Ikpikpuk River? Nina: Tamauŋa apuyyaqłutik, apuyyaqpakłutik inauvlutik tainna tuttusiuġuurut. (They built snow houses around here, settling down and living in large snow houses, they would hunt for caribou.) Elizabeth: Iñugiaksisuuvat? (Did they become large in number?) Nina: Iñugiaksisiutchut. Tainna apuyyaqpakłutik tuttusiuġuugaluaqtut tuttuiḷḷiuġuurut. Tamauŋa, tamaanikii samma Kuulugruaġmiḷu samma tamaani. (They did not become large in number. They would build large snow dwellings and hunt for caribou, but they did not get hardly any; they would have a caribou shortage. To this area, also to the Kuulugruaq River.) Elizabeth: She can't be that specific to give you an exact location of where they were, but they would build their snow shelter and hunt for caribou, and caribou was very scarce in those days and they had a hard time finding any caribou a lot of times. Bill: Did you go up as far as the Colville River, falltime, when you were hunting for caribou? Nina: Tatqamuŋaŋaitchuŋa tatqaptumuŋa. (Some Iñupiaq material missing here.) Elizabeth: She's never been on the Colville River. Bill: On the upper Ikpikpuk there's a place called Howard Hill where it splits, have you been up that far? Nina: Ikpikpaŋmi tatpaani inŋagaluaqtuŋa. Itchuugaluaqtuŋa. (I have been up on the Ikpikpak up there all right.) Elizabeth: Aasii Howard Hill-mik taisuuraŋannik iḷisimaviñ, sumiitilaaŋanik? (And do you know of the place they call Howard Hill, where it's at?) Elizabeth: Where the river splits, Ikpikpak River? Bill: Yes. Nina: Imma qanuq ai atchiqqammiqsimagaat. (They probably named it recently.) Wendy: Kigalik goes one way and Maybe Creek goes the other way, it comes together and forms the Ikpikpuk at that point. Bill: Up in the foothills. Nina: Atchu, nalugiga atiqaqtilaaŋanik atiqaġaluaqtut iḷaŋit... (I don't know about the name, although some of the places had names.) Elizabeth: Atautchimuksaġmaŋnigguuq allak kuuk, atautchimun tikiutimmaŋnik tavruŋa. (When the other two rivers begin to come together, when they meet together at that point.) Nina: Taaptumiŋa qanuq ai atchiqqammiqsimagaat. (Maybe they named it with that name recently.) Elizabeth: She's not familiar with that name Howard Hill. It must be a fairly recent name for that place. Bill: Let me ask that question again. Do you remember any of the names of places up there? Elizabeth: Atiqaŋavat iḷaanni aullaaġvigisuurasi? Sunik taiguġuuvatigik? (Did the places where you camped have names? What did they call them?) Nina: Uġvik, Qaglugiksauraq, sumik imma atiqaġaluaqtut puiguqługit pigitka. (Uġvik, Qalugiksauraq, they had names, but I can't remember them now.) Elizabeth: She's forgotten some of them. Nina: Ikpikpaŋmiittuat tamatkua. Maŋałagruaq...(The ones that were on the Ikpikpak. Maŋałagruaq...) Elizabeth: Maŋałagruaq, big black one... Nina: Ikpiñiqłuġruaq...(A great big cliff..) Elizabeth: It was very steep... Wendy: What was that one? Nina: Maŋałagruaq. Elizabeth: Maŋałagruaq. It's translated "the big black one." It was a high bank on the river, very high. From what she remembers it was very, very high. Bill: Why did they name it that way? Elizabeth: Iḷisimaviñ summan tainna taiguġuutilaaŋanik? (Do you know why they called it that?) Nina: Atchiŋagaat tainna maŋaġuuruq taamna ikpik. (They named it that way, that cliff there is always black.) Elizabeth: Because it was always black. It was black, and they called it the Big Black One. Wendy: Black from rock or soil? Nina: Maġġaq. (Sand.) Bill: That's a new one. We haven't heard that one before. Nina: Uvagut ami tainna atiqaqtaqput, iñuich...nunaurami piitkaluaqtuq samma. Atiqaġuuraqput. (Well, that's what we called it anyway. isn't on the map. We had a name for it.) Elizabeth: She's never seen it on the map, but that's what they called it, family and people who went there. Bill: Okay, any other names you remember from that river? When you were a little girl? Nina: Atchu, piiguqługit pigitka. Atiqaġaluaqtut imma tamatkua. (I don't know, I am forgetting them. Those places have names, all right.) Elizabeth: She's forgotten.

Section 6: Bill: Then how long would you stay up there before you came to the coast again? Elizabeth: Aasii qanutunguuq sivisutigiruamik tatpaaniitchuuvisi? (And how long of a time did you stay up there?) Nina: Upinġaksraaġman umiaqtuyasiuraġmata unuŋaġuurugut. (When it became early spring, just before they would begin to use their boats, we would go down.) Elizabeth: Just before spring, just before they start going...just before they go whaling. When they'd go back for the whaling. Nina: Aarigaa, aasii taima iqalliqiqpakłuta ukiaġmi, aarigaa, suvalikpaich...(It was so good, and then they would catch lots of fish in the fall, real good fish, with lots of eggs...) Tatpaanin, nunami, kuufmi ittuni. (Up there, on the land, when one is on the river.) Elizabeth: And they would do fishing, during the time that they would go caribou hunting, they'd also fish. Bill: Is that through the ice, jigging? Nina: Niksiksuqługit, kuvraqtuqługiḷḷu. (Hooking them, and also netting them in.) (Some Iñupiaq missing here.) Elizabeth: Fishing with the hook or net. Nina: Aasii taima sikunik piḷiqsuqługit, sikuttaliuqługit, sikunik iniḷiuqługit, iqaluit. (And then building an ice shelter for them, making a place for them with ice.) Elizabeth: They would do all this fishing, and they would leave the fish inside a shelter that's made out of blocks of ice. Bill: And safe from wolves and bears? Nina: Aasii taimma unuŋapqauraġamik agraaqsivḷugit iqaluit auŋaunnaŋit. (And then they would haul all that fish before they thawed out.) Elizabeth: They would start taking their fish down just before fall, just before summer before they thaw, before the fish has a chance to melt. Bill: To Barrow? So your parents had a place in Barrow as well as camping inland too. Nina: Ii. Takanani inŋarut. Iñuguqtuŋa Utqiaġviŋñi. Aglaan aakaga Tikiġaġmiugugaluaqsimaruaq. Tainali iḷḷatiŋamaruq Utqiaġviŋmun. (Yes. They lived down there. I was raised in Utqiaġvik. But my mother used to be from Pt. Hope. She had joined the people of Utqiaġvik.) Elizabeth: Her mother was from Point Hope. Apparently she moved to Barrow before Nina was born. Bill: Then you'd have ice cellar in Barrow where you'd keep the fish then? Nina: Ii. Siġḷuaqaġuurut. (Yes. They would have ice cellars.) Bill: When you were inland in wintertime, did you ever get together with other people and ever have qargi, or ceremonial house? Elizabeth: Aasiigguuq allat iñuich piqatigisuuvisigit aullaaŋakavsi? (And did you go with other people when you were camping?) Nina: Ii, iḷaanni piqatiqaġuurugut, iglaanik allanik iñuŋnik paani. (Yes, sometimes we would stay with others, visitors, other people up there.) Elizabeth: Aasii kasimaviat iñuich... (And how about the people's meeting places..) Nina: Tatpaani tainna qargisuitchut. Aglaan taunani qargiqaġuurut unani Utqiaġviŋmi. (They never had a qargi up there. ġut they always had the qargis at Utqiabvik.) Elizabeth: Only in Barrow they had the ceremonial houses. But she said, they do have other people that would come to their camp. But...iñugiakpasiutchusi amii tainnaqtuasi. Iñugiaksiqpasuitchusi aullaaŋaruat. Nina: Ii. (Yes.) Elizabeth: But there were never too many people together in one spot. Bill: Were there special times when they came together or just when visiting? Elizabeth: Aasii sumi iñugiaksivḷutik iñuit katitchuuŋavat, sukamiŋ? (And where did the people gather together, when they were doing what?) Nina: Sumiut, Utqiaġviŋmiut? (The people from where? The people of Barrow?) Elizabeth: Sumi, aullaaŋakamik, naakka.. (Where, when they were camping, or...) Nina: Utqiaġviŋñi, naagga nunami? (In Barrow, or inland?) Elizabeth: Nunami, ii. (Inland, yes.) Nina: Tamarrakii niqiñik katitchiniuraqoutik tainna niqiksramiŋnik pisuurut, qanuq taniktaitchuq, nalaiñ. (Well, they would be trying to gather food for themselves, because there wasn't very much white man food.) Elizabeth: They were mainly concerned about--when they came inland to hunt--they were mainly concerned about hunting. They didn't come to meet with each other.

Section 7: Bill: Did you have a chance to go to school in Barrow at all? Nina: School-lułauraŋagaluaqtuŋa mikiruuramik samma, fourth-fifth grade-kiaq samma. Elizabeth: She did, a little bit, up to ŋourth or ŋiŋth grade. Bill: Did your parents go inland and did you stay with your relatives at Barrow? Nina: Yes. Nunuuraaqsivḷuŋa aasii. Summan taima school-luŋaisimavik, uvva taniŋni innama, hospital-miḷu innama Fairbanks-miḷu innama tarva iḷitchiłauraaqsigaluaqtuŋa tanŋuraakuluŋniġmik. (And then I regretted why I didn't keep on going to school, when I was around white people, and when I was in the hospital, and when I was in Fairbanks, then I learned a little bit about speaking their language.) Elizabeth: She's mentioning that she is regretting why she didn't go on with school. The only time that she's learned how to speak a little bit of English is the time that she spent some months in Anchorage hospital and she spent some time in Fairbanks within the recent years and she's learned more. Nina: (Iñupiaq reply missing) Elizabeth: The way she is now she can understand. Bill: This is a hard question. You've been telling us about your life as a little girl, you going from Barrow to the East for trading time, and going back to Barrow and going inland in winter for hunting and traping and going back for whaling. When did that pattern stop? When do you remember that pattern changing? (Elizabeth's Iñupiaq translation of Bill's question is missing.) Nina: Ten-ŋuġmiuŋalukiaqluunnii samma aġiuŋarut tatqavuŋaqtaqtuat. (Perhaps when I was around ten, the people that regularly went east stopped going.) Elizabeth: She's not real sure, but she thinks she was about ten years old when they stopped going for trade toward the east. Bill: When did she stop going up the Ikpikpak? (Elizabeth's Iñupiaq translation is missing.) Nina: 1946-mi samma tatpaani, last time tatpaaniinŋaruŋa. Elizabeth: The last time she remembers ever being there was in 1946. Bill: Why did they stop? Nina: Uvvakii savaŋniḷurraqsivḷutik apkua piŋarut. Savaannaŋniḷurraqsivḷutik. (Well, they stopped because those people began to try and get jobs.) Elizabeth: Suliqivḷutiŋ? (Doing what?) Nina: Savakłutik, ami, tamarra..(Well, they were working..) Elizabeth: Utqiaġviŋmi? (In Barrow?) Nina: Ii, Utqiaġviŋmi, uvaniḷu coal mine miḷu. (Yes, in Barrow, and at the coal mines.) Elizabeth: The people started to work within the villages of Utqiaġvik, and also they started the Meade River coal mine.

Section 8: Bill: When did you get married? Nina: I was married 1920, I remember. Bill: So you and your husband did go up the Ikpikpak together a number of years together? Nina: Taimani tatqavaŋŋaġapta tatqavuŋatqiŋaitchugut. (When we came from the east back in those days, we never went east again.) Elizabeth: Aasiigguuq katititkanikkavsik 1920-mi tuvaaqatillu iglauraġuuŋammivisik? (And when you got married in 1920, did you and your husband travel?) Nina: Ii. Iglauraġuuruguk tatqavuŋa. (Yes. We would travel to the east.) Naniġiaqtuġiaqsaqłutik. (When they would go set traps.) Elizabeth: They traveled together. Bill: You were married in 1920, and did you and your husband go up and use the Ikpikpak River, did you go hunt and trap there and travel through there? Nina: Tuvaaqatinianikkama qunŋiḷaaqaġuurut qaŋapak. Qunŋiḷaani inŋaruguk. Itchuuruguk tamaani Meade River-mi qunŋiḷaani ukiumi. (After I got married, there used to be reindeer herders for some time. We stayed with the reindeer herders. We stayed up here around the Meade River with the herders in the winter.) Elizabeth: After she was married, her and her husband did go trapping, but they spent a lot of time also with the reindeer herders. Bill: Which herd was that? Elizabeth: Nalliŋitguuq, (Which ones.) Nina: Sut? (What?) Elizabeth: Qunŋiḷaat. (The herders.) Nina: Qunŋiḷaaḷḷi atiŋit uvvai. Number One, Number Two, Number Three, Number Four, atiqaqtuat tainna. Number Five. Number One-mi uvagut ittugut. Elizabeth: They used to have five herds. And they were with the Number One. They just called them by numbers. Bill: Yes. Number One herd. Was that the same as the Barrow herd? Elizabeth: Utqiaġviŋmiuyaatguuq tavra qunŋiḷaanich? Nina: Ii. Utqiaġviŋmiuyaat taimani qunŋiḷaakkaluaŋich. Brower's Store-tkutlu piqaŋagaluaqtuat... Suŋavatkiaq taimaipkua. (Yes. They used to belong to the people of Barrow. And Brower's store had some too. Wonder what ever happened to them.) Elizabeth: Aasii Number One taapkua Utqiaġviŋmiuyaat piŋich? (And the ones that were Number One, did they belong to Barrow?) Nina: Utqiaġviŋmiuyaat, Number Two-lu, Number Three-lu. (To the people of Barrow, also Number Two, and Number Three.) Elizabeth: Yes. Number one was one of the Barrow herds. Number Two and Three was also from Barrow. Bill: Okay. That's not the same as Brower's herd, right? Nina: Brower's kutlu taapkua Number Four atiqaġait. (The Brower's herd was named Number Four.) Elizabeth: It wasn't Brower's herd. Bill: Where did you herd the reindeer? Nina: Taimani, qanuġai uvva umiaqpakun avaŋŋa avani ukiumi, ukiumikiaq samma taavaŋŋautivlugich qunŋit piŋarait. (In those days, they probably shipped them by boat from somewhere in the winter.) Elizabeth: Aasiigguuq sumiititaġuuvatigik qunŋit. (And where did they keep the reindeer?) Nina: Maani, ukium, maani sumiliqaa maani nunami. (Around here, in the winter, everywhere around here on the land.) Elizabeth: Inland around here. Bill: Meade River area? Nina: Ii. Sumiliqaa. Ilimikkullaa. Tainna qunŋiḷaat atiqaqtuat ilimikkullaa nunaqaqłutik, nunaqallaavlutik. (Yes. Everywhere. Each by themselves. Each herd with their own name by themselves, with an area of land to it, each having their own land.) Elizabeth: Each reindeer herd was in a designated area. Bill: Were you with just one herd or with all the herds? Nina: Just one. Bill: And that herd, was that herd in this area, or other areas? Elizabeth: In this area. Bill: How about over on the Ikpikpak, was that different, or the same? Nina: Ikpikpaŋmivsauq tatqavani qunŋiḷaaqaġuummiut. Elizabeth: They had herds in Ikpikpak also. Bill: But not the one you were with? Nina: No.

No transcript for the rest of the interview. Section 9: reindeer - corralling\ children\ reindeer - fawning\ reindeer - herding\ Barrow|

Section 10: Barrow\ travel - to camps\ travel - summer\ trapping\ trading\ subsistence - seasonal rounds\ Tasiqpak\ travel - boat\ Imaġruaq\ fish - availability\ oil exploration - impact|

Section 11: travel - fall\ Barrow\ Imaġruaq\ Nalukataq\ trapping\ ice - conditions\ Ikpikpak\ Ikpikpuk\ hunting - caribou\ fishing|

Section 12: trapping\ Imaġruaq\ Tasiqpak\ camps\ Mayuaġiaq River\ Suqłaich\ Iksuġvik\ archaeology - sites\ burials\ games - of skill\ Piyumaruaqpak|

Section 13: Iksuġvik\ trapping\ Leavitt family\ Tuukaaq\ Leavitt, George\ Isuk\ Suqłuk, Peter|