Fred White was interviewed on March 31 and April 4, 2001 by Wayne Howell in Juneau, Alaska. In this interview, Fred talks about growing up in Dry Bay, being raised by his grandparents, and his experiences commercial fishing. He also talks about growing up speaking Tlingit, the importance of speaking and writing his Native language, and cultural protocols surrounding clans and naming.
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1) Earliest memories of Dry Bay.
2) Evidence of Raven creation stories in the Dry Bay area.
3) "Connie Francis", the moose, and childhood in Dry Bay.
4) Fishing the East River.
5) More on fishing the East River.
6) Dangers of fishing in Dry Bay and crossing the bar to the Alsek River.
7) His grandparents, Frank Dick and Jenny White.
8) The legend of the Thunderbird Clan.
9) Being raised by his grandparents and growing up speaking Tlingit.
10) Growing up with his grandparents, then moving to a foster home in Juneau.
11) Graduating high school and his first experience commercial fishing.
12) The argument over which clan is from Lituya Bay and the naming of his son.
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Section 1: Henry, Dick -- uncle\ Shodda, Charles\ Shodda, Charles -- children\ boat -- wooden\ East River -- fishing\ Alsek River\ fishing\ Francis, Maggie -- mother\ Francis, Ernest -- father\ cabin -- parents\ Williams Creek\ Robbins, Harold -- cabin\ Edwards, Sigurd -- cabin\ Johnson, Vincent\ Johnson, Frank\ (Wanmaker), ______\ Bear Island\ Sitka Sound Fish Plant\ stones -- story\ Raven -- stories\ Dick, Frank -- grandfather|
Section 2: Raven -- creation\ Yakutat, AK\ Ocean Cape\ Dry Bay\ Raven -- whale story\ Akwe River\ Ustay River\ sand dunes\ Raven -- foot prints\ Raven -- stories\ kelp bed\ animals\ Box of Daylight -- story\ Alsek River\ Dorine -- sister\ Ernestine -- sister\ Williams Creek\ Muddy Creek\ gravel -- throwing|
Section 3: fishing\ Francis, Ernest\ Edwards, Sigurd\ moose -- calf\ Fish and Game\ moose -- "Connie Francis"\ families -- neighboring\ Johnson, Vincent\ Johnson, Frank\ people -- Native\ school -- Yakutat, AK\ streams -- navigating\ boats -- skiff\ motor -- outboard|
Section 4: Francis, Ernest -- father\ food -- king salmon bellies\ childhood -- Dry Bay\ East River -- fishing\ sockeye -- runs\ fishermen -- Yakutat, AK\ tents\ king salmon -- season\ James, Sheldon\ Egg Island\ Alsek River\ eggs -- seagull\ elders\ boats -- skiffs\ fish -- prices\ (Bogrine), Rusty -- brother in-law|
Section 5: fishing -- fast\ grass\ nets\ ocean -- tides\ set nets\ river -- mouth\ nets -- amount\ fishing -- season\ king salmon\ fishing -- subsistence\ sockeye -- run\ Situk River\ Anklin River\ salmon -- runs\ storm -- season\ fish -- dolly varden\ salmon eggs|
Section 6: boats -- skiffs\ fishing -- dangerous\ accidents\ storms\ ocean -- swells\ skiffs -- flipping\ water -- shallow\ ocean -- conditions\ Alsek River -- mouth\ ocean -- tides\ river -- features\ East River -- shallow\ quicksand\ East River -- camping\ four-wheelers\ Grand Plateau Glacier\ rocks -- size\ bear tracks -- size|
Section 7: White, Jenny -- grandmother\ Dry Bay\ East River\ fishing\ boats -- skiffs\ fishing -- dangers\ grandmother -- stories\ Lituya Bay\ Lituya Bay George\ work -- cannery\ Dick, Frank -- grandfather\ grandfather -- stories\ Yakutat, AK\ miners\ Alsek River -- guide\ canoe\ Skagway, AK\ boat -- steamship\ grandfather -- recordings|
Section 8: Thunderbird Clan\ grandmother\ Thunderbird -- legend\ fishing -- up river\ king salmon\ fish -- subsistence\ boy -- missing\ hunting -- birds\ river -- conditions\ mother -- sadness\ thunder\ lightening\ Thunderbird\ Alsek River\ Raven -- creation\ Dry Bay\ Yakutat, AK|
Section 9: grandparents\ White, Charlie -- grandfather\ White, Jenny -- grandmother\ language -- Tlingit\ Tlingit -- speaking\ language -- English\ DeLaguna, Frederica\ Yakutat, AK\ Alaska Native Brotherhood Hall\ recording\ boarding schools\ elders\ stories -- parables|
Section 10: friends\ childhood\ grandparents\ stories -- scary\ Yakutat and Southern Railroad\ Yakutat, AK\ Situk River\ Tlingit -- speaking\ teasing\ Juneau, AK\ grandfather -- death\ Juneau Children's Home -- foster home\ radio\ television\ Jenkins, ( )\ parents -- foster|
Section 11: school\ Juneau Children's Home\ parents -- foster\ Juneau-Douglas High School -- graduation\ Yakutat, AK\ fishing -- commercial\ license - inheritance\ East River -- fishing\ grandparents -- fishing\ Situk River\ Anklin River\ Black Sand Island\ grandparents -- cabin\ boat -- Navy\ boat -- "Chum"\ net\ Breezeman, John -- fish buyer\ Pelican, AK\ river -- divide\ Black Sand Island\ fish -- selling\ candy\ pop\ license -- fishing\ grandfather|
Section 12: Dick, Frank -- grandfather\ L'uknax.a'di\ Dry Bay\ Daginaa hít\ Lituya Bay George\ Lituya Bay\ Hoonah, AK\ land -- claims\ clan houses\ son -- naming\ potlatch\ Jackson, Harry\ son -- Shádix Kadusnéek\ name --"Claiming That It's Mine"|