This is a continuation of an interview with Bill Brown on October 22, 1992 by David Krupa at Elmer E. Rasmuson Library at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. This is a continuation of tape number Oral History 93-15-01. In this part of the interview, Bill talks about the formation of Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, and some of the land management issues that the new park had to deal with.
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1) Origins of Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve
2) Central Brooks Range
3) Particular areas of Gates of the Arctic National Park
4) Yukon-Charley Rivers National Park and Preserve
5) Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve
6) Anaktuvuk Pass and its problems concerning land issues
7) More on general Park management and related issues
8) Concluding remarks to Park visitors and other Park managers
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Section 1: Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act -- studies done to recommend sites\ conservation agencies\ Johnson Administration -- National Monument and Proposal, 1968\ Koyukuk River -- North Fork area\ Arrigetch Peaks\ Walker Lake\ John River\ Anaktuvuk River\ President Johnson -- killed proposal, reasons provided\ Antiquities Act\ Marshall, Bob -- idea of Gates of the Arctic came from him, 1929\ Central Brooks Range\ Johnson, Ernie\ Craggy Peak\ Oriole Mt.\ Gates of the Arctic -- land marks; named by Marshall\ Marshall -- writings about value for wilderness\ Roosevelt, Teddy\ Jackson, Sheldon\ land -- discovery of new\ Marshall\ Mt. Doonerak\ Koyukuk\ land -- "keep discovering"\ Marshall -- proves point on endless discovering|
Section 2: centerdome\ land -- fortress of "wild values"\ Johnson, Dr. -- "athletes and esthetes"\ pilgrimages\ land -- National Park caliber landscape\ land -- federal\ land -- dividing of\ Wild River -- area of\ Wild Lake -- area of\ Anaktuvuk Pass -- Native land within\ subsistence\ Noatak -- people\ Kobuk -- people\ Gates of the Arctic -- described as "ultimate wilderness"|
Section 3: southwest -- this corner of Park is the preserve\ economic -- purpose of in SW corner\ mines -- in SW corner\ northeast -- corner of Park\ roads -- Haul Road\ land -- National Park is 8.7 million acres of landscape\ Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act|
Section 4: Brown, Bill -- played important role in feasibility study; "key man"\ Brown, Bill -- area in charge of|
Section 5: Kauffman, John -- played important role in feasibility study; "key man"\ Alaska Task Force\ Bane, Ray -- many years of experience; circumnavigation of Arctic\ Bane, Ray -- on-site assistant for Park; designation as "ultimate wilderness"\ air access\ people -- influx of into valleys\ nature -- romantic idea of\ Park Service -- management in Alaska\ Alaska Land Use Council (ALUC)\ Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act -- ALUC opposition to\ air access -- alternative is 2-3 planes allowed entrance\ air access -- designated flight routes\ Kauffmann, John -- administration of Park\ law -- no code of appeal\ administrators -- Kauffmann is distraught\ management -- of Park\ size -- equivalent to "4 Yellowstones"\ size -- reasons for boundaries\ bears -- grizzlies have large territorial boundaries\ Dennerline, Chip -- staff chief for Tony Knowles\ Chugiak\ lakes -- unidentified\ people -- know where want to go\ Arrigetch Peaks\ Mt. Doonerack|
Section 6: people -- want access to traditional hunting & fishing areas\ North Slope Borough\ research -- joint venture to find solution\ Siglin, Roger\ Trans-Mississippi West\ problems -- examples of and possible solutions\ Yukon-Charley Rivers National Park and Preserve\ Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve\ National Park Service\ legislation\ Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act\ Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act\ conservation\ subsistence|
Section 7: park values -- importance\ Congress -- intent within parks\ use -- Native or non-Native\ zones -- subsistence resident zone\ law -- Alaska State Constitution\ federal government -- intervening\ Interior, Department of\ Brown, Bill -- retired, but still involved\ divisions -- conservation vs. development\ law -- reinterpretations\ law -- statutory amendments\ Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act\ parks -- everlasting|
Section 8: visitors -- encouraged to gather information on Park\ Eskimo -- cultures of\ Indian -- cultures of\ rangers -- of the Park\ services -- provided by Park; concerns better orientation\ ANILCA\ Willis, Frank\ GS 3 -- seasonal ranger\ visitors -- assumptions made by\ local hiring -- encouraged within villages\ Kotzebue\ KodukValley National Monument\ Kruzenstern\ Noatak\ Yukon-Charley Rivers National Park and Preserve\ Denali\ Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act -- local hire practices\ local hiring -- knowledge of land is important in park service\ Kobuk River -- people\ Shungnak -- people\ land -- protection of by Natives within area\ administration -- treatment and selection of rangers\ community -- importance of|