Project Jukebox

Digital Branch of the University of Alaska Fairbanks Oral History Program
Fennie Andrew

Fennie Andrew was interviewed on August 6, 1997 by Judith Morris at his home in Kokhanok, Alaska. In this interview, Fennie talks about growing up living a subsistence lifestyle, and commercial fishing and running a trapline as a way to earn money to support his family. He also talks about using a dogteam on the trapline, selling his furs, and coming home from the trapline. He also discusses fishing and hunting in different seasons, different species harvested, including salmon, Dolly Varden, moose and caribou, and the traditions of proper hunting and respectful treatment of animals.

Digital Asset Information

Archive #: Oral History 1998-21-01

Project: Katmai National Park
Date of Interview: Aug 6, 1997
Narrator(s): Fennie Andrew
Interviewer(s): Judith Morris
Location of Interview:
Funding Partners:
National Park Service
Alternate Transcripts
There is no alternate transcript for this interview.
Slideshow
There is no slideshow for this person.

After clicking play, click on a section to navigate the audio or video clip.

Sections

Growing up and living off the land in the Newhalen area

Moving to Kokhanok when he got married and running a trapline

Commercial fishing, the types of boats he used, and the people he fished with

Trapping and selling furs

Continues talking about trapping

Trapping and selling his furs, but being home to celebrate holidays like Slavi

Having a dogteam and when he gave it up

Fishing and hunting in different seasons

Hunting caribou and moose

Hunting and rules to follow when handling animal bones

The first animal he remembers killing when he was young

Click play, then use Sections or Transcript to navigate the interview.

After clicking play, click a section of the transcript to navigate the audio or video clip.

Transcript

JUDITH MORRIS: -- 6, 1997, we're in Kokhanok, Alaska, sitting in Fennie Andrew's house on the shores of Lake Iliamna. FENNIE ANDREW: I don't have to talk about with the tape, huh? JUDITH MORRIS: You don't have to, that's right. Mr. Andrew, where were you born? FENNIE ANDREW: I was born in Newhalen. JUDITH MORRIS: In Newhalen? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: About 75 years ago? Do you remember the year? FENNIE ANDREW: 1921. JUDITH MORRIS: 1921. And you're -- FENNIE ANDREW: October 15th. JUDITH MORRIS: October 15th. And where were your parents from? Who were your parents? FENNIE ANDREW: My parents are Andrew. JUDITH MORRIS: Zackar Andrew? FENNIE ANDREW: My dad, yeah. My mom's Feducia. JUDITH MORRIS: Feducia? FENNIE ANDREW: Uhm-hmm. JUDITH MORRIS: And they were from? FENNIE ANDREW: I don't know where they're from. JUDITH MORRIS: Maybe down -- FENNIE ANDREW: I don't know where. JUDITH MORRIS: You don't know. How did you grow up? Did you grow up with -- FENNIE ANDREW: I grow up with my dad and my mom. JUDITH MORRIS: And your mom. Were they trappers? Were they -- FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, trapping, yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you move around a lot as a child? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. (Indiscernible.) JUDITH MORRIS: Do you remember where you were when you were growing up? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Were you camped on rivers or -- FENNIE ANDREW: Camped -- camp beside a river, beside the Newhalen. JUDITH MORRIS: Of the Newhalen River? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you stay there all year or did you move around? FENNIE ANDREW: We camped there quite a while. JUDITH MORRIS: Quite a while? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you fish and trap there? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, my dad, yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Fish and trap. Did your dad commercial fish? FENNIE ANDREW: Hmm? JUDITH MORRIS: Did your dad commercial fish? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, he went down fishing summertime down (indiscernible.) JUDITH MORRIS: In Naknek? FENNIE ANDREW: Some place down Bristol Bay. JUDITH MORRIS: But you stayed home when you were a small boy? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. I stayed with my mom, yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Did your dad ever do reindeer? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, he had reindeer, yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: He had them down in Newhalen, the reindeer? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, he had the reindeer, in Newhalen, and then he moved down to Talarik Creek (indiscernible). JUDITH MORRIS: To Talarik Creek? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. (Indiscernible.) JUDITH MORRIS: Did many people have reindeer where you were? FENNIE ANDREW: No, just only -- I remember two, (indiscernible) my dad and Katherine Mike's dad. JUDITH MORRIS: And Katherine Mike's dad also stayed there? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: How many reindeer do you have? Did you have? FENNIE ANDREW: I don't know. JUDITH MORRIS: You didn't know how many. FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: When did you get rid of the reindeer?

JUDITH MORRIS: Did you have brothers and sisters? FENNIE ANDREW: I got three sisters, but no brothers. JUDITH MORRIS: No brothers? FENNIE ANDREW: A brother, but he's gone before, young. JUDITH MORRIS: Where is your wife from? FENNIE ANDREW: From here in Kokhanok. JUDITH MORRIS: From Kokhanok? FENNIE ANDREW: Uhm-hmm. JUDITH MORRIS: When did you move to Kokhanok? FENNIE ANDREW: 1946. JUDITH MORRIS: You moved from Newhalen to Kokhanok? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Because you got married? FENNIE ANDREW: Uhm-hmm. JUDITH MORRIS: When you got married, were you trapping? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Tell me about your trapping there. How would -- what would you trap? Let's start in the springtime. FENNIE ANDREW: Fall time. JUDITH MORRIS: Fall time. What were you trapping in fall time? FENNIE ANDREW: To get the fur on the fox and land otter. JUDITH MORRIS: Land otter? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. Beaver. JUDITH MORRIS: When you moved to Kokhanok -- FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: -- and you were trapping, where was your trapping area? FENNIE ANDREW: Down there by Cottonwood, right back there. JUDITH MORRIS: By where? FENNIE ANDREW: Cottonwood. JUDITH MORRIS: Cottonwood? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: How did you get your trapping line -- FENNIE ANDREW: With the dogs. JUDITH MORRIS: With the dogs? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, drive dogs. JUDITH MORRIS: How long was your line? How big was your area? FENNIE ANDREW: What? JUDITH MORRIS: Your trapping area, was it many miles or -- FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Would you stay out overnight? FENNIE ANDREW: Stay overnight, yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you have a cabin up there? FENNIE ANDREW: Uhm-hmm. JUDITH MORRIS: Was it a building or was it a tent? FENNIE ANDREW: We use a tent, use tent. Eight by ten. JUDITH MORRIS: Eight-by-ten tent? FENNIE ANDREW: Uhm-hmm. JUDITH MORRIS: Was it one of those white canvas tents? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Where did you guys get those white tents? FENNIE ANDREW: We buy it from Iliamna Trading. JUDITH MORRIS: From Iliamna Trading? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Who was running Iliamna Trading? FENNIE ANDREW: Art Lee was running Iliamna Trading. JUDITH MORRIS: Who was? FENNIE ANDREW: Art Lee. JUDITH MORRIS: Oh, Art Lee was running it? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: And you would get your supplies from him? FENNIE ANDREW: Uhm-hmm.

JUDITH MORRIS: And carry them in a skiff or on your dogs? FENNIE ANDREW: A skiff was long time (indiscernible) something like that. JUDITH MORRIS: When did you get your first -- when did you get your first skiff? FENNIE ANDREW: I get skiff from down the bay, from Naknek. JUDITH MORRIS: When you were how old? FENNIE ANDREW: Hmm? JUDITH MORRIS: How old were you when you got your first skiff? Were you married? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: When you were married. Were you commercial fishing when you got married? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, commercial fishing, yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Who did you start fishing with, your dad? FENNIE ANDREW: No, I fish with somebody else at the time. JUDITH MORRIS: One of your friends? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: You fished in one of the sailboats? FENNIE ANDREW: Uhm-hmm. JUDITH MORRIS: Just the two of you? FENNIE ANDREW: Sailboats, yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Which cannery did you fish for? FENNIE ANDREW: I usually fishing, Alaska Packers and (indiscernible) cannery. JUDITH MORRIS: When they switched to power boats, did you keep fishing? FENNIE ANDREW: When we started we had no power on sailboat. JUDITH MORRIS: It was sailboat at first? FENNIE ANDREW: Uhm-hmm. JUDITH MORRIS: Then when they got the motors, did you keep fishing? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you get your own boat? FENNIE ANDREW: I had a skiff. JUDITH MORRIS: A skiff? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Were you a drifter or a set netter? FENNIE ANDREW: Drifting. JUDITH MORRIS: Drifting? FENNIE ANDREW: Uhm-hmm. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you fish Kvichak or Naknek? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, Kvichak and Naknek. JUDITH MORRIS: Ever go down to Egigik? FENNIE ANDREW: No, I've never been down that way. JUDITH MORRIS: Never been down that way. FENNIE ANDREW: No. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you fish with the same partner all your -- FENNIE ANDREW: Hmm? JUDITH MORRIS: Did you fish with the same partner all your life? FENNIE ANDREW: I had different. JUDITH MORRIS: Different partners? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Were they usually from up here? FENNIE ANDREW: When I was -- you asked if I fished with my boys. JUDITH MORRIS: You have how many boys? Two boys? FENNIE ANDREW: I had four of them. Andy and Jack. (Indiscernible.) I fished with two of them. Andy and Jack. JUDITH MORRIS: Sandy? FENNIE ANDREW: Andy. JUDITH MORRIS: Andy and Jack? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Andy and Jack. Are they still fishing, your boys? FENNIE ANDREW: No, Andy was (indiscernible) and he got shot. JUDITH MORRIS: Uhm-hmm. FENNIE ANDREW: And Jack in 1980. JUDITH MORRIS: Umm. FENNIE ANDREW: -- with Honda '87. '86, '87. '87 (inaudible.)

JUDITH MORRIS: Let's go back to when you were first married and you were trapping. FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah .JUDITH MORRIS: Did your wife go with you when you trapped? FENNIE ANDREW: No. JUDITH MORRIS: You'd go by yourself? FENNIE ANDREW: I go with my friends, my brother-in-law. JUDITH MORRIS: Your brother-in-law? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. John Olympic. JUDITH MORRIS: Oh. FENNIE ANDREW: My wife's brother. JUDITH MORRIS: With your wife's brother, John Olympic? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Was your trapping partner? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: And you would go out -- how long would you stay when you'd go out? FENNIE ANDREW: Sometimes two or three days. JUDITH MORRIS: Two or three days? FENNIE ANDREW: Uhm-hmm. JUDITH MORRIS: Would you take care of your furs when you were out there? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Would you stretch them and clean them? What kind of traps -- what kind of traps were you using? FENNIE ANDREW: Used number 3 traps. JUDITH MORRIS: What kind? FENNIE ANDREW: Number 3. JUDITH MORRIS: Number 3 traps? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Are those a leg hold? FENNIE ANDREW: Uhm-hmm. JUDITH MORRIS: Hold trap. What did you use to bait them with? Did you bait the traps? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: What kind of food or what kind of bait would you use? FENNIE ANDREW: Used any kind, used whitefish, little whitefish. JUDITH MORRIS: Little whitefish? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you remember any time that they used to pay you money to take trout or rainbows or wolves, if they would pay you money for bounty? Do you ever remember that? FENNIE ANDREW: Bounty? JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-huh. FENNIE ANDREW: No, I don't hunt wolf. I don't get bounty. JUDITH MORRIS: You don't remember? FENNIE ANDREW: I don't like it, so I quit hunting them. JUDITH MORRIS: You don't like that. FENNIE ANDREW: Uh-huh. JUDITH MORRIS: You don't ever remember being paid by -- FENNIE ANDREW: I don't know how much he paid. JUDITH MORRIS: Yeah. Yeah. So when you would go out and you would trap, you and John Olympic would go out trapping? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: And you would drive your dogs. How many dogs were you driving? FENNIE ANDREW: Sometime we drive dogs, five dogs. Five. JUDITH MORRIS: And how would you sell your furs? Would someone come in the village or -- FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, sometimes. Always fur buyers, usually -- fur buyers come round to Iliamna. JUDITH MORRIS: Over to New Iliamna? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. To sell there to fur buyers. JUDITH MORRIS: And how would you get there? FENNIE ANDREW: Hmm? JUDITH MORRIS: How would you get to Iliamna to sell your furs? FENNIE ANDREW: Springtime. JUDITH MORRIS: Take your skiff? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, I would. Springtime. JUDITH MORRIS: And how many furs would be a good season? FENNIE ANDREW: Oh, I don't know.

JUDITH MORRIS: What usually brought the best price? FENNIE ANDREW: Hmm? JUDITH MORRIS: What usually brought the best price? What kind of fur would bring the best price, do you think? FENNIE ANDREW: Trapping beavers. More from fish -- I mean fish buyers. -- I mean fish -- JUDITH MORRIS: Fur buyers? FENNIE ANDREW: Fur buyer (indiscernible). To fur buyer. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you trap beaver all year-round or just -- FENNIE ANDREW: Just when it opened, yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: And it opened in February or when does it open? FENNIE ANDREW: I think February month. JUDITH MORRIS: Every month? FENNIE ANDREW: Uhm-hmm. JUDITH MORRIS: And what about land otter? FENNIE ANDREW: Land otter open up, too, November month or so. JUDITH MORRIS: And lynx? FENNIE ANDREW: I mean December. JUDITH MORRIS: December? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you trap a lynx? Did you trap them all together or did you have to have different places to trap? FENNIE ANDREW: I used different places, yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Where would you look for land otter? FENNIE ANDREW: Up the creeks. Little creeks most of the time. JUDITH MORRIS: And where would you look for lynx? FENNIE ANDREW: Around there. JUDITH MORRIS: In the little creeks or -- FENNIE ANDREW: In the temple, yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: In the where? FENNIE ANDREW: Kokhanok. Kokhanok Lake. Kokhanok Lake. JUDITH MORRIS: So that's different than Cottonwood? FENNIE ANDREW: Uhm-hmm. By cottonwood. We went down. JUDITH MORRIS: So you had a line at Cottonwood and then you had different trapping area at Kokhanok? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, Kokhanok lake. JUDITH MORRIS: At Kokhanok Lake? FENNIE ANDREW: Uhm-hmm. JUDITH MORRIS: What about -- you never trapped wolf? You didn't like to trap wolf? FENNIE ANDREW: No. I don't like trapping wolf. JUDITH MORRIS: I'm trying to think what else. Did you ever use snares for anything? FENNIE ANDREW: For what? JUDITH MORRIS: For, like, squirrels or -- FENNIE ANDREW: I used snare for beaver. JUDITH MORRIS: For beaver? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Did everybody trap beaver or only certain people trapped beaver? FENNIE ANDREW: Huh? JUDITH MORRIS: Did everybody -- could everybody -- did everybody -- FENNIE ANDREW: Everybody trapping, yeah.

JUDITH MORRIS: When they -- when you would go to Iliamna to sell your fur, would there be one fur buyer or would there be many fur buyers? FENNIE ANDREW: Usually two, more than one sometimes. JUDITH MORRIS: More than one? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: And your wife would stay home with the children while you were gone? FENNIE ANDREW: Who? JUDITH MORRIS: Your wife? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: She would stay home with the children? FENNIE ANDREW: Uhm-hmm. JUDITH MORRIS: And were there certain holidays that you would come back for? Would you always be here -- would the village have certain holidays? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: What were your favorite holidays? FENNIE ANDREW: Hmm? JUDITH MORRIS: What were your favorite holidays when you would be in the village? Slavi or -- FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, Slavi, yeah. And Easter. JUDITH MORRIS: And Easter. Did you always -- did you do Slavi when you were a child with your mother and father? FENNIE ANDREW: No, nothing. JUDITH MORRIS: Not when the -- not until you moved to Kokhanok? FENNIE ANDREW: No. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you have a priest here in Kokhanok? FENNIE ANDREW: What's that? JUDITH MORRIS: Here in Kokhanok, did you have a priest here when you were a young man? You've never had a priest in Kokhanok? FENNIE ANDREW: No. JUDITH MORRIS: The priest comes over from Iliamna? From Iliamna? FENNIE ANDREW: From Newhalen, yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: From Newhalen? FENNIE ANDREW: Uhm-hmm. JUDITH MORRIS: From Newhalen. Did you travel around for Slavi? FENNIE ANDREW: Who? JUDITH MORRIS: You. Did you go visiting the villages? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. Sometimes I took one, but no more. JUDITH MORRIS: But no more. Do people still come visit you on Slavi? FENNIE ANDREW: Hmm? JUDITH MORRIS: Do people still come to your house for Slavi -- FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: -- from other villages and from Kokhanok? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: When did you -- when did you quit trapping? FENNIE ANDREW: When I get up to 65, I quit trapping. JUDITH MORRIS: It was too cold or you didn't want to anymore or -- FENNIE ANDREW: No. Didn't want to. JUDITH MORRIS: Tired. FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Did it have anything -- did -- you know when they made Katmai National Park, did that ever affect your trapping? FENNIE ANDREW: Hmm? JUDITH MORRIS: When they made, like, the national park, did that change your trapping at all? FENNIE ANDREW: No. JUDITH MORRIS: You didn't ever trap up in the park anyway? FENNIE ANDREW: No. JUDITH MORRIS: So it didn't make any difference to you. What about hunting? Did you hunt, too, while you were trapping? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, hunting, yeah, hunt. JUDITH MORRIS: What's your favorite thing to hunt? FENNIE ANDREW: When it's open season, moose, yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Moose? FENNIE ANDREW: Moose. JUDITH MORRIS: And where would you go looking for moose? FENNIE ANDREW: Everywhere around there. Everywhere. JUDITH MORRIS: Would you go in your skiff or with dogs? FENNIE ANDREW: In the fall time, yeah, September month. JUDITH MORRIS: With the water -- FENNIE ANDREW: Open, yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: You would take the skiff in the September months? FENNIE ANDREW: Uhm-hmm. Open (indiscernible) the December month we travel with dogs.

JUDITH MORRIS: When did you get rid of your dogs? FENNIE ANDREW: I -- the dogs I don't drive. (Inaudible.) JUDITH MORRIS: Did you get rid of them when you got an ATV? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: I mean, did you have dogs ten years ago? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. I don't drive dogs no more, I don't. JUDITH MORRIS: Were you using dogs when you quit trapping? Were you still using dogs? FENNIE ANDREW: No. JUDITH MORRIS: No. You were using a three-wheeler? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, Ski-doo, yeah. Ski-doo. JUDITH MORRIS: Skiff? Oh, Ski-doo. FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Ski-doo. You were using the snow machine. FENNIE ANDREW: Uhm-hmm. JUDITH MORRIS: So when did you -- so you got rid of your dogs and got a snow machine? FENNIE ANDREW: I have no more dogs after my wife's in the hospital. She's at the APSD for a while now. JUDITH MORRIS: When she went to the hospital, you got rid of your dogs? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, uhm-hmm. JUDITH MORRIS: Did she used to help cook and feed the dogs? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, summertime, yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: And take fish for them? FENNIE ANDREW: Uhm-hmm. JUDITH MORRIS: Would you take fish in the fall for your dogs? You fed your fish dry -- or dry fish, your dogs? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, we put up fish for dogs in summertime. JUDITH MORRIS: And where would you get those fish? FENNIE ANDREW: From the water -- I mean, from the Sid Larson Bay. JUDITH MORRIS: At Sid Larson Bay, you would go up? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Would you get fall fish for that? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you have a cabin up there? FENNIE ANDREW: No. JUDITH MORRIS: A tent? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, we put up a tent and stay up there summertime. When the time it comes down there. JUDITH MORRIS: So you had your fish camp up at Sid Larson Bay -- FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: -- not here in the village? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Oh. So your wife, would she go up to Sid Larson Bay while you went to the bay, while you went fishing? FENNIE ANDREW: No, she'd go fishing, stay with her mother's sister up there. We used to stay up there together all the time. JUDITH MORRIS: Up at Sid Larson? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: So do you still go up there? FENNIE ANDREW: No, I don't go up no more. JUDITH MORRIS: You don't go up anymore? FENNIE ANDREW: No.

JUDITH MORRIS: What kind of fish did you take besides salmon? FENNIE ANDREW: Hmm? JUDITH MORRIS: What kind of fish did you take besides salmon? FENNIE ANDREW: Mostly salmon. Yeah, only salmon. JUDITH MORRIS: Always salmon? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you ever ice fish? Fish in the ice? Cut a hole? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: What would you get then? FENNIE ANDREW: Rainbow, little rainbow. JUDITH MORRIS: Little rainbow? FENNIE ANDREW: Rainbow and Dolly. JUDITH MORRIS: And Dolly. Dolly Varden? What about candle fish or -- FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, sometimes we get it, yeah, candle fish. JUDITH MORRIS: What kind of net would you use for that? What kind of gear? FENNIE ANDREW: I use small little mesh. JUDITH MORRIS: Little -- little mesh? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: A little mesh for the candle fish? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you do a seine for them? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: In front of the village or -- FENNIE ANDREW: No, get it from Gibraltar Lake, up there. JUDITH MORRIS: Gibraltar Lake? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you do that once or twice a year or -- FENNIE ANDREW: Once a year. JUDITH MORRIS: Once a year. Fall time or springtime? FENNIE ANDREW: Not the springtime, fall time. JUDITH MORRIS: Only fall time. FENNIE ANDREW: November month, yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: November month. Did you dry them? FENNIE ANDREW: No. JUDITH MORRIS: No? Just use them fresh. When you were moose hunting and you would take your skiff or you would take your Ski-doo in winter months for -- FENNIE ANDREW: What? JUDITH MORRIS: For moose, when you were moose hunting? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, September month usually open. JUDITH MORRIS: And you go? FENNIE ANDREW: In the fall time generally hunting with skiff. JUDITH MORRIS: Around that lake? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Who did you go with? FENNIE ANDREW: Huh? JUDITH MORRIS: Who did you go hunting with? Did you have a favorite partner? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, anybody who wanted to go, we'd go. JUDITH MORRIS: Anybody who wanted to go? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you have trouble finding moose? Did you usually get a moose? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, sometimes hard locate, you know. Just get -- JUDITH MORRIS: How many -- I mean, would one moose feed you for the winter or -- FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, I'd get one moose. I just get once a year, I mean, I get one moose a year I get. JUDITH MORRIS: And how would you keep it for the winter? How would you take care of it for the winter? FENNIE ANDREW: I keep it for freeze. JUDITH MORRIS: For freezing? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: What about before you had freezers? FENNIE ANDREW: Used to hang it fall time. JUDITH MORRIS: Dry it or -- FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. Mostly. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you ever --

JUDITH MORRIS: -- when did you start getting caribou? Have you always had caribou around the village? No? FENNIE ANDREW: Since what, caribou, two or five years ago. JUDITH MORRIS: About five years ago? FENNIE ANDREW: Uhm-hmm. JUDITH MORRIS: If you were going to get caribou before five years, where would you go? FENNIE ANDREW: Before, across there. JUDITH MORRIS: Talarik Creek area? FENNIE ANDREW: Talarik Creek around there someplace. JUDITH MORRIS: Did people ever trade you for caribou? FENNIE ANDREW: Huh? JUDITH MORRIS: Did you ever trade for caribou? Would you give people moose and they would give you caribou or -- FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: But now you have caribou on this side? FENNIE ANDREW: Huh? JUDITH MORRIS: You have caribou on this side of the lake now? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: What's your favorite meat, moose or caribou? FENNIE ANDREW: Hmm? JUDITH MORRIS: Which is your favorite, moose or caribou? FENNIE ANDREW: Both of them. JUDITH MORRIS: You like them both, huh? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Can you take -- are there any times you wouldn't hunt a moose or a caribou? FENNIE ANDREW: Huh? JUDITH MORRIS: Were there times you would not hunt a moose or caribou? Bad season? Would you hunt a moose in rut? Can you hunt moose in September, October, any time or just certain times? FENNIE ANDREW: Any time, yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: You can eat at moose any time. FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: What about caribou? FENNIE ANDREW: Same thing. JUDITH MORRIS: Same thing, you could eat at any time. FENNIE ANDREW: Uhm-hmm. JUDITH MORRIS: What type of gun did you use? What is your favorite gun? FENNIE ANDREW: Any kind of gun. Use a .30-6, .30-6. .22. JUDITH MORRIS: Anything, huh? FENNIE ANDREW: Uhm-hmm. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you -- if you were going to go out moose hunting, would you take another kind of gun to shoot smaller things like rabbits or -- you know. FENNIE ANDREW: Sometimes I just take .22 and got moose with it. JUDITH MORRIS: You got a moose with a .22? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Must have been a very good shot? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. Close by on it.

JUDITH MORRIS: Would you -- what would you do with the racks? Did you ever save the racks for anything? Just cut the heads off, cut the racks off and -- FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. Skin it and cut. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you have to -- did your parents ever tell you that you had to treat an animal special when you were hunting and when you were a young boy and you were learning to hunt? Did your dad teach you? Who taught you to hunt? FENNIE ANDREW: Huh? JUDITH MORRIS: Who taught you how to hunt? FENNIE ANDREW: My dad. JUDITH MORRIS: Your dad. Did he tell you any special things about hunting, any rules that you needed to do? FENNIE ANDREW: Hmm? JUDITH MORRIS: Any rules? Did he tell you anything special you should do when you were hunting if you were going to be a good hunter? What were some of the things he told you? FENNIE ANDREW: He showed me how to do it. And I -- JUDITH MORRIS: Did he tell you anything about respecting animals or anything like that? When you were teaching your boys to hunt, did you tell them how they had to treat the animal or anything? FENNIE ANDREW: What? JUDITH MORRIS: When -- I guess what I'm trying to ask is, when you were learning how to hunt, you know, when you were hunting as a young boy, were there certain ways to treat the animal? Like if you respect the moose when you shoot him, did you take care of his bones? Did you have to do anything special? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: What did you have to do? FENNIE ANDREW: Bones, throw it away. That's all you can do. JUDITH MORRIS: That's all you could do? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. We take the meat off and take the bones and throw it away. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you have to throw it in the water, in the dirt, anywhere? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, in the water, yeah. The bones, yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: So the animal won't get thirsty or -- some people have told me that their parents a long time ago told them that animals will get thirsty and you have to be careful with their bones and you have to respect them and give them back to the water. FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. You do, yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: And I was wondering if that's anything that you remember hearing when you were a young boy. FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. He tells me like that. JUDITH MORRIS: They did tell you like that, your parents? FENNIE ANDREW: Uhm-hmm. JUDITH MORRIS: Did they tell you anything else about animals? FENNIE ANDREW: No. Just to put the bones in the water, throw them in the water. JUDITH MORRIS: What about fish bones? Anything special about fish bones? FENNIE ANDREW: No. No. JUDITH MORRIS: No? Lots of fish bones, huh? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Lots of fish bones.

JUDITH MORRIS: When you got your -- what was the first animal you killed? Do you remember? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. When I was young, yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-huh. Which kind was it? FENNIE ANDREW: Hmm? JUDITH MORRIS: What animal did you get? The first one. FENNIE ANDREW: Moose. JUDITH MORRIS: The very first animal you killed was a moose? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. (Indiscernible.) JUDITH MORRIS: And did you have to do anything? Did you have to give it away? Did you have to -- FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, some, yeah. To give it. Some people I took and give some to. JUDITH MORRIS: Anyone special? To elders or to your grandparents? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. Give anybody who wants the meat. JUDITH MORRIS: Anybody? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: When your boys first killed their -- killed an animal -- FENNIE ANDREW: Hmm? JUDITH MORRIS: When your boys went hunting with you, did you teach your boys how to hunt? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah, Andy, always he help me when I -- go with me when I hunt. JUDITH MORRIS: When he killed his first animal, did he give it away or did he do anything special? FENNIE ANDREW: Yeah. JUDITH MORRIS: Gave it away? In the village or -- FENNIE ANDREW: Uhm-hmm. To the village. JUDITH MORRIS: To the village. That's something you guys do to everyone? (End of recorded session.)