Project Jukebox

Digital Branch of the University of Alaska Fairbanks Oral History Program
Anesia Newyaka

Anesia Newyaka is interviewed on August 10, 1997 by Judith Morris at Lakecrest Bed and Breakfast in Kokhanok, Alaska. In this interview, Anesia talks about growing up in Kokhanok, living a subsistence lifestyle of hunting, trapping, fishing, and berry picking, and how life in the community has changed. She shares her memories of what life was like when she was a girl, the games they played, and the work they did to put up fish and plants and other subsistence foods in various seasons. She also discusses the Russian Orthodox church, working as a school cook, changes in communication, the 1964 Earthquake, and the importance of sharing.

Digital Asset Information

Archive #: Oral History 1998-21-07

Project: Katmai National Park
Date of Interview: Aug 10, 1997
Narrator(s): Anesia Newyaka
Interviewer(s): Judith Morris
Location of Interview:
Funding Partners:
National Park Service
Alternate Transcripts
There is no alternate transcript for this interview.
Slideshow
There is no slideshow for this person.

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Sections

Her personal and family background and her first years living in Kokhanok

Her father trapping, taking care of a dog team, and the family going camping when she was a girl

Camping with her family and going to school when she was a girl

Who lived in Kokhanok in the early days and getting groceries when there was no village store

The store at Iliamna and Fall fishing with her family

Her father's trapping and fur preparation, and how the family got drinking water in the early days

Effects on human relations and church attendance from changes in the village

Celebrating Russian Orthodox church holidays

Russian Orthodox church holidays continued

The ways people used bears and the seasonal round of subsistence

Preserving eggs for food, and changes in the animal populations in the area, especially bears

Picking and storing berries

Old style lamps, and what people did for fun in the early days

Fishing and her stepmother making a fish storage barrel out of grass

Working as a school cook for eighteen years

The early days of airplanes, mail delivery, and telephone service

The early days of radio communication and mail delivery

Traveling by dog team, wearing fur clothing, and her family moving between fish camp and town

How life in Kokhanok has changed and wanting young people to understand how hard life used to be

Putting fish up in the summer, and using wild plants

Her father having a small garden, making his own dog sled, and changes she has seen in Kokhanok since she was a girl

Making agutak, playing baseball in earlier times, and the 1964 Earthquake

Being scared during the 1964 Earthquake, and traveling to the hospital in Anchorage when she got sick

Changes in Kokhanok from more people coming to live in the village

Doing lots of fun things when she was young and now being limited by her old age

Sharing food, and that children today watch too much television

Storing lots of fish for the winter in case of starvation and not wasting food

Using the different parts of moose, her father's death in 1971 when he was almost 90 years old, and her parent's heritage

Thank you's and conclusion of the interview

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Transcript

MS. JUDITH MORRIS: This is Sunday, August 10th. I'm in Kokhanok, Alaska, and Lakecrest Bed and Breakfast with Anesia Newyaka. This is Judith Morris. Anesia, we're looking to learn about life in Kokhanok and your life over your times that you have lived in Alaska here and in Kokhanok. And you just want to tell us like when you were born and where you were born and what your family, when you were a young girl, was like. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I was born at Newhalen December 25, 1941. As soon as I born, my parents moved this side, Kokhanok. I raised here in Kokhanok. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And who are -- who are your parents? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: My mamma, her name is Mary, and my daddy's name is Mike. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Were they from Kokhanok originally or did they live somewhere else? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I -- I -- I heard my dad born in Old Iliamna somewhere. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: But I don't know where my mom born, though. I don't know where she born. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And as soon as you were born in Newhalen you moved to -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Kokhanok. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: -- Kokhanok? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you have any brothers and sisters? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We had four of mine. They are all died, except me and Mary Nelson. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Just two of us. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. And your father's name was Mike? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Was he the chief of the village? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: He was chief in Kokhanok. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: In Kokhanok? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yes. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So when you were growing up, did you live down closer -- I know you live in a HUD house now up on the road, but when you were first growing up, where did your family live in the village? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We live where that housing over there. We had a little house. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Down by the beach or up high? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Not up here, over there by Corbus Attachik (phonetic). MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Oh, up by where Kwappas (phonetic) live. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, way over there. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Underneath the water tower over there? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. And what kind of house did you have? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We had a log house. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: A log house? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: One room or many rooms or -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We -- seemed like when we had -- we had one room. And 1956 my dad make a little bedroom for themself. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. For he and your mom? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah.

MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And when you were -- that's a three-wheeler going by. When you were growing up and you were living with your mom and dad in the log house up here -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: -- what was your -- what did your dad do? Was he a trapper? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: He was a trapper and hunter. And that's it. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Where were his traplines? Were they near the village or did he go out for fish and game? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: He went out somewhere, I guess. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Yeah. You don't know where his trap line was? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Huh-uh. Huh-uh. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did your mom go with him? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: She would go with him and -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: My stepmom showed my daddy how to set the beaver snare. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-huh. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: And he learned from her. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Oh, he -- she taught him how to set the beaver trap? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Nick's mamma know how. Like she's like a man. She used to do everything. Hunting and trapping and get the wood, goofy things. And drive dogs. You know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you guys, did you grow up with a dog team? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yes. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: With a dog team? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: There was no three wheeler, no skidoo, only dog teams. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: And summertime we had boat, though. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Boat with a kicker? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. And when you had the dog teams, when you were a little girl, did you cook for the dogs or did you give them dry fish, or -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: My stepmom used to cook for dogs every day. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. What would you cook for the dogs? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Dog food, like dry fish. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Dry fish? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. So we cut -- oh, my stepmom and my dad used to put up lots of fish for dog teams. Maybe they fill the smoke house three times so -- so we don't have to run out of fish. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Uh-hum. So you would take the fish in the summer and the fall time for the dogs? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And dry them up and put them in -- store them in the smoke house? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yes. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And smoke them? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did your dad and mom take you different places when you were growing up, to fish camp or to trapping camp? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, we used to go camping like Dennis Creek, you know, springtime. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: What would you get at Dennis Creek at springtime? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Camping there for a month, I guess. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Yeah. Would you get fish there? Would you trap? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Fish. And my dad used to hunt. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-huh. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Every day fresh food. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: What kind of -- would he get big game there or little game? Would he get like caribou and moose, or would he get beaver and porcupine? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: He used to get porcupine, beaver, fish, rabbits. You know, any kind of.

MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you stay in like a tent when you were there? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: One of those -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We used to stay in tent. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: One of those white canvas tents? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Yeah? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-huh. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: With a stove inside? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-huh. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Your mom, they would take the whole family up there? You would go by dog team? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yes. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yes. The dog. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Were other people staying up there with you, when you would go up to Dennis Creek camping? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Woodcrafts, Willie Woodcraft. But they are -- they are all gone. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: He used to camp with us. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Camp with you up there? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Were you going to school as a young girl? Was there school here? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: There was no school here long time. For a long time, we never have school until 1956. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. And -- in the log school they had back then? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And who was the teacher? Can you remember? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Miss Smith. Holly -- Holly Smith, but she died. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: She died? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And did you start going to school when Holly Smith brought the school in? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you remember how many students were in the school? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Seemed like over -- over 20. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Over 20? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. 15 or 20. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And so everybody was in one classroom? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: There was just one teacher? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. One teacher. And stay in one -- one place there. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: You stayed in one place? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Would they serve you lunch at school or would you go home for lunch? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We used to go home and have lunch. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And then come back in the afternoon for more school? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Go to school about nine o'clock. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you -- did your father fish down in Bristol Bay? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: He used to. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you go with him down there or would you stay home? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: He would go down by himself? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. He used to fish with chums that I know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Fish Bristol Bay? Uh-hum. So when you stayed home in the summer when you were a young girl, did you move to fish camp? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, we used to put up fish out there. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Where was your fish camp? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: The fish camp down -- they call Kokhanok. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Down on -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Fish camp. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Down the beach here? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No, way down there. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Are you talking about the fish camp now like where Mary Nelson and the Mikes are? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yes. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: That fish camp down there. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Everybody used to go to -- go get fish down there. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't know why they started put up fish up here. Nobody don't move down there. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Nobody stays down there now? Maybe that -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Only Mary Nelson and Mikes. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Mikes. So when you would go down to fish camp with your mom, how would you get there? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Willie used to bring us down with his boat. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Willie Rickteroff? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-huh, we used his boat. And finally my daddy make a log boat. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: A log boat? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. Skiff. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Oh. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: But we never use it for --

MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: but we never use it for -- just put up fish for winter. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Did your brothers go with you when you went down to fish camp, everybody went? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Everybody used to, me and Nicolas' mom. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Everybody used to go -- move down there. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did your dad ever talk to you about what Kokhanok was like when he first lived here? When he was young boy? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: No? How many -- who was living in the village when you were a young girl here? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: You know, when I -- when I first remember, then there was only 10 or 12 houses here. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Do you remember who they were? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I remember old Johnny Mike, and old Evan Olympic and them, with his family. And Simmie Zackar, and Gregory Wassillie and them. That's all I remember. Oh, Fennie Andrew. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Fennie Andrew? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And Feducia (phonetic)? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. And did most -- well, you lived up here, up the hill. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. We just -- MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did anybody live up the hill with you? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. Just us. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Just the Newyakas. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Just only Newyakas. And when we gonna go down to fish camp, we used to pack our own stuff back and forth. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: All the way down to the water? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, back and forth. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. And where was the church at that time? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: That old house down there. I mean, that old church right there. Next to that new church. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Yeah, you're pointing to the new church. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Or the little church next to the new church? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Was it there or was it located somewhere else? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't know how old I was. I remember only few minutes. Then we'd always go to church there by the -- down little lake. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: (Indiscernible.) MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And the church was down there? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: There. And the church was there and they move it up here. I don't know what year. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you remember any stores in the village when you were little? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: There was no store, no kind of store. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: How would you get your grub for the winter? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We used to get it from Iliamna. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And would you go over with the dogs to get it? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Dogs. With the dogs. And summertime we would go with my uncle, Gregory Wassillie, with his boat. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Who was your uncle? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Gregory Wassillie. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Oh, Gregory Wassillie. You would go over in his skiff? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: His boat. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: His fishing boat or his skiff? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, fishing boat. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And you would get your food for the summer? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Until the lake froze up? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Fall time, before winter come, we used to go -- go shopping again for the winter. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: You know, that year everything was really cheap.

MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We used to buy grub, you know, for a year. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Who was running the store over in Iliamna, do you remember? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Oh, At Lee -- Art Lee. Art Lee. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Art Lee? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Okay. And did you guys go to fall camp somewhere for fall fish? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Up -- I don't know what they call that lake. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Gibraltar? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Up to Gibraltar Lake you would go for fall fish? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And how long would you stay when you go for fall fish? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: A month. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: A month? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Until snowing or cold, cold weather come. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And you would live in a tent again? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. There. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And did you move that same tent or did you have a separate tent staying, waiting for you? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We used to have only one tent up there, just only us. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So would you -- you would pack the tent on your dog team, take it up there? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. We -- my dad used to pack our stuff up the lake. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Would he pack it on his back? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Or would he pack it -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Pack on his back. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Oh. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Every day. Sometimes he had two trips, with the dogs -- the dogs helping. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: The dogs packed there, too. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Oh. Even in the summer, you could use your dogs? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did he have them on a sled or -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No, we never used sled for the summer, you know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Would you put packs on the dogs? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Pack sacks. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: On the dogs? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And he would walk up there? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: I wonder how long it -- if you were a child, how long would it take you to walk up there? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Could you get up there in one day? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. One day. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: But nobody -- you were about the only family that went up there to camp in the fall? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Other people went other places? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No -- yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Yeah. Uh-hum. And would you seine for your fall fish or would you put a set net out, or? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We used to make -- put our fish up more up there, for winter. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you have a smoke house up there? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. Just dry them outside. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: You just had a rack? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: For drying? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-huh. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: You split them and hang them? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Never smoke it, just hang them outside. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Were those -- were those for people and dogs or dog fish or people fish or? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: For just us and dogs. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: For both people and -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: -- dog fish? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Those are fish that are spawned out so they are lighter? They don't have so much oil in them? Is that -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: You don't know. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-huh. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And how would you get the fish back down? Would your dad have to pack them back down again? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Oh, yeah, my dad used to pack them with the -- with the dog teams. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Would he wait until it was snowing so he could put the sled on? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Then he would go up and get the fish? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And bring it back down? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah.

MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And then he would start trapping again once the snow came? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. I don't know what date he used to trapping. Maybe November or December, I don't know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did he used to bring the furs home to stretch them? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you guys help him with his furs? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. He used to do it himself, him and his wife. Old my -- I mean, Nick's mom. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you ever see him making stretchers for the furs or did he make his own stretchers? Did he buy them somewhere? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No, he makes his own. Like, you know, like chop them up there... MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Wider at the bottom and -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And then you would have furs stretched out around the house? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And how did he sell his furs? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't know how he used to sell it, because I don't remember it that much. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So as a young girl, were you helping your mom with the cooking or, you know, before you went to school, what would you do during the day? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I used to -- I hardly used to do anything in the house, only been wooding and pack water. I do whatever my dad do, you know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Your -- your house would have been pretty far from the water. Did you go down -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No, we had spring water and that's why have so much. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: So you went to the spring instead to get water. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. There used to be spring water over there. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Is that spring -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: And my dad used to dig -- dig in the water, make it deeper. I mean deeper. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Oh, he used to dig out for the spring water? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So he could get a bucket in there? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Dipper? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. I don't know what they got -- they got long sticks. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: I don't know what -- what they might -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't know what they call them. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Maybe it will come to us in a minute. Would that spring stay open in the winter? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So it didn't freeze over, you could put it -- you could go get water any time? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: But when it's too cold, it would always dry up. And my dad used to pack water from the lake. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And would he carry it with the dogs or how -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: He used to -- seemed like he used to carry it with a sled, push it. You know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Push it with a sled? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Go down to the water, I mean to the lake and then bring it back up the hill? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: He had a trail up from down there? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, we used to have three wheeler -- I mean rope. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: A trail where the three wheeler road is now? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. We used to have no road, this kind of road before. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Just like trails? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Little trails? Do you remember your parents talking to you about the fish and game around here and how it took care of you, you know, how it fed you? And were you supposed to treat the game special or were there any rules about the game or hunting or fishing that you remember them talking, telling stories about fish and game?

MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't know. I didn't remember that. Because that when we was young, we used to scare white people, you know, whoever come here, we used to scare them. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't know why. Nowadays we be friendly to anybody, even when we first met them and we talk to them and friendly with them. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We're not like before, you know. When we was young, we used to run away and not be friendly with nobody. Just scare them. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: You were scared of white people when you were younger? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Yeah, anybody. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Anybody outside the village. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: (Indiscernible) any outsiders maybe? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Because -- because there was not much people here, just only us here. Maybe four kids here. There was Mary Wassillie -- oh, there was more than four of us. There was Mary Wassillie, Annie Wassillie, before. Gabriel Olympic, Alec Olympic, and me and Nick. There was not much kids around here. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Very little, huh. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Oh, man, when we was in school, we spy after -- after persons, with their cousins. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Okay. Yeah. So there weren't very many people so you got used to just a few people around here. Was everybody active in the church, in your church? Everybody went to church a lot? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. That day I remember we used to go to church every Saturday and holidays. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So you used to go to church every Saturday? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Every Saturday and Sunday and holidays, you know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Seem like nowadays, it seemed like nobody don't go to church, only once in a while. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Who was your reader when you were a young girl? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Nick G. Henry G. Olympic. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Henry G. Olympic? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And what, would he read and -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: He's a reader, a church reader and Sunday school teacher. Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Would he read in English or Yup'ik or -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Both. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Both. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: English and Yup'ik. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you have a priest come over very often? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I remember he used -- a priest used to come once a year. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: From? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: From Nushagak. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Oh, from Nushagak? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Father. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Would he come to baptize? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Father Sergei. Oh, Father Sergei. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Father Sergei? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Only summertime he used to come -- come here. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Would he come by a skiff or -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: By boat. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: By boat? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you have like godparents? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And I can't think what the godparents are called. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Kalushna. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Yeah. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. We used to have godparents, too. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And they would take special interest in you when you were -- were they supposed to take care of you special or treat you differently than other children?

MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: It seemed -- seemed like they used to treat us like their own -- MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Own children? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Own -- yeah, own kids. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So if it was your name day, or -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, our name days. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: They would -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Like my -- my godmom, she died, I don't know what year. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I should have asked her like the old-timers, you know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I wouldn't know everything, if I asked question, I didn't know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Who was your godmother? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Annie -- Annie Andrew. She died a long time ago. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do they still have godparents? Do people here still have godparents in the village? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Everybody, yeah, all over the place, yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: What are the -- the best church holidays here? What are your big church holidays? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Like Russian Orthodox -- I mean, Russian Christmas, Easter, like name days. Like holidays, like on some kind of holidays. And Saturdays and Sundays. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Saturdays and Sundays. So if it's your name day, is that the name day that -- is that your church name? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, church name day. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Who gives -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: And one day -- MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Who gives you that name? Who gives you your church name? The priest or -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Our name day -- our names -- our name day is on calendar. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Like yours is Anesia. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And so there is a special day for Anesians? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Once my name day is on January month. January 11. 11. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: When it's your name day, do they have a special service over at the church for you? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We used to go to church on our name day. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: And the next day and everybody eat. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: You have a party at your house? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you cook for everybody? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. My -- I don't. I would -- the rest of the people. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: No? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't. No time to cook on Russian Christmas, because there's all kind of people used to come around for Slavi, they call them Slavi, Russian Christmas. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. When you were a young girl, did people go around for Slavi? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. With the dog teams. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So how long would you be gone when you would go Slavi? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Until it's over, after new year, no more. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: After new year? How far away do you remember going for Slavi? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We used to go Slavi 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11, I think. Five days. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So you would go where, you would go to Igiugig? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We used to go to Igiugig, Newhalen, Nondalton. That's all I remember, when I was a little girl.

MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Nowadays they could go like Nondalton. I remember I used to go to Nondalton, Newhalen and Igiugig. Nowadays they go to Levelock, New Stuyahok, Koliganek, and Naknek. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And Naknek. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And you used to go by dog team, and now they go by airplane? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Nowadays, yeah. That's while we got airplanes and skidoos. A long time ago they used to don't go with the airplane. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-huh. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: And when we go Slavi, we would go by dog teams. Long time to reach Igiugig, one day camp, next day go down to Igiugig. Then -- we Slavi down there and come back next day, stay overnight, then -- then we reach here. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: But all the way across there, we used to stay overnight just one day, you know. Just go across there. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Go across, spend the night in Newhalen? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Newhalen. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And then would you go on to Nondalton? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Then we go Slavi there house to house, and then next day go up to Nondalton. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And then come all the way back? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So I bet that was -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Nowadays they fly or with the skidoos. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: With the skidoos? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. Skidoos or Hondas or airplanes. Nowadays, you know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. And what about Easter? That's another big holiday? Do people -- did you used to fast? Did they used to do the -- you know, the no meat during the -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, they used to -- a long time ago I remember my parents used to Lent for 40 days. Just until Easter. After Easter, they used to eat anything like meat. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So we were talking about Lent and the 40 days. And so people didn't eat meat or -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: They eat some kind of -- like I remember they eat rice and fish every day until Easter. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. And so they didn't eat moose or caribou or -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: -- porcupine. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No -- no -- they -- they don't use milk or I don't know they... MS. JUDITH MORRIS: What about eggs? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Eggs, too. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: They couldn't use eggs? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Huh-uh. I don't know how they Lent a long time ago, but me and Nick never Lent. They never let us Lent, only themself. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Maybe they didn't let children. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do people still do Lent now? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Some, yeah. Nowadays, they don't Lent no more. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: (Inaudible.) Do you remember as a young girl eating like bear fat and bear oil? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, we used -- we used to eat bear. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you remember your dad being a bear hunter? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Would he go hunting in springtime, full time?

MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Fall time, I think. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Fall time? And they would get a bear. Would they salt that meat or how would they take care of the bear meat? There would be a lot of meat there. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: My -- Nick's mama, she usually cooked them, bear feet -- MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-huh. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: -- cook it all and put them in jars for winter. They don't spoil like that. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Cook the bear feet up? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you remember her using like the bear skin for making mukluks or using the bear fur for blankets or anything? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I remember they stretch them out and dry them out. And after that, after they dry them and then they soak it. And I don't know how they soak it, they put them in that pot, soak it, and let the fur come off. And they use them for mukluks. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: The sole -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: -- of the mukluk? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: What would they use for the top of the mukluk, do you know? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Seal skin. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Seal skin? Would your dad go hunting seals when he was a young boy? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Young man? He would go hunting and -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: They used to hunt eggs -- I mean, not eggs, seal. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Now they -- around they don't. Seem like they -- some do hunt seal. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: When would they hunt seal, do you remember? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: There's a Seal Island down there, way down there. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And you could hunt any time for seal? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Any time of the year? Not just springtime? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Whenever they -- whenever they hungry for -- I mean, whenever they run out of seal. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Seal meat. Seal oil. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Take the skiff and go over and hunt? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: By boat. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: By boat? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you remember in springtime going out and looking for duck eggs or gull eggs or? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Maybe June month. June month. Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And you would go out and pick them? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did your mom save the eggs or did you just -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: She used to save it. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: How would she save them? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Seemed like she -- after she -- that day we used to hunt a little bit and they bury them in the ground. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: In the cool ground? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. That they, a long time ago they used to have no freezer or refrigerator or nothing, a long time ago, you know.

MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't know how they used to. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: You don't remember them covering them with oil or anything like that? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Just putting them in the cool ground? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: In cool ground or put them in spring water. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Make it cold. She used to -- seemed like it used to fresh. That's all I remember. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: I bet that was a treat. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Sometimes to get those fresh eggs. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you remember getting like duck and swan or geese meat in the springtime, or in the fall time, or? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: You don't remember your dad going hunting for -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: -- for things like that? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Huh-uh. Only beaver. Porcupine. Moose. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you remember -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Brown bear. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you remember moose around here when you were a little girl? You do remember moose? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: What about caribou? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: They used to have -- we used to have no caribous around there. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So if somebody was to get a caribou, where would they go? Would they trade somebody for it? Would one of your relatives from somewhere else give you caribou meat or did you -- your dad go across the lake for it or something? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. Seemed like we used to have no caribous that days here. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you used to have -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Nowadays, the caribous come around this area. Nowadays, yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Are you seeing more bear around here now than you used to when you were a young girl? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Seemed like there's more. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: More bear? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: You know, long time ago, the bear, brown bear used to don't near the people. They used to don't touch their fish or net or nothing. And as soon as they smell something, they used run away somewhere there and never come back. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And now they have gotten braver? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Seems like they are braver now. You could leave dry fish or, you know, anything. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you remember your dad -- so your dad didn't have to scare the bears away? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: He used to scare them with the gun in the air, and let them just run away. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: And when we would go picking berries, we used to -- you carry cans -- MS. JUDITH MORRIS: To shake? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: -- make shake, and make lots of noise, you know. Hid or something you know, when we get scared, so a bear wouldn't come around. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Before you had Hondas and it was like summertime and you were going to go berry picking, how would you get there? Would you walk? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We walk. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Would you go the same places then that you go now, outside of the old -- by the -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We used to go down to the point, or up that way, or way up there. They used to go all over the place now a long time ago, you know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Walking? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Walking every day.

MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And what would you pick your berries in? Would you have baskets or cans or bags? What would you put your berries in? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Seemed like we used to pack them with the cans. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: With the cans? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Picking berries all day. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: And they -- when they get hungry, they eat. Then pick again until it's evening to come home. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. And how would your mom store her berries? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: They used to leave it out there, the cache. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: In a cache? You had a cache above the ground? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: On legs or -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Was it up high on legs? Was it a log cache, made out of logs? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. Dad -- my dad used to make just only up, you know, just not like a cache. Just leave it outside and tie everything up, make it there, you know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Uh-hum. When you were -- so you would have your berries in there and you would have dry fish in there? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Your fish? Did you ever make buckets of solumus? (Phonetic). MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, everything we used to make. Everything. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Well how -- and what would you put -- what part of the fish do you use for solumus? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Heads and meat. Put salt. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Is that the rock salt? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Rock salt. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And put it in -- did you put it in wooden barrels? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Wooden barrels? Do you remember where you would get those wooden barrels? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: He -- my dad used to get it from the store. You know, even their big ones, too. Seemed like I don't see it no more. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you remember if he bought something in those barrels? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. Just only empty ones. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Empty ones? Uh-hum. And then in the winter months when it got dark here, you know, when it gets darker in the winter and you don't have so much daylight, what would you do in the evening, once it got dark? Did you have kerosene? Did you have -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We used to have kerosene lamp. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Flashlight. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Flashlight. With batteries? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: With the batteries. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: And when we go -- when we go maqi, we use a flashlight. Or a homemade -- MS. JUDITH MORRIS: You probably mean a steam bath? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Or a homemade light in cloth. And they fix it and put a lard there, make it light in there.

MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Okay. Now, explain that to me again. You take a cloth? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: A cloth and they -- MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And tie it? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Tie it. I don't know how they used to do it. Anyway, they make cloth and they put Wesson oil or lard, and then light it. It seemed like it used to light a long time. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Oh. So it was like a candle or something and then -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Like a candle. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. And that would be -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: They put them in a little -- MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Dish? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Dish or a can. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Or in a can? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: It would light your steam house? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: In the winter? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: But in the winter, we used to have lamp. Nothing inside though because it might melt or something. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Uh-hum. Did you guys, like, play cards at night or did you play games or listen to your parents tell stories? Before you had TV, what would you do in the evening? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We used to eat first and play out a little bit and come home and listen to records, me and Nick, you know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Listen to records? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Records. And go to bed early, about eight or nine o'clock. Or on weekend, we used to look at books, you know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Where would you get your records? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Well, I don't know where daddy got it from. You know, a long time ago they used to make -- MS. JUDITH MORRIS: The wind-up? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, the wind-up. I don't know where he got it. He used to buy us anything. And -- and my -- my brother used to have a bike, you know. And I used to -- tried to learn how to, but I never learned. Every time I get in there I hurt myself. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: You fall down? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: (Indiscernible.) Do you remember dances and parties with the village? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. They used to have dance, old-timer dance. Like carnival time, you know, play guitar. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Who were the guitar players around here? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No, they -- long time ago when I was small, they used to listen to records. You know, they sound like they used to buy good records. And Friday night or Saturday night, they used to dance. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Where would they dance? Would they dance in someone's house? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Down at Gregory Wassillie's house. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: They called him Little Joe because he's a little man. And they used to have dance there. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Everybody used to come? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Bring food? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't know. I was too young to remember anything, you know. I remember they used to lots of people dance there. Good time all the time on weekends.

MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Cribbage? Did they play cribbage? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't know about that, you know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: I was trying to think of some other games that -- that maybe they did. And your dad would hunt and trap all winter, and then when spring came -- did your mom go out ice fishing in the winter? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did she ice fish? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: She used to go fishing every day. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Every day? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: With a line and a hook? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Sometimes she used to catch maybe 10. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: What kind of fish do you think she was catching? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Rainbow. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Rainbow? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Dolly. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Dolly Varden? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And she would bring them home and just cook them up for you that day? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Cook it and fry it. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Bake it or fry it or boil it. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: You had a wood stove at that time? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, we used to have cook -- wood stove. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Wood stove? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Rest of them, when we had leftover, she used to cook food to the dogs. You know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. She used to cook them up for the dogs? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We used to don't waste no food at that time, you know, long time ago. We used to save even the little small fish, we used to don't throw them away, we save it for dogs, you know. When we cook for dogs, then we cook it, you know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you ever go out and get candle fish in the fall? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. We used to get it from up where we used to camp fall time. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Gibraltar? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And you would get -- you would seine them, or -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Nighttime, it seemed like they used to -- what do you call, seine it, every night, moonlight. With a canoe. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Oh. Your mom and dad? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And would they dry those fish, or -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: My -- I remember old -- my stepmom, she cut some grass and she make old -- old time homemade barrel. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Barrel? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. With the grass. I don't know how. I should used to watch her how she do it. And she made barrels. She used to make big ones, and put the candle fish there. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Would that be -- then would she put it in the ground? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Or would she just put it in -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: And she used to just make it like a barrel. And she make a cover, too. I don't know how she would do it. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Then she would bring that basket home? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And put it in your cache? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Oh. So it was something that she could use as a transport -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: -- item? She could bring that home? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't know how she make it, though. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-huh. You don't know anybody who makes those still? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No, I never seen nobody make homemade one. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Only her. You know.

MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you think that the winters used to be colder when you were a young girl than they are now? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, it used to be really cold. Long -- seemed like long winter, lots of snow, cold weather. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you go out to school at all when you were -- I don't know how long -- how far the school went when you were -- could you go to 6th grade, 7th grade, 8th grade here? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: It seemed like I go up to 8th grade. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Then I wanna go to high school. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Where did you go to high school? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't go high school. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Oh, you didn't go to high school? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: My dad never let me high school. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did your brother go out to high school? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. My brother go to school over in Newhalen. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-huh. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: But my -- my dad never let me go to school over in Newhalen. Only after we get a school here he let me go to school here. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. And did they have -- did they ever have a high school that you went to here? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No, there was no high school. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: There was no high school? You started working for the school, though, didn't you, at some point? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: When you were, you know, a grown woman, you started working as a cook? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. After, yeah. Quit school, I guess. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: You started working at the school, cooking? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Where would you get your food for cooking at the school? Did they bring it in to you or did you use native food for cooking? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: They -- the principal, they used to order it from King Salmon or something. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So you would get a big supply of food? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. And I used to follow the menus. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So they would tell what you to cook -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: -- every day? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Every day. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: What you were supposed to serve all the children? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And how many years did you do that? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: 18. 18 years. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: 18 years? So you started at the small school down by the Nielsen's? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And then you moved to the new school? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And now the big new school? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: You saw lots of changes at the school? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. When you first started working, who were the teachers? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Pete. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: (Inaudible) were here? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. Or -- I forgot that teacher. No, that was Mr. Morry. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Morry? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Mr. Morry and there's a -- oh, I forgot that guy name. He -- he died. Him and his wife crashed. Plane crashed.

MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you remember planes coming into the village very much when you were a young girl? Do you remember very many planes? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: That was -- yeah, I remember Orin Hudson used to come around. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Hudson? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Orin Hudson. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Orin Hudson? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: He used to be our mailman. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Would he land on skis or would he land on wheels? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Skis and wheel wintertime. He used to be our pilot. And Sunny Grout used to come around Russian Christmas, too. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Sunny Grout did? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: From Naknek? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-huh. Russian Christmas Day. Come around. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you get mail very often when you were a little girl? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Seemed like we used to get mail every day, only he used to bring -- sometime he would bring only one mail. One letter every day. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Where was the Post Office? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: There -- we had no Post Office here. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So would somebody just go down and get the mail -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: -- and give it to whoever it belonged to? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. And then we wait for somebody passing -- pass the mail around. We just stand there and wait for them. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: If we got any mail. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. And before you had telephone or CB radios, where -- how would you get news to different people? If you had to talk to someone out of the village, how would do you that, if someone got sick? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We -- we used to have telephone. That kind right there. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Crank? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. I don't think we used to use a long distance call. I don't know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-huh. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Seemed like when we gonna call this village around here, then we dialed the number. I don't know how we did. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you have that in your house? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. Every one of them. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Everybody had a crank phone? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Everybody in town? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't think we had long distance call at that time. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: No long distance phone calling? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't think so. Seemed like that we don't. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you remember whether you as a child, did you have a radio in your house? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: VHF. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: VHF? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Willie. Willie used to have VHF. They used to have schedule 6:30 every night. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Willie Ricteroff? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So they could talk to the different -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: They could talk to --

MS. JUDITH MORRIS: This is a continuation of our talk with Anesia Newyaka and Judith Morris, August 10th, in 1997, in Kokhanok. So we were talking about the radio schedule every night at 6:30? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: 6:30 every night. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And he -- they would talk to people in Iliamna? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. Willie used to talk to Orin Hudson. After Orin Hudson moved from Iliamna, then called to Trig Olson. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: He used to call anybody like over that way to Dillingham area, with the VHF. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Just sort of check in? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. He used to -- VHF, he used to use a big batteries in it like, you know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And it was in his house? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. When did everybody start getting CB radios? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Not too long. Not too long ago. I forgot what year. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Yeah. But you were like -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Willie -- I mean Shirley and them used to have VHF. And then everybody start having their VHF, too. Willie used to have VHF. Then long before Willie -- I mean before Shirley and them come, Willie used to have VHF, I remember. Or Danny Moore and them. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Now, where did Danny Moore live? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: He used to stay up there, I don't know what they call that, up there they used to have -- we used to have -- we used to have Post Office -- MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Up at Reindeer Bay or something like that? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Something like that. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: They -- we used to have a Post Office up there. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: And we used to check the mail wintertime with dog teams. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: You would go over there? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: With my dad, yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Were there a lot of people living over there then? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. Only Danny Moore and them. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And so how long would it take you to get over there, do you know? One day? You could go over and back in one day? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: One day and go up there and come back. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. And how often would you do that? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't know. I don't even remember. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Just once in awhile you would go over and get the mail? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. I used to hardly -- hard time go then.

MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Only Nick, he used to take my brother all the time. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: More than you? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, more than me. I -- I didn't remember that much, that's why. I -- seemed like I used to stay home all the time. But once in awhile he would take me. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And did you like it when he would take you? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And would you sit on the sled? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And what did you -- would you have like furs on top of you or? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: He just dress us up warm, you know. When we get cold, he warm our face, or cover us up with the blanket. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you have like fur mittens and hats? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did your mom sew with fur? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: With the furs your dad trapped? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you ever learn how to sew with furs? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. My cousin, she make me fur mukluk. And Mary Olympic's mama, she make me a parka. She make like a -- MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Out of squirrel or? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. Little moose, what do you call that? MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Little moose? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, little moose skin. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Like a moose calf? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I tried to keep it as long as I could, you know. Dogs run away with it. I don't know where it. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: What happened, huh? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. After we -- they let us move down the beach that time. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So from up here, up at your house, up on your old house up here on the road, then you guys moved down to the -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Down to the beach, yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Down to the beach? How old were you when you moved down? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I was about 17. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: 17? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And you lived up the hill here for a long time. You moved down to the beach? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did your dad build that -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Because that Willie used to feel sorry for us, you know, pack our own stuff when we going to go down fish camp, we used to pack our stuff back and forth. Then we -- when we all done, then we go down fish camp, then -- then I would pack -- we would pack our stuff to tent. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Then we -- fall time, when we -- come time to come home, we pack our stuff back, we used to bring them back up there. And that's why Willie used to sorry for us, you know, and he let us move down there. My dad didn't want to move down there. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: He didn't want to move there? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Huh-uh. But Willie forced us to move down the beach. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So they could -- because he thought it would be easier for the family -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: -- to live down there? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So did your dad build a house down there or was there a -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: My dad was blind when we was over there. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-huh.

MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: And Willie -- I mean, you know, he was blind. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Oh, I see. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. He was blind. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So who -- how did you get a house? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: That was before he was blind. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Oh, it was before he was blind? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, before he was blind. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Okay. Uh-hum. And so he built the house out of logs? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And then you moved there until you moved up here into a HUD house? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. Then he move us, move us back again. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So you moved back and forth up and down the hill. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: But it's easier this time? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, because there's three wheeler there. You know, easy life. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Seemed like there -- there's easy life, nobody want to do anything. They just want to ride around, that's all. Never do nothing. Long time ago we had no easy life. We walk, picking berries, pack our own stuff. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Then we walk from here to fish camp and come back. See long we used to walk down there and back. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you think that, say, today that the kids understand how you used to live in Kokhanok? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. I don't think so. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I wish they'd talk about it, you know, talk to them about this, how we used to live a long time ago. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: When you would go out collecting wood a long time ago, did you collect right in the village here for wood? Did you always get gray wood, dead wood, or sometimes did you cut trees down? Or how would you get your wood around the village? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: My dad used to get wood with the dog teams winter time. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So you would just bring the wood in that he collected, you didn't go out collecting wood yourself? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. Far up there somewhere. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Up the hill behind the village right now, he would go up looking for wood? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: The -- I don't know how they used to get wood summertime, you know. Because summertime is hot day, you know, you can't use wood stove all the time. Only when it's cold, like windy day and windy. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you think it's harder to get the things you need to live now, the food and the wood? Do you think it's harder to find it now than it used to be? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't -- I don't know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you ever hunt yourself? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't go hunt. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: You don't hunt? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I can't see that good. No. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Okay. What about fishing? Do you go ice fishing? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Once in awhile I go fishing if I feel like.

MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: So only maybe one or two. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you help with the putting up salmon? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: You put it -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Split and salt it and hang it and smoke it. In Shalunuk (phonetic). MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you do that here in the village now? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: You don't go down to fish camp now? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. We do it down here. I don't know why he move up here. I miss that fish camp sometime, fish down there. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Who do you work with when you put your fish up? Who do you help put fish up with? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: When I was young? MS. JUDITH MORRIS: No, now. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Like my sister-in-law, me and my -- me and my sister-in-law put up fish. Like this summer she put up fish herself, she never let me help her. Of course, I got bum leg, you know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: I know. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I have bad asthma. I'm not -- I'm getting better, too. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Well, that's good. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Like -- MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you think people were healthier when they were eating more native food and not so much store food? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, long time ago. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you remember people getting sick very much? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, I remember they used to have mumps, chicken pox. Bad colds. That's what I used to remember. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: How would your mom take care of you if you were sick? What did she use? What kind of medicine did she use, or whatever, to take care of you, do you remember? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: She let me use the steamer with Vicks, steam the air, boil the water with steam -- I mean Vicks. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you remember her using any plants or? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Wild tea. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Oh, is that Labrador tea? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Something, wild tea. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Wild tea? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: What, she would cook it up and you would drink it? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: She would cook it and boil it and cool it off, let me drink. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Even if we don't like it, we used to drink it, me and Nick. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did your mom ever go out and collect wild plants for you to eat like in springtime? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, for Taakuk. (Phonetic - native word.) Wild -- I mean brush, you know, hang them and dry them out for winter. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And what would do you with them, then? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We used them for -- MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Oh, for -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: -- steam. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: For the steam bath or? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: The plants that you -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Whatever we hurt, we steam it right there. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And what do they call that kind of plant? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Taakuk. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Taakuk. I'm not so good, huh?

MS. JUDITH MORRIS: What about any, like, wild potatoes or onions or anything like that? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: My dad used to plant them, potatoes. Only potatoes, enough for winter. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: He had a garden? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Little -- not -- not too big one, though. Seemed like it was only to have plants, some potatoes in the summer. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Where did you keep your dog team when you lived up here? Did you have a dog yard? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did everybody have a yard for their dogs? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. My dad used to don't let them stay by the water hole or close by the house, or just far out, you know, where we can see them. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did he make his own sleds or -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, he used to make his own sled. Everybody used to make their own sled. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you have one sled or did you have more than one sled? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: One. One sled. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. And so you would use that for travelling or for packing food -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: -- and whatever you needed? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did he put metal? Do you remember if he put metal on the bottom of the sled? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: You don't know? I was curious where he would get the metal for the bottom of the sled. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I think he used to get it from store. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Uh-hum. When you think about living in Kokhanok and you think about, you know, all the animals and the trees and all the things that you use here, what are the biggest changes do you think from when you were a young girl until now? What you see. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: What I missed the one I grew up with, like dry meat. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-huh. You don't have so much dry meat now? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Huh-uh. When we want to have dry meat, we dry meat a little bit and then we finish it. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Is that moose meat mainly? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Moose meat. Yeah. Moose. And seemed like my stepmom used to dry some fish up, and just dry them outside. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Air dry them? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Like a dry meat. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I kind of miss that stuff, you know. Nowadays, it seems like we don't do that. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Go to the store instead, huh? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Stores. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you still make agutak? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, we still make agutak. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you make it with berries? Anything else you mix with agutak? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Seemed like a long time ago they used to only use fish agutak. Gregory Andrew, his wife, make a fish agutak. Then we copying, you know.

MS. JUDITH MORRIS: But they were the first ones that you remember making fish agutak? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Around here they used to make -- don't make a fish agutak. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: But now people do? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Because we use only lard, sugar, that's all. Cream the lard, then make agutak. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you remember when they started playing basketball around here? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Not too long ago, I guess. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Not too long ago? So when you were a young girl, they didn't have a basketball -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No, only volleyball. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Volleyball? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. I was -- MS. JUDITH MORRIS: What -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: And what they call that, baseball. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Baseball? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: They used to have a baseball team here? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. We used to just -- just play, everybody used to -- grown up or little ones, grown up or kids used to play. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Where was -- where was your field? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: They used to play down there like Shirley -- Shirley and them, everybody used to have one long time ago. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you have a -- did you buy your bats or did you make your bats or do you know what you were using to hit? Did you buy the bats or did you make them? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, they buy it, I guess. We never -- MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did they have three bases or did you have one base or -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't know. I -- I usually don't play, I just used to watch them, you know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: And they used to hit the ball and they run. They used to have fun long time ago. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: But nobody plays baseball now? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you used to just go out in your dad's -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Hide and seek and do anything long time ago, used to do anything. But we never be bored. Because there was no TV, only radio and records, that's all. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Where did your radio station come from? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Anchorage. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Anchorage? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And you would listen to them. When there was the earthquake, do you remember the earthquake? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We had earthquake 1964. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Did you feel that here in Kokhanok? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: And that year my uncle, too, had the little store. We go to store. And while we go to store that evening, that earthquake, the first time. Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: (Inaudible) the store? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I got scared. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did anybody's houses get hurt or anybody get hurt? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No, nobody -- no one hurt. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Did the water change at all in the lake? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Cracked the ice. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: It cracked the ice? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: What month was the earthquake? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: March. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: March? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: March 27th. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So it cracked the ice in your lake out here? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Even my stepmom was fishing over at lake, lake airplane down there. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Airplane Lake? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: The Airplane Lake, yeah. She was fishing. Used to have lots of fish over there. Not anymore. Just used to fishing down there. And pretty soon she see that water was coming, you know. She got scared and she run up the beach. She didn't know it was earthquake. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So the water was coming out of her fishing hole?

MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Uh-hum. She run up the beach. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So how -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We didn't know it then was earthquake at that time. We got scared. And my sister, my younger sister was small. She was sitting by me and I said, quit moving around. I didn't know she didn't move -- I thought she was just moving me around, you know. I said, quit moving around, sister. And my dad said, uh-oh, earthquake. Everybody quiet. And then we watched the house move. And we got scared. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: How did you hear the news, then, about the earthquake? Did you hear it over the radio from Anchorage? Did you get a newspaper at that time? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: My dad knows earthquakes. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Yeah. But did you know that it was so bad in Anchorage or Juneau or -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, we heard on the radio. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: On the radio? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did people in the village get a newspaper? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't know. Teachers, yeah -- MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Yeah. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: -- used to have a newspaper from Anchorage. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. But otherwise, you just heard your news on the radio and so you had to wait and heard what they say on the Anchorage radio about the earthquake? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: In that year, same year we went to Anchorage. My dad had a TB, I think, and my sister, and he take all of us out, check us, you know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: The same year as the earthquake? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. After the earthquake. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you have to stay there very long? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We stay there two, three weeks maybe. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you go to Anchorage often when you were a child? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. Maybe -- I don't know, when I get sick they send for me. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: When you were going to Anchorage when you were a young girl, how would you get there? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Airplane. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Would they pick you up here or would you have to get to Iliamna in a boat? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We went to -- they pick me from Iliamna, to Iliamna, from Iliamna to Anchorage. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And then did you have to stay in the hospital or -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, they used to let me stay in the hospital. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did you go by yourself or would someone go with you? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: By myself. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. That must have been pretty scary. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: As a young girl. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: What kind of plane were they picking you up in, do you know? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Seemed like we used to fly with that TME. And Orin Hudson was our pilot that time.

MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you go to Anchorage a lot now? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Maybe one or two much, a month. Once a month. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. What do you think, do you think -- do you remember when the -- when Alaska became a state? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: What? MS. JUDITH MORRIS: In 1959? Do you remember that? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: What? MS. JUDITH MORRIS: When Alaska became a state, do you remember that? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: You don't remember when it became a state? Do you -- have you seen many changes in how people live in terms of where they can build a house and where they go hunting and where they go trapping and where they fish? Have there been lots of changes that way? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Nowadays, yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Now? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Seems like. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Seems like? In what way do you see changes happening? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Like there's lots of fishermen, lots of people move here, there's different people here, you know. There's some people move from Nondalton. You know. Rose moved here and Shirley and them moved here. There are all different people here. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: A long time ago, did people have to ask the chief if they could move here? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Seemed like. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: But now they don't have to ask, or they just move here, or -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Seem like they just help themselves here. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: What about sports hunters and tourists? Do you see very many of those people here? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, we used to see lots of Army people from Nondalton -- I mean Big Mountain. They used to come in the summertime, on weekends, like Friday and Saturday. They used to come like with their little scout. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And what would they do when they were here? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Fishing. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Sports fishing? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Would they spend the night here? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Not here, down fish camp. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Oh. Would they bring a tent or how would they -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: They just fishing only one day and then go home and come back again the next day. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Uh-hum. Would they interfere with the -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: There was lots of, you know, we called gussik (phonetic) white people. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Army people. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. From Big Mountain? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Boat and airplanes. There are all kind of fishermen down fish camp. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: But they have gone now? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, they are gone. Done. Nobody don't pick them up now. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you see any -- do people come here sports hunting in the fall, fall months? You know, outsiders, white guys, people from Anchorage, Lower 48?

MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. I only know Army, Navy -- I mean Army, you know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. But you don't think too many people are in the village now? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. No. We could see anybody here. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So when, you know, like when Katmai National Park came in and stuff, did that make a difference to your dad or to you or? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Yeah. Not so much that you noticed? Do you think more people are living around the lakes than used to? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. More people. We used to not much people here. There are different people here. People move here and more -- more people, you know. Like Nondalton. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you like it or not? Do you like more people coming? Do you like more people being in Kokhanok or around the lake, or did you like it when it was quieter and smaller? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't know. We don't -- I don't mind people, you know. I think more -- more people here, more kids. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: With all this, you know, with the changes when you were a young girl, you didn't have electricity and plumbing. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. Nothing. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So have you liked all the new things that have come to Kokhanok? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Makes your -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I like that. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Makes your life easier? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So what do you miss about your old ways? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Dancing and whatever, I used to have lots of fun when I was young. Now I'm -- I'm getting older, you know. I don't care that much. Only thing I got to stay home even if they are having fun. Seemed like I used to don't like to dance -- I mean, seemed like I used to don't go dance, but when I was young, I as soon as I heard something going on, used to go there. Nothing anymore because I'm getting older. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you watch a lot of TV now? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Not all the time. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Only one -- once in awhile. Seemed like when I watch TV, my eyes bother me. It's not very -- it's good, though. I use my TV for a radio. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Oh, yeah, you listen to your TV? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you think people visit as much as they used to? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you go visit friends and drink coffee and tea? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Long time ago, they used to visit each other all the time. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Not -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Invite each other and...

MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: ...when after they cook things, they invite their cook -- their friends, you know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Not so much now as they used to? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Huh-uh. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do you think freezers have made a difference in the village, having a freezer? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: There was no kind of freezer here. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Nowhere. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. And now there are -- everybody has freezers now? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So do you see that making a difference in how people share food? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: We seemed like we save more. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: For themselves? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Instead of sharing? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: They are sharing, too, you know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Oh, they share -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, everybody's sharing. Some don't share, you know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Probably (indiscernible), huh. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. They don't share. Only I know some people share here. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. People share -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I know my brother share, you know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And since you don't hunt, you live by yourself. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So people who hunt and stuff help take -- help give you meat and things? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: My brother give me some, you know, share with me. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Uh-hum. So freezers haven't made a difference that way, that people just store their food and they still share the way they used to? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. They still share, but some don't. I don't know how they saved their food a long time ago, you know. Like meat and berries and stuff like that. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't know how -- I don't know how they saved theirs. Seemed like they used to not spoil anything in the house. Even there was no refrigerator. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Things didn't spoil? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Huh-uh. I don't know how they keep. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Maybe they got it more (indiscernible). MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Now -- MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Can you think of -- can you think of things that I'm not thinking about that were in -- were -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: The kids, just seem like they just want to watch TV, not like we -- like we used to do, you know. They just want to stay home and watch TV. The children don't want to do anything. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did -- when you were a young girl, did your parents or your aunties and uncles, did they used to tell you stories or talk to you about when they were children or, you know, when they would go out hunting, how to do things when you were out? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Much less look at some of these.

MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Did they talk -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: And my dad used to talk to me like this, when summer comes, tell me to put -- put lots of fish away for winter. And he said save for -- I don't know, put lots of fish away and berries away and whatever for winter. Because summer always come only once a year. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And that was your time to get lots of your food put away for the whole year? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did they ever talk to you about how to take care of yourself if no fish came, if it was like famine or starvation? Did they ever talk to you about how they had ever been hungry because they didn't have food? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: My dad used to tell me it's no good if you have -- being hungry and, you know, starving, nothing to eat. That's why they used to put lots of fish away so we wouldn't be hungry. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: But he was hungry sometimes do you think? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I think before he have us. You know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Did they ever talk to you about the animals always being here for you? Did you have to respect the animals for them to come back so you could hunt them? Did he ever talk to you about anything like that? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: No? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: But I -- I don't know how to hunt. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did they tell you -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I know I used to -- I used to watch my dad hunting, you know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Did they talk to you about not wasting food or taking -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: He would -- he used to tell me not to waste the food, you know. Gotta a big -- Put them away. Not wasting it. That's why I don't like to see waste food, you know. Don't like to waste no food, like my dad. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Like long time ago, when they used to waste no food in summertime. They hang their fish, hang their heads, eggs, fish eggs, dry them out, put them away when they are dry. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Do it. You know, they save everything. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: What would you use the fish eggs for when they were dried, for eating or for bait? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: For the dogs. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Oh, for dogs?

MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Seem like we don't eat the dry eggs, fish eggs. I never remember that. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: When your dad would get a moose and he would bring it home -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: -- would you use all different parts of the moose? Did you use the feet and the bones? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: He used to bring everything home. Heads and all. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: How would he fix the heads? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: My dad -- my dad know -- my stepmom, they cut, skinned the skin off and they cut them and saw it, you know, just cut them in half and boil it, cook it out, and -- MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Made like a soup out of it, or -- MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Boiled it. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Boiled it? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Just boiled, yeah. And I -- because I used to like to eat the brain. I still do. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. The moose brain? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-huh. Big eyes. Their eyes. Nose. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Do people still eat all parts of the moose like they used to? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. I think so. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Uh-hum. Did they use the antlers for anything? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: I don't know. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: You don't remember seeing your dad make any fish hooks or anything out of the antlers? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No. I don't remember some of them, though. You know. Sometimes I can't remember, you know. Maybe I'm too -- too young to remember some of it. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: How long ago did your father die? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: '71. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: '71? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: He died '71. I don't know. My mom died when I was little girl. One or two years old, she died. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: And then your dad remarried? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Then he married to that Nick's mom. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. So how old was your father when he died, do you know? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: He was just going to be 90 years old he died. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Oh. So he had been around for a long time. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. Nick's mom is over 100 and something. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Wow. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah, I think she is older than my dad. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: She was from Newhalen? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: No, she was from Nushagak. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Oh, Nushagak. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. But you think your dad was like from Old Iliamna or on the Pacific side? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Like -- like he seemed -- Annie Crawford told me he seemed like he was from Old Iliamna. But I don't know where he really from. He probably sound like Old Iliamna.

MS. JUDITH MORRIS: -- have a very interesting. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. I wish I know everything. I would tell you everything. Everything I know, I would tell you. But I didn't remember some of it. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Uh-hum. Well, I appreciate everything you have told us, and save it for the history for Kokhanok. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Yeah. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: So is there anything else you can think of that you want me to -- that you want to put on this tape? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: That's all, I guess. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: That's all you guess? MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-huh. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: Thank you, Anesia. MS. ANESIA NEWYAKA: Uh-hum. MS. JUDITH MORRIS: I appreciate it. (End of recorded session.)