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Digital Branch of the University of Alaska Fairbanks Oral History Program
Gil Mull, Interview 2, Part 2

This is a continuation of the interview with Gil Mull by Karen Brewster on October 21, 2004 in his home in Santa Fe, New Mexico. This is a continuation from tape number Oral History 2002-27-23, Part 1, and tape number Oral History 2002-27-23, Parts 1-4. In this part of the interview, Gil talks about geological maps of the Brooks Range and North Slope of Alaska, and his views on the establishment of Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve.

Digital Asset Information

Archive #: Oral History 2002-27-23_PT.2

Project: Gates of the Arctic National Park
Date of Interview: Oct 21, 2004
Narrator(s): Gil Mull
Interviewer(s): Karen Brewster
Location of Interview:
Funding Partners:
National Park Service
Alternate Transcripts
There is no alternate transcript for this interview.

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1) The geological features of the Brooks Range, using a geological map as a reference

2) A generalized cross section of a geological map, in particular the southern Brooks Range, northern Prudhoe Bay, and Beaufort Sea

3) His view of the Gates of the Arctic National Park, before and after its classification as a park

4) The permitting process and policies for conducting fieldwork in the Park

5) Importance of geological fieldwork and of mentoring students, and the politics of gaining access to the Park

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Section 1: To view a map related to this topic. Brooks Range -- regional geology of\ map -- broad regional aspects\ colors -- represent rocks\ green color -- cretaceous rocks\ cretaceous rocks -- description of\ dark blue -- rocks northeast of Brooks Range\ dark blue -- examples of rocks\ rocks -- thrust faulted\ rocks -- uplifted from basin\ color boundary -- dark blue to pale blue\ color band -- description of\ color band -- location of\ rocks -- movement of\ color band -- composes of\ volcanic rocks -- igneous rocks\ volcanic rocks -- location of\ igneous rocks -- type of volcanic rocks\ Kikiktat Mountain -- rock type\ igneous rocks -- signs of\ igneous rocks -- various locations\ igneous rocks -- types of\ igneous rocks -- origination of\ igneous -- represents\ map -- general formation of\ southside Brooks Range -- igneous rocks\ igneous rock -- general form of Brooks Range\ northwestern and central Brooks Range -- thrust sheets\ thrust sheets -- description of\ Brooks Range -- core composition\ Brooks Range -- location of\ rocks -- types of\ granite rocks\ metamorphic rocks\ core rocks -- origination of\ core -- oldest rocks\ granite rocks -- description of\ metamorphic rocks -- description of\ core rocks -- dome uplift\ core rocks -- later stages of formation\ core rocks -- importance of\ granite rocks -- value of\ western Brooks Range -- Lisburne limestone area\ dark blue -- represents carbonate rocks\ carbonate rocks -- Lisburne limestone\ carbonate rocks -- similarities with\ Brooks Range -- effects of thrusting direction\ thrusting -- combination of\ plate tectonics -- description of\ Lisburne hills -- rock uplift\ Brooks Range -- uplift\ uplift -- effects of\ uplift -- shedding of sediments\ sediments -- composition of\ sedimentary basin\ sedimentary basin -- size of\ sedimentary basin -- location of\ Colville River -- sedimentary basin\ Colville River basin -- composition\ shale -- organic source rocks\ shale -- oil components\ oil -- formation of\ North Slope -- oil petroleum basins\ oil potential -- geological reasoning\ oil fields -- main fields\ oil fields -- location of \ Arctic National Wildlife Range (ANWR) -- oil potential location\ mountain regions -- no hydro-carbonate potential\ coastal regions -- oil potential|

Section 2: To view a map related to this topic. map -- true to scale\ map -- illustrates concepts\ map -- coverage area\ map -- regional structural style of Brooks Range\ basin\ southern Brooks Range -- red rocks\ red rocks -- igneous rocks\ igneous rocks -- oceanic origin\ igneous rocks -- movement direction\ igneous rocks -- present location\ igneous rocks -- signs of erosion\ core of Brooks Range -- granite plutonic\ Mount Doonerak\ dark blue -- exposed rocks\ unconformity area -- dark blue on top of tan\ unconformity area -- description of\ conformity area -- represents ancestral Brooks Range\ Brooks Range -- erosion effects\ dark blue -- rock deposits\ rock deposits -- shallow marine\ shallow marine rocks -- location description\ stratigraphic sequence -- geological similarities\ colors -- brown, olive\ rocks -- type of\ rocks -- thrust direction\ rocks -- differences in\ rocks -- proof of\ rocks -- origination\ rocks -- present location\ rocks -- uplift description\ erosion -- constant\ Colville River Basin -- erosion effects\ Colville River Basin -- depth of\ Brooks Range -- historic reference\ western Brooks Range -- sediments\ sediments -- description of\ sediments -- origination\ sediments -- encased in shale\ sediment -- movement of\ sediment -- sandstone\ sediment -- conglomerate\ ancestral Brooks Range -- original height\ Colville River basin -- sediment erosion\ Colville River basin -- creation of\ crust -- formation of\ Prudhoe Bay -- geological features\ hydro-carbons -- formation of\ hydro-carbons -- migration of\ hydro-carbons -- movement description\ unconformity -- explanation of\ Prudhoe Bay -- location justification\ Prudhoe Bay -- oil potential\ rocks -- oil potential features\ Barrow Arch -- description of\ Barrow Arch -- map reference\ basement rocks -- oldest rocks\ basement rocks -- movement of\ off-shore -- zone of rifting\ zone of rifting -- description of\ rift margin -- specific location|

Section 3: Gates of the Arctic -- multiple values\ Gates of the Arctic -- scientific values\ access -- denial of\ park boundary -- pink colored rocks\ park boundary -- description of\ scientific studies -- rock units\ Park -- early formation of\ access -- flexible in past\ Park -- early stories\ Park -- current formation\ access -- current double standard\ access -- present rigid restrictions\ access -- permitting procedures\ access -- less restrictions in past\ transportation -- helicopters\ access -- wilderness studies\ access -- botanical studies\ access -- limited geological studies\ helicopter -- limited access\ access -- denial for research location|

Section 4: access -- past\ access -- permission less rigid\ communication -- informing Native organizations\ information -- availability of\ geological scientists -- sensitive to area\ Nunamiut -- caribou migratory concerns\ movement -- flexible\ permits -- less rigid\ communication -- park management\ access -- current standards\ access -- double standard\ helicopter -- limited uses\ permit systems -- changes in\ permit systems -- effect on geological studies\ permit systems -- negative impact\ park -- multiple use purpose\ park -- reservoir of information\ park -- geological library\ park -- importance of\ park -- geological studies\ geology -- differences between\ maps -- limitations of\ stratigraphy -- of rock units\ fieldwork -- benefits of|

Section 5: geologists -- mentoring\ fieldwork -- importance of\ fieldwork -- less use of\ geologists -- current role\ fieldwork -- mentoring\ park access -- denial\ park procedures -- contrasting views\ park procedures -- changing views\ park access -- current changes in\ geological studies -- historic framework\ public -- misunderstanding of\ geological studies -- misunderstanding of\ geological studies -- purpose of\ geological studies -- expectations\ geology -- description of\ geological -- changing concepts\ rocks -- exposure\ exposure -- changes in\ plate tectonics -- continental drift\ concepts -- creation of new\ meteor impacts -- new concepts\ catastrophic extinctions -- explanation of\ geological field -- changes in\ geologist -- continuing fieldwork|