Project Jukebox

Digital Branch of the University of Alaska Fairbanks Oral History Program

Index for Original Project Interviews: 1979-2000

This list from the Gates of the Arctic Project Jukebox site does not include new interviews conducted from 2002-2004. Search this list to find the interviews in which a term is mentioned. The interviews are listed by narrator name, tape number, and section number.

  • Aattuuq -- Grandfather according to Kobuk people (Mekiana, Justus (1) 1)
  • Abby -- Big William's wife, died two months later (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 2)
  • Abraham and Martha (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Abraham, Old Man (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • Abraham -- adopted out (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • Abrams, Elliot (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • access (Bane, Ray (1) 11), (Morry, Riley 6)
  • access to park -- boat or walk (Reakoff, Jack 6)
  • access -- closed; tourists vs. residents (Holly, Susan 1)
  • access -- cut off (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • access -- National Parks (Collins, Bruce 3)
  • access -- populations center and other agencies (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • access -- rights of (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • access -- to exposed petroleum sites (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 6)
  • accident -- chainsaw (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 1)
  • accommodations (Morry, Riley 11)
  • accommodations -- wall tents; wood stoves (Henderson, Joe 2)
  • account -- credit (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • activities -- hunting, fishing, camping (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • adaptations -- sewing machine, phonograph, pots & pans (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 7)
  • Adirondacks (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • administration -- treatment and selection of rangers (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • administrators -- Kauffmann is distraught (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • Admiralty Island (Swem, Ted 11)
  • Adnee, Red (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • Adnee, Red -- outfit for sale (Reakoff, Jack 1, 3)
  • adopted mother -- died when eight or nine (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • adoption -- by Big William (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • adoption -- Effie to Tilly (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • adoption -- freely, flexible (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 10 )
  • adults -- went across (Williams, Susie 2)
  • advanced infantry training -- two more months (Ned, Stanley 8)
  • advertising -- magazines (Henderson, Joe 2)
  • advice -- Alaska as different as you ever imagined (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • advice -- don't make people an endangered species (Schmitz, Dave 11)
  • advice -- lots of work to do if you want to (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • advice -- try to listen to what Native people have to say (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • advisory board meeting (Swem, Ted 13)
  • Advisory Board -- Alaska trip (Swem, Ted 14)
  • Advisory Board -- trip (Swem, Ted (2) 2)
  • aerial wolf hunter (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • aerial wolf hunting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3)
  • afterborns -- want those born after 1971 to get stock (Williams, Susie 12)
  • age -- recorded (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 5)
  • agencies -- learning other perspectives (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • agencies -- need to do more local hiring (Bifelt, Fred Lee 9)
  • agencies -- proliferation (Schmitz, Dave 7)
  • agencies -- state; listening (Ned, Stanley 15)
  • agencies -- wildlife people fool with mink, will go away (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Agnew, Spiro (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • Aguk, Bob (Mekiana, Justus (1) 9)
  • Aguk, Jack (Mekiana, Justus (1) 9, 17)
  • Aguk, Jesse -- grandfather (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5)
  • Agulukpak River (Swem, Ted 7)
  • Ahgook (Aguk), Ben (Mekiana, Justus (1) 8)
  • Ahgook (Aguk), Bob (Mekiana, Justus (1) 9)
  • Ahgook (Aguk), Jack (Mekiana, Justus (1) 9)
  • Ahgook, Jesse (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 9, 11) , (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6, 8, 13)
  • Ahgook, Jesse -- as a cultural resource (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • Ahgook, Noah (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • Ahgook, Noah -- served as translator (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • Ahlook, Charlie (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 9)
  • air access (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • air access -- alternative is 2-3 planes allowed entrance (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • air access -- designated flight routes (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • air transport (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • air travel -- increased dramatically with park formation (Schmitz, Dave 6)
  • aircraft (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • aircraft -- basic transportation for difficult terrain (Reakoff, Jack 6)
  • airlines -- Kotzebue, Pt. Barrow, Nome, Galena (William, William and Effie (2) 2)
  • airplane (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4), (Williams, Susie 8)
  • airplane -- 1950 or so (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • airplane -- Aeronca K (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • airplane -- commanchee (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • airplane -- D-3 (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • airplane -- flew around (William, William and Effie (1) 10)
  • airplane -- hunting (Brockman, Ross 7)
  • airplane -- impact (English, Bill and Shirley 12)
  • airplane -- loading caribou onto (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • airplane -- mechanical failure (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3)
  • airplane -- rearwind sportster (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • airplane -- remains (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3)
  • airplane -- surprised by first (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • airplane -- took over (Henzie, Moses and Marie 2)
  • airplane -- took over mail 1930, twice monthly (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • airplane -- traditional (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • airplane -- traplines (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • airplanes (Holly, Susan 1), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • airplanes -- effect (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • airplanes -- paid cash (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1)
  • airplanes -- regular after 1926 (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • airport -- plowing the runway for Public Health Services, 1974 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 1)
  • airshow -- Fairbanks (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 12)
  • airstrip (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • airstrip -- 1960 (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • airstrip -- rocks (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Akpik, Grandma -- not related (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • Alaatna -- Indians
  • Alaska (Swem, Ted 5)
  • Alaska Airlines (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • Alaska Boogey (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 8)
  • Alaska Coalition (Collins, Bruce 2, 5)
  • Alaska Department of Fish and Game (Bifelt, Fred Lee 6), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9), (Pepper, Jim (1) 12), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4, 7)
  • Alaska Department of Fish and Game Advisory Committee -- local management proposals not given fair hearing (Bifelt, Fred Lee 6)
  • Alaska Department of Fish and Game -- teaching them things they don't know due to lack of field experience (Reakoff, Jack 9)
  • Alaska Department of Fish and Game -- too much coffee in Fairbanks (Reakoff, Jack 9)
  • Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission (Bane, Ray (2) 5)
  • Alaska field office -- Anchorage (Swem, Ted (2) 2)
  • Alaska Land Bank (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • Alaska Land Use Council (ALUC) (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • Alaska Lands Act (Pepper, Jim (2) 1, 3)
  • Alaska Lands Council (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (Bane, Ray (2) 4), (Brown, William (1) 15), (Brown, William (2) 3), (English, Bill and Shirley 22), (Pepper, Jim (1) 4, 7, 11), (Schmitz, Dave 7), (Brown, William (2) 6), (Brown, William (2) 7), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act -- 1980 (Brown, William (1) 2)
  • Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act -- after the fact (Bane, Ray (1) 14)
  • Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act -- allows special uses for Alaskans (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act -- ALUC opposition to (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act -- concessions to past users (Schmitz, Dave 8)
  • Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act -- local hire practices (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act -- saddening, concerned -- activities undermine, rot wilderness values (Kauffmann, John 10)
  • Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act -- sincere effort to reflect cultural and environmental preservation (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • Alaska National Interests Lands Conservation Act -- uniqueness of Alaska is reflected in it (Pepper, Jim (1) 4)
  • Alaska National Wildlife Refuge (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (Bane, Ray (2) 4), (English, Bill and Shirley 22), (Pepper, Jim (1) 7), (Brown, William (2) 6), (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (1971) (Brown, William (1) 15)
  • Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act -- 7(I) revenue (Bifelt, Fred Lee 4)
  • Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act -- context of urgency (Bane, Ray (1) 6)
  • Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act -- development (Brown, William (1) 15)
  • Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act -- eventually realized it was the best thing (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3)
  • Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act -- negotiations (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act -- studies done to recommend sites (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • Alaska Native Walrus Commission (Bane, Ray (2) 5)
  • Alaska office -- established (Swem, Ted (2) 2)
  • Alaska residents -- cooperative management goal, but ineffective because of lack of basis; position poorly articulated (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • Alaska Road Commission (Johnson, Walter (1) 11)
  • Alaska Road Commission -- Wiseman (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • Alaska State Fish and Game -- opposed use of caribou for dogs (Morry Riley 9)
  • Alaska Statehood Act (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • Alaska Steamship (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • Alaska Task Force (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • Alaska Territory (Brown, William (1) 15)
  • Alaska -- became easy living with wages (William, William and Effie (2) 2)
  • Alaska -- compared to other states (Pepper, Jim (2) 3)
  • Alaska -- cooperative management (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • Alaska -- enormously effective in what it has gotten (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Alaska -- first trip (Swem, Ted 7)
  • Alaska -- great opportunity (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Alaska -- growth (Collins, Bruce 10)
  • Alaska -- impact on Swem (Swem, Ted 8)
  • Alaska -- interest in (Swem, Ted (2) 5)
  • Alaska -- it is our land, it's where our grandma and grandpa come from (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • Alaska -- keep the flavor (Henderson, Joe 5)
  • Alaska -- life is stretched thin (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • Alaska -- like the West in the 1840's (Schmitz, Dave 2)
  • Alaska -- many visions were realized (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • Alaska -- move to (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • Alaska -- move to 1956 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 1)
  • Alaska -- often lost by basing arguments on false evidence (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • Alaska -- people avoid government (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • Alaska -- return (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • Alaska -- returned, missed the wild food
  • Alaska -- state of; thirty to forty percent in private or state uses (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • Alaska -- state opposed giving citizens management authority, and still does (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Alaska -- talk about (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2)
  • Alaska -- vast (Swem, Ted 8)
  • Alaska -- wilderness (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • Alaskan Highway (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • Alaskans -- diverse perspectives (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • Alatna (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3), (Bifelt, Madeline 7), (David, David and Kitty 1), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3, 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 1, 2), (Ned, Stanley 3, 11), (Nelson, Richard 8), (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 2), (Ulen, Tishu 1, 3)
  • Alatna area (Swem, Ted 8)
  • Alatna River (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1, 2), (Gray, Millie 4), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 1), (Schmitz, Dave 2), (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • Alatna River -- off the land (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • Alatna River -- upper part (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 1)
  • Alatna -- growing up (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 1)
  • Alatna -- had four kids (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • Alatna -- Indians (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Alatna -- more lush (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 6)
  • Alatna -- started when they came down for Christmas; started living on this side (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • Alatna -- store (Johnson, Walter (1) 6)
  • Alatna -- trip up (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 2)
  • Alberta -- school in Fairbanks (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Albright -- learned ranger skills (Bane, Ray (1) 12)
  • Albuquerque (Gray, Millie 8)
  • alcohol (Bifelt, Fred Lee 9)
  • alcohol prevention (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • alcohol -- past history (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • alcohol -- quit drinking in 1974 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • alcohol -- recovery prompted by desire to do "the Lord's work" (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • alder bark -- dye (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11)
  • Alfred, Uncle (Williams, Susie 7)
  • Alice -- daughter was born and husband went over (Williams, Susie 2)
  • All Terrain Vehicles (Bane, Ray (1) 11), (Kauffmann, John 10)
  • All Terrain Vehicles -- description of (Morry, Riley 8)
  • All Terrain Vehicles -- hunting (Morry, Riley 6)
  • All Terrain Vehicles -- immediate conflict between Natives and federal government (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 9)
  • All Terrain Vehicles -- result (Morry Riley 9)
  • Allakaket (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9), (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3), (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3), (Bifelt, Madeline 1, 6, 7), (David, David and Kitty 6), (English, Bill and Shirley 2,3, 16, 17), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4), 3), (Gray, Millie 2, 4, 10), (Holly, Susan 7), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 2, 7), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 6), (Ned, Stanley 1, 11), (Nelson, Richard 8), (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4), (Sam Sr., Tony 3), (William, William and Effie (1) 1), (Williams, Susie 5)
  • Allakaket trail (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 7)
  • Allakaket -- 1958-83 (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 2)
  • Allakaket -- April 1st, gather to get boats (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • Allakaket -- biggest gathering point on Koyukuk River (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • Allakaket -- brought dry meat to, no fish (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • Allakaket -- camp four miles above (Ned, Stanley 1)
  • Allakaket -- father (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 1)
  • Allakaket -- Fourth of July (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • Allakaket -- grew fast (Williams, Susie 1)
  • Allakaket -- hearing (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • Allakaket -- holidays; since 1938 (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Allakaket -- much sickness, mother gave away to save life (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 2)
  • Allakaket -- no sheefish above (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • Allakaket -- parents moved to (Williams, Susie 1)
  • Allakaket -- school (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • Allakaket -- six miles below, big village (Williams, Susie 1)
  • Allakaket -- started trapping (Ned, Stanley 9)
  • Allakaket -- stayed from 1973-1989 (Ned, Stanley 9)
  • Allakaket -- summer trip (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • Allakaket -- two weeks to say goodbye (Ned, Stanley 8)
  • Allakaket -- won 3 races from here (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 2)
  • Allen (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • Allen River (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Allen, Henry (Johnson, Walter (1) 14)
  • Allen, Jess (English, Bill and Shirley 5), (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Allin, Roger (Swem, Ted 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12), (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • Allin, Roger -- very knowledgeable (Swem, Ted 8)
  • Almond, Steve (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Almonds Family (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • Almonson, Harriet -- teacher (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 5)
  • Almonson, Miss -- teacher (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 4)
  • Altna
  • Alyeska (Lounsbury, George 7, 14)
  • Ambler (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9), (Nelson, Richard 8), (Sam Sr., Tony 6), (Williams, Susie 9)
  • Ambler River (Schmitz, Dave 9)
  • Ambler -- subsistence studies (Nelson, Richard 3)
  • Amelia (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • amendments (Williams, Susie 12)
  • Amendments -- young Congressmen often had great impact (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • American Heritage -- more than just the land; people (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Amiliak, Susie (Paneak) (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 10)
  • ammunition (English, Bill and Shirley 6, 17)
  • Anaktiktok River (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3, 6), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • Anaktiktok Valley (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • Anaktuvuk (Brown, William (1) 11), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2), (Johnson, Walter (1) 9, 11, 12), (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • Anaktuvuk -- landchief (Morry, Riley 5)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass (Bane, Ray (1) 6, 11), (Bane, Ray (2) 4), (Brown, William (1) 6, 7), (Collins, Bruce 6, 13, 15, 16, 17), (English, Bill and Shirley 16), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10, 11), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2), (Johnson, Walter (1) 11, 14), (Lounsbury, George 11), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17), (Nelson, Richard 8,9), (Pepper, Jim (1) 3), (Reakoff, Jack 1), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 2, 15), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2, 6), (Schmitz, Dave 9), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4, 6, 9)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass Village (Brown, William (1) 13)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- 1965, late summer (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- come by snowmachine (Holly, Susan 7)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- founded 1950's (Gray, Millie 10)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- independence through isolation (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 7)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- lawsuit against State of Alaska (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 7)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- lodgings, tent (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- moved there in 1948 (Morry, Riley 1)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- Native land within (Brown, William (2) 2)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- one year or two (Morry, Riley 2)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- reception in (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- residents (Morry, Riley 11)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- school attempts, 1950's (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 15)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- Simon Paneak Museum (Collins, Bruce 15)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- some walked to (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- Stutzman and a crew visited town to see what impact ATV's have on land & people (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 1)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- teachers, 1956 (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 15)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- two white men come in
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- willows (Morry, Riley 1)
  • Anaktuvuk River (Brown, William (2) 1), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 7)
  • Anaktuvuk -- Anaqtuuvik (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2, 8, 17, 18)
  • Anaktuvuk -- early memories (Morry, Riley 1)
  • Anaktuvuk -- families stay because children must attend school (Mekiana, Justus (1) 10)
  • Anaktuvuk -- land chief
  • Anangula Island -- in Aleutian Chain (Nelson, Richard 1)
  • Ananuliak Island (Nelson, Richard 1)
  • Anaqtiqtuaq (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5)
  • Anaqtuuppaat -- place after freeze-up (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Anaqtuuvagmiut (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Anchorage (Bifelt, Madeline 8), (Brockman, Ross 7), (Collins, Bruce 7), (David, David and Kitty 5), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6), (Swem, Ted 7), (Swem, Ted (2) 2)
  • Anchorage Basin (Collins, Bruce 10)
  • Anchorage -- 1976; no place for me (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • Anchorage -- Martin Victor's Fur Shop (Gray, Millie 8)
  • Anchorage -- medical training, 1969 (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 14)
  • Anchorage -- nurse's aide (Gray, Millie 8)
  • Anchorage -- until 1984 (Holly, Susan 1)
  • Anderson (Johnson, Walter (2) 3)
  • Anderson brothers (Johnson, Walter (1) 11)
  • Anderson, Andy (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • Anderson, Doug (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • Anderson, Douglas (Nelson, Richard 1, 3)
  • Anderson, Gladys and Lloyd (Mekiana, Debbie 4)
  • Anderson, Hanna and Jim (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • Anderson, J.P. (Johnson, Walter (2) 3)
  • Anderson, Jim -- pilot (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • Anderson, Jim -- Wien pilot (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5)
  • Anderson, Terry
  • Anderson, Wanni (Nelson, Richard 3)
  • Andrew -- genius, died of tuberculosis, age 19 (Gray, Millie 5)
  • Andrus, Cecil Secretary (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Andrus, Cecil Secretary -- story about Andrus plus some background (Pepper, Jim (2) 1)
  • Andrus, Secretary -- hoped president wouldn't use (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • Angeline -- Sitka (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • anger (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • ANILCA (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • animal signs (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 4)
  • animal -- population (Nelson, Richard 7)
  • animals (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • animals -- bear, wolf, afraid of that dog (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 4)
  • animals -- caribou, bear (Mekiana, Debbie 2)
  • animals -- caribou, moose, fox, squirrel, rabbits, birds (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • animals -- changed, used to stay away from villages (Bifelt, Madeline 3)
  • animals -- fish, caribou, sheep (Morry, Riley 5)
  • animals -- if we handle live animal, it won't come back (Williams, Susie 4)
  • animals -- lack of moose, caribou (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • animals -- living with them (Reakoff, Jack 9)
  • animals -- marten, fox, beaver
  • animals -- marten, mink, rabbits, ptarmigan (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 8)
  • animals -- rabbit, lynx, beaver, fox (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • animals -- respect for (Reakoff, Jack 9)
  • animals -- taking care of (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • Annie (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10), (Williams, Susie 4)
  • antecedents (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • anthropologists (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • anthropology (Brown, William (1) 6)
  • antiques (Henderson, Joe 11)
  • Antiquities Act (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • Antiquities Act -- created by legal action of Alaska; no choice, brought it on (Pepper, Jim (1) 6, 12)
  • Antiquities Act -- prepared study for presidential proclamation (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • Anvik (Vent, Bobby 1, 2)
  • apartment living (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • application to Gates of the Arctic National Park (Brown, William (1) 14)
  • April -- returned (Beetus, Joe and Celia 2)
  • April -- visit family (Holly, Susan 4)
  • archeology -- historical (Brown, William (1) 4)
  • Archibald Gulch (Lounsbury, George 4, 9)
  • Arctic caribou herd (Pepper, Jim (2) 3)
  • Arctic caribou herd -- crash of; turn of century, 1970's; theories (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Arctic Cat -- metal track (Morry, Riley 10)
  • Arctic Charlie (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • Arctic City (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3), (Johnson, Walter (1) 3), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 1, 7), (Williams, Susie 1)
  • Arctic Environmental Information and Data Center -- Anchorage (Morry, Riley 5)
  • Arctic Health Research Lab (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 15)
  • Arctic John (Brockman, Ross 4), (English, Bill and Shirley 19), (Johnson, Walter (2) 3), (Lounsbury, George 2, 8), (Reakoff, Jack 1, 2)
  • Arctic John -- buried dog in cemetery, cut trail from tombstone to cabin (Henderson, Joe 10)
  • Arctic John -- Harry got dogs from, 1/2 wolf (Henderson, Joe 10)
  • Arctic National Wildlife Refuge -- press coverage (Collins, Bruce 14)
  • Arctic Ocean (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 2)
  • Arctic Refuge (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • Arctic Refuge -- visitation (Collins, Bruce 14)
  • Arctic Slope (Morry, Riley 5)
  • Arctic Slope Regional Corporation land -- suggest federal government claims only land not used by Natives with All Terrain Vehicles (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 1)
  • Arctic Slope Regional Corporation -- selected important lands (Morry, Riley 5)
  • Arctic Village (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5), (Johnson, Walter (1) 14), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1), (Lounsbury, George 6), (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Arctic Village -- mom from (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5)
  • Arctic Village -- study of Wiseman (Brown, William (1) 4)
  • Arctic Village -- Wiseman (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • Arctic Wildlife Refuge (Swem, Ted 11)
  • area close to village (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • areas that warrant protection or study (Swem, Ted 5)
  • areas -- possible additions to National Park Service (Swem, Ted 7)
  • Argo (Mekiana, Justus (2) 1)
  • army tents -- (3) used for school house (Mekiana, Justus (1) 12)
  • Army -- drafted July 7, 1970 (Ned, Stanley 8)
  • Armystad Recreation Area (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • Arnick (Sam Sr., Tony 5)
  • arrangement -- uncles and grandfathers (William, William and Effie (1) 2)
  • Arrigetch Peaks (Brown, William (2) 1), (Holly, Susan 7), (Kauffmann, John 4), (Swem, Ted 7), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 6)
  • Arrigetch Peaks -- 1974 (Schmitz, Dave 5), (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • arsenic (Johnson, Walter (1) 14)
  • articles -- Living Wilderness (pub. of Wilderness Society) (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • artists -- local art (Henderson, Joe 6)
  • Arundale, Wendy -- technical support (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • Aspinal, Wayne (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • assessment -- people are learning (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3)
  • assistance -- people formed line to point way (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Athabascan (Bane, Ray (2) 4)
  • Athabaskan Indians (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Athabaskans (English, Bill and Shirley 4, 17), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • Athabaskans -- kindled interest (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • Atigun Pass (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • atka -- guardian soul, called to protect newborn (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 8)
  • attitudes -- change since 1973; more interest now in understanding Native ways (Ned, Stanley 10)
  • attitudes -- officials don't like people to go up there (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • attitudes -- Park Service and residents (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • Attla, "Old Man" (Sam Sr., Tony 3)
  • Attla, Alfred -- married to Helen (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Attla, Catherine (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • Attla, Eliza (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • Attla, George (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 5), (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3), (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Attla, George and Liza (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Attla, George Sr. (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • Attla, George Sr. -- became chief in Huslia, 1950 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 4)
  • Attla, George Sr. -- brought Sammy home (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • Attla, George -- father from Hughes (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1)
  • Attla, George -- got kids through school (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • Attla, Steven (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 5)
  • attractions -- culture; language; kids; people (Bane, Ray (1) 4)
  • August -- back to nothing again (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • Aunt Christine (English, Bill and Shirley 10)
  • aunt -- Williams, Effie, stayed at camp with (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • Auntie Celia (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • Auntie Effie (William) (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Auntie Lydia (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • Aurora (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 15)
  • Austrians -- walk to Bettles (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • authority -- more local control; not simple advisory role (Bifelt, Fred Lee 7)
  • authority -- tripartite; state; federal; citizen (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • aviation (Collins, Bruce 2, 7), (English, Bill and Shirley 11), (Johnson, Walter (1) 2), (Lounsbury, George 2)
  • aviation -- access (Collins, Bruce 7)
  • aviation -- accident (English, Bill and Shirley 15)
  • aviation -- accidents (English, Bill and Shirley 13)
  • aviation -- commercial (English, Bill and Shirley 15)
  • aviation -- history (English, Bill and Shirley 14, 15)
  • aviation -- impact (Brown, William (1) 14), (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • aviation -- interior routes (English, Bill and Shirley 15)
  • aviation -- license (English, Bill and Shirley 15)
  • aviation -- people transport (Collins, Bruce 13)
  • aviation -- pilot (Collins, Bruce 13)
  • aviation -- training (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • aviation -- transport (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • babies (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 5)
  • baby -- 1953 (Mekiana, Justus (1) 8)
  • baby -- 1st born late October, 1953 (Mekiana, Justus (1) 10)
  • babysitting (William, William and Effie (1) 2)
  • babysitting -- when people went seining; only seven at time (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • backcountry permits -- only in selected areas (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 6)
  • background -- lack of (Collins, Bruce 4)
  • backpackers -- have little interest in Wiseman (Henderson, Joe 8)
  • Baker, Howard (Swem, Ted 3, 4)
  • baker -- Millie sent as at age seventeen (Gray, Millie 6)
  • band -- $8000-$9000 outfit (Sam Sr., Tony 6)
  • Bane, Barbara (Collins, Bruce 7), (Nelson, Richard 8)
  • Bane, Ray (Collins, Bruce 6, 7, 8), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7), (Nelson, Richard 1, 3, 8, 9, 11)
  • Bane, Ray -- anthropologist (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • Bane, Ray -- early subsistence studies (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • Bane, Ray -- many years of experience; circumnavigation of Arctic (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • Bane, Ray -- never disclosed why interviewing (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7)
  • Bane, Ray -- on-site assistant for Park; designation as "ultimate wilderness"
  • baptism -- first name in the book (Williams, Susie 1)
  • baptized -- Hughes (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • Bar Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • barabara -- Aleut dwelling (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 3)
  • Barber, Matilda (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • barge -- taken apart to build cabin (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • Barkly, Emily (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 13), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 1)
  • Barkly, Pat (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 13), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 1)
  • Barkly, Pat and Emily (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • Barkly, Pat -- heart attack (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 1)
  • Barkly, Pat -- Merchant Marine (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • barley (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 5)
  • Barrow (English, Bill and Shirley 3, 22), (Johnson, Walter (1) 9, 12), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 13), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 5)
  • Barrow people (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Barrow -- missionary from (Mekiana, Justus (1) 10)
  • Barrow -- seven teachers (Bane, Ray (1) 4)
  • Barrow -- teacher came from to teach Tulugaq people before 1948 (Mekiana, Justus (1) 12)
  • Barter Island (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 13), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 5)
  • Bartlett, Bob (Johnson, Walter (1) 15)
  • Barve, Lavon (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • baseball -- men vs. women (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • Battle Mountain, Nevada (Brockman, Ross 6)
  • beading (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • beads (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • beadwork -- mustn't waste (Bifelt, Madeline 9)
  • bear (Brockman, Ross 4), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 7)
  • bear populations -- increased (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • bear -- encounter (Mekiana, Debbie 2)
  • bear -- grizzly (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 8)
  • bear -- polar, as man killers (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • bear -- run over Arctic John (Brockman, Ross 4)
  • bear -- sightings, used to be bad omen (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3)
  • bear -- took four or five shots (Mekiana, Debbie 2)
  • bear -- women ate meat (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • bears (Collins, Bruce 4), (English, Bill and Shirley 21), (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • bears -- grizzlies have large territorial boundaries (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • bears -- inua controversy (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • bears -- only man hunt, he say (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • bears -- rocks thrown at (Fickus, Bill and Fickus (5) 1)
  • bears -- run into on horseback (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • Beaver (David, David and Kitty 2), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3), (English, Bill and Shirley 12, 15, 17), (William, William and Effie (1) 5, 9)
  • beaver dam (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • Beaver People -- friendly (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • beaver -- hardest to catch (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 4)
  • beaver -- overpopulated today, good meat and fur (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 8)
  • beaver -- 'till March (Bifelt, Madeline 2)
  • beaver -- trapped, used heads at fox den (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1)
  • Beaver -- village (Lounsbury, George 4)
  • beaver -- work horse of bush (Holly, Susan 3)
  • Beck, Charlie -- Wiseman
  • bed -- caribou skin (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • bed -- length of cabin, heads toward center (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 9)
  • bed -- one takes up side of room (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • bedrock (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2)
  • Beetus, Henry -- many lived in crowded house (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • Beetus, Joe (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • Beetus, Joe and Celia (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Beetus, Joe -- hunting, came upon, didn't know what it was (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1)
  • Beetus, Little -- trapped; hard living (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Beetus, Little; stepdad from South Fork (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Beetus, Norman (Williams, Susie 12)
  • Beetus, Sophie (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Beetus, Uncle Old Man (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • Beetus -- Henry and Annie (Williams, Susie 4)
  • beliefs -- Indian way (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • Belous, Bob (Bane, Ray (1) 13), (Nelson, Richard 4), (Pepper, Jim (1) 3), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • Beltz, Senator William -- territorial legislature (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 15)
  • beluga -- people never landed them where they live (Ulen, Tishu 3)
  • benchmark park -- premier wilderness park (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • Bentley, Bishop (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 7)
  • Bentley, Bishop -- group marriage (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • Bentley, Bishop -- married them (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • Bentley, Bishop -- pressured people, saying that anybody together had to get married or break up (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • Bereman -- cultural anthropology professor (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • Berger, Roger and Molly (Ned, Stanley 7)
  • Bergman (Johnson, Walter (1) 3)
  • Bergman, Caroline
  • Bergman, Albert (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • Bergman, Auntie Elizabeth -- at her house (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • Bergman, Auntie Elizabeth -- call her mom; nice, quiet, stories (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • Bergman, Billy (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 7), (William, William and Effie (2) 1), (Williams, Susie 1)
  • Bergman, Billy and Ceza -- grandparents (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • Bergman, Billy -- caught 300 in several days (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 6)
  • Bergman, Billy -- father (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1, 2)
  • Bergman, Billy -- next cabin (Beetus, Joe and Celia 2)
  • Bergman, Caroline (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 14)
  • Bergman, Ceza -- mother (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 2)
  • Bergman, Edward -- oldest brother (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Bergman, Edward -- sent by Mission to warn (Williams, Susie 2)
  • Bergman, Elizabeth (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 13)
  • Bergman, Evelyn (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • Bergman, Lubuck -- brother (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Bergman, Lydia (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • Bergman, Steven -- died (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Bergman, Uncle Steven (Bifelt, Madeline 7)
  • Bergman, Warner -- son, cut logs (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • Bering Land Bridge (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • Bering Sea (Swem, Ted 7)
  • berries -- blueberries, cranberries, wild currents; jam (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • berry areas (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • berry picking (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3), (David, David and Kitty 8), (English, Bill and Shirley 5)
  • Bertha's mom -- death (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 10)
  • Bertha -- one year older (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • Bertha -- sister (David, David and Kitty 6)
  • Bertha -- stayed with them a lot (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Bertha -- taught me language (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Bessie (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Bettles (Bane, Ray (2) 4), (Brown, William (1) 8, 11, 14), (Collins, Bruce 2, 6), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2, 4), (English, Bill and Shirley 2, 3, 12, 16, 24),(Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8, 9,10), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 1, 4, 7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2, 3, 4, 7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2, 7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2, 4), (Holly, Susan 7), (Johnson, Walter (1) 3, 9, 14), (Lounsbury, George 5), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 4, 16), (Morry, Riley 7), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1, 9), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 1), (Nelson, Richard 8), (Pepper, Jim (2) 2), (Reakoff, Jack 1), (Schmitz, Dave 4), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 6), (William, William and Effie (1) 4, 5), (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Bettles Field (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7)
  • Bettles Field -- first big airport (Gray, Millie 7)
  • Bettles Lodge (Schmitz, Dave 2), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • Bettles Lodge -- father built it for Weins (Gray, Millie 9)
  • Bettles Lodge -- personal threats (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • Bettles River (Johnson, Walter (1) 14)
  • Bettles Village (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 2)
  • Bettles -- access road proposed (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • Bettles -- black and white breed (Henderson, Joe 10)
  • Bettles -- distance (Henzie, Moses and Marie 2)
  • Bettles -- environmental planner; liaison; six years (Bane, Ray (1) 6)
  • Bettles -- father moved there for work (Gray, Millie 9)
  • Bettles -- hauling freight (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • Bettles -- hostility (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • Bettles -- husband had lived there (Holly, Susan 1)
  • Bettles -- launch point (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • Bettles -- men's school (Mekiana, Justus (1) 3)
  • Bettles -- miners (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Bettles -- Natives and non-Natives (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • Bettles -- no Indians (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • Bettles -- Portage Trail (Henzie, Moses and Marie 2)
  • Bettles -- radio (William, William and Effie (2) 2)
  • Bettles -- repaired boats in winter (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Bettles -- store (Bifelt, Madeline 7), (English, Bill and Shirley 1), (Ulen, Tishu 6)
  • Bettles -- subsistence (Collins, Bruce 16)
  • Bettles -- summer headquarters (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • Bettles -- supply warehouse (English, Bill and Shirley 3)
  • Bettles -- trading post (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5)
  • Bettles -- visitors (Collins, Bruce 15)
  • Bettles -- warehouse (Johnson, Walter (1) 6)
  • Bettles -- white people (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • Bettles -- winter, shuts down (Holly, Susan 3)
  • Bettles -- with white people (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • Bettles-Wiseman run -- kicker travel (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • bias -- racial (Johnson, Walter (1) 10)
  • Bible (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 5)
  • Bible -- always somebody watching over (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 7)
  • Bible -- translation (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 8), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • bicycle (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • Bifelt, Cue -- husband (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • Bifelt, Edith (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 4)
  • Bifelt, Fred (William, William and Effie (1) 6)
  • Bifelt, Fred and Edith (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 6), (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • Bifelt, Fred and Helen (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Bifelt, Fred -- ceremony at his house (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • Bifelt, Madeline and Edith (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • Bifelt, Ralph (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • Big Dipper (Brockman, Ross 5)
  • Big Jim (Johnson, Walter (1) 9)
  • Big Lake (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5, 8), (English, Bill and Shirley 5), (Johnson, Walter (1) 3, 9, 14)
  • Big Squaw Lake (Ulen, Tishu 5)
  • Big William (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • Big William -- grandfather (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 2)
  • Big William -- had friend there; doctor-healer (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3)
  • Big William -- went to live with at twelve (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 2)
  • Bill, Spud (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Bill -- house there, nice place (Williams, Susie 5)
  • Bills, Jim (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • Billy Bergman's Spring Camp (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • biologist (Brockman, Ross 7)
  • biologists -- caribou studies (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • birchbark (Vent, Mary 1)
  • birds -- naming (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 15)
  • birds -- scientific study (Morry, Riley 4)
  • birth certificates (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 5)
  • Bishop Bentley -- married them (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 6)
  • Bishop, Frank (Gray, Millie 10)
  • black bear (Brockman, Ross 4), (Reakoff, Jack 6)
  • black belt park (Kauffmann, John 8, 9)
  • Black Creek -- 22 years (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • Black Creek -- mining claim (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1)
  • Black Jack (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha 9)
  • Black Jack Camp -- nine miles up (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • Black Jack -- lived there year-round (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • Black Mesa Defense (Brown, William (1) 1)
  • blackfish (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • blackfish -- trap (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • blizzard (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 10)
  • blueberries -- east side of village (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • board of directors (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3)
  • board -- Alaska Department of Fish and Game (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • boat freight (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • boat -- brought home meat; dried (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • boat -- caulking (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • boat -- first built at twenty; copy others (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • boat -- have to build right -- otherwise leaks (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • boat -- IMP (Bifelt, Madeline 6)
  • boat -- one week, twenty four feet (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • boat -- sixteen foot wooden (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • boatbuilding -- inboards (Gray, Millie 3)
  • boating -- fun for kids, big trip at end of summer (Gray, Millie 3)
  • boats (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • boats -- 24 feet or larger (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 11)
  • boats -- first one not right shape; made some for sale (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • boats -- haul out (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1)10)
  • boats -- IMP, IMP II, Mud Hen (Gray, Millie 3)
  • boats -- pilot (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • boats -- three (Holly, Susan 3)
  • Bob and Jack -- interpreted for white men (Mekiana, Justus (1) 9)
  • Bob Marshall Country (Kauffmann, John 5)
  • Bolan, Buff (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • Bolyan family (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • Bonanza Creek -- trapping (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Bonyer, David -- Junior Congressman (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • book -- grizzly bears in Alaska (Swem, Ted 11)
  • booklet (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • books -- dictionary, Bible, magazines (Mekiana, Justus (1) 14)
  • books -- how get (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Boones -- Eagle (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • boot seal -- canvas; give pieces to people (Williams, Susie 9)
  • boreal forest (Nelson, Richard 11)
  • born 1947 -- Patterson, N.J. (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • born -- 1916 (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • born -- 1927 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 3)
  • born -- 1930 (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • born -- 1933 (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • born -- 1938, Allakaket (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 12)
  • born -- 1958, Huslia (Bifelt, Fred Lee 1)
  • born -- Alatna, in tent (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • born -- Allakaket (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • born -- Allakaket, 1922 (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • born -- Allakaket, August 27, 1926 (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • born -- Allakaket, October 25, 1905 (Williams, Susie 1)
  • born -- Annapolis, Maryland (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • born -- April 8, 1944 (Lounsbury, George 1)
  • born -- Big Lake (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • born -- California (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • born -- four years younger than Elma (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • born -- Illinois (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 2)
  • born -- January 12, 1931 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • born -- January 1923 (English, Bill and Shirley 1)
  • born -- January 28, 1929 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1)
  • born -- July 20, 1922 (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • born -- July 5, 1924 (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 2)
  • born -- June 15, 1919 (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • born -- Killik Bend (Morry, Riley 1)
  • born -- March 2, 1950 (Ned, Stanley 1)
  • born -- March 28, 1929 (Vent, Bobby 4)
  • born -- May 2, 1930, Alatna (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 1)
  • born -- Oct. 5, 1923 (Kauffmann, John 1)
  • born -- October 12, 1913 (Sam Sr., Tony 1)
  • born -- October 28, 1928 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2)
  • born -- Pennsylvania (Holly, Susan 1)
  • born -- September, 1933 (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • born -- Steven 1924 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1)
  • born -- Wellsburg, West Virginia (Bane, Ray (1) 1)
  • borough houses (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • Bosei, Mamie (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1, 3)
  • Bosey, Mammie
  • botany (Johnson, Walter (2) 3)
  • Boulder Creek (Lounsbury, George 2)
  • Boulding, Charlie (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • boundaries (Mekiana, Justus (1) 18)
  • boundaries -- hunting areas changes (Mekiana, Justus (2) 1)
  • boundaries -- set to accommodate speculative mining interests (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • boundaries -- were established for political reasons (Pepper, Jim (1) 4)
  • boundary issues (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • boundary studies (Swem, Ted 4)
  • boundary -- told not to cross (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • bounty (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4, 5)
  • bounty -- $50 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4)
  • bounty -- bone (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4)
  • Bowen, Bill (Swem, Ted 5, 7)
  • Bowen, Bill -- trip to Hawaii (Swem, Ted 7)
  • bowhunt -- inefficient (Reakoff, Jack 4)
  • bowhunters -- high wound loss; primitive means (Reakoff, Jack 5)
  • boy scout (Swem, Ted 1)
  • boy scout camp -- director of nature study (Swem, Ted 1)
  • Boyce, Miss (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • Bradley, Zorro (Bane, Ray (1) 7), (Collins, Bruce 6), (Nelson, Richard 3, 4, 8)
  • Bradley, Zorro -- ideas for studying Native life (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • breaking trail -- person ahead of dogs (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Breck, Charlie (Lounsbury, George 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11), (Reakoff, Jack 1, 3)
  • Breck, Charlie -- Wiseman (Brown, William (1) 11)
  • breed -- freighting line; lots of different lines (Henderson, Joe 10)
  • breeding (Vent, Bobby 4)
  • Brewster, Kingman (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • Brice, Al (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Bristol Bay (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • Bristol Bay -- June (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • Brockman, Ross (Johnson, Walter (2) 4) (Lounsbury, George 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11), (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Brockman, Ross -- self description (Brockman, Ross 2)
  • Brockman, Ross -- Wiseman (Schmitz, Dave 13)
  • broken faith -- breach was that those we spoke with in the field didn't support the Act; hence they lost (Pepper, Jim (1) 6)
  • Brooks (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • Brooks Camp (Swem, Ted 14)
  • Brooks Range (Bane, Ray (1) 6), (Bane, Ray (2) 6) , (Brown, William (1) 13), (English, Bill and Shirley 16), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3, 7), (Lounsbury, George 1), (Nelson, Richard 8), (Reakoff, Jack 1), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 1), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • Brooks Range Wilderness Trips -- sold operation two years ago (Schmitz, Dave 6)
  • Brooks Range -- camped, hiked, boated with Nelson (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • Brooks Range -- central, epitome of wilderness (Bane, Ray (1) 10)
  • Brooks Range -- geographically northernmost, ultimate U.S. mountains, ultimate wilderness (Kauffmann, John 13)
  • Brooks Range -- quit school after one semester to go there (Schmitz, Dave 1)
  • Brooks Range -- western (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • brother (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1), (Swem, Ted 1)
  • brother -- died next day (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • brother -- Edward (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • brother -- Edward suggested Lydia (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 7)
  • brother -- flew for Wien (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • brother -- got sick (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • brother -- Hudson (Sam Sr., Tony 6)
  • brother -- move to Alaska (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2)
  • brother -- Ross gets burned (Sam Sr., Tony 2)
  • brother -- William Koyukuk (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • brothers and sisters (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5)
  • brothers and sisters -- half (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • brothers and sisters -- half; Andrew, Josephine, Marianne, Gerald, Ralph, Wilfred Jr. (Gray, Millie 5)
  • brothers -- Bergman and Billy quit playing (Sam Sr., Tony 2)
  • brothers -- Billy and Ross (Sam Sr., Tony 1)
  • brothers -- off hunting (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • brothers -- played music (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • brown bear (Swem, Ted 11)
  • Brown University (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • Brown, Bill (Brown, William (1) 1), (Nelson, Richard 11), (Pepper, Jim (1) 2, 4, 6)
  • Brown, Bill -- area in charge of (Brown, William (2) 4)
  • Brown, Bill -- played important role in feasibility study; "key man" (Brown, William (2) 4)
  • Brown, Bill -- retired, but still involved (Brown, William (2) 7)
  • Brown, Chet (Swem, Ted 4)
  • Brown, Gertie (Sam Sr., Tony 6)
  • Brown, Randy (Brown, William (1) 2)
  • buildings -- historic (Henderson, Joe 11)
  • Bull Run (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • Bullock, Jack (Lounsbury, George 7)
  • bunk houses (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • bunkhouse
  • Bunnell, Bill (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • Bureau of Education (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • Bureau of Indian Affairs (Bane, Ray (1) 2), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 3), (Morry, Riley 1), (Swem, Ted 7)
  • Bureau of Land Management (Brown, William (1) 15), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 7), (Lounsbury, George 13), (Morry, Riley 11), (Schmitz, Dave 7), (Swem, Ted 7), (Swem, Ted (2) 4), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • Bureau of Land Management -- bomber fire retardant site (Schmitz, Dave 4)
  • Bureau of Land Management -- development plans unwise (Reakoff, Jack 10)
  • Bureau of Land Management -- didn't believe in giving away large chunks of land (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • Bureau of Land Management -- job (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 5)
  • Bureau of Land Management -- opposition (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Bureau of Land Management -- pavements and parking lots (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • Bureau of Land Management -- rules most lenient anywhere in nation (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • Bureau of Land Management -- would lose acre for every park acre gained (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Brown, William (1) 15), (Swem, Ted 9, 10)
  • Bureau of Outdoor Recreation -- established (Swem, Ted 9)
  • Bureau of Reclamation (Swem, Ted 3)
  • Bureau of Reclamation -- regional office in Denver (Swem, Ted 4)
  • bureaucracy (Ned, Stanley 16)
  • Burke, Dr -- fell in love with woman there (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Burke, Dr. (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6), (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Burkevich, John -- sponsor (Vent, Bobby 3)
  • burnout -- by 1978, people running out of energy (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • Burton, Phil (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • Busby, Bob -- dogs (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • bush pilot (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • bush -- money is out on the land (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 6)
  • bush -- travel route (Brockman, Ross 4)
  • Butcher, Susan (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • Butler, George (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Button Mountain (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3), (Holly, Susan 2)
  • C-46 -- coming from Fairbanks (Bane, Ray (1) 4)
  • C-47's (Gray, Millie 7)
  • CAA -- moved all their buildings from Old Bettles (Gray, Millie 7)
  • cabbage (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • cabin (Bane, Ray (2) 4)
  • cabin fever (Reakoff, Jack 9)
  • cabin -- "lumber cabin" built out of barge (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • cabin -- $430, firm , (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • cabin -- 1927 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1)
  • cabin -- description (Brockman, Ross 7)
  • cabin -- dug out (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • cabin -- few visitors (Holly, Susan 7)
  • cabin -- mid-September to mid-March (Holly, Susan 2)
  • cabin -- purchased, 1971
  • cabin -- schoolteacher's, purchased in 1967 (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • cabin -- ten miles out of Bettles (Holly, Susan 2)
  • cabin -- twenty by twenty-five feet (Holly, Susan 2)
  • cabins (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2), (Henderson, Joe 7), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • cabins -- inside Park (English, Bill and Shirley 23)
  • cabins -- log (Johnson, Walter (1) 2)
  • cabins -- mail trail (Henzie, Moses and Marie 2)
  • cabins -- prohibited (English, Bill and Shirley 24)
  • cabins -- started building new ones (Henderson, Joe 5)
  • cabins -- trespass (Collins, Bruce 5)
  • Cache Lake (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3, 6)
  • caches (Reakoff, Jack 6)
  • Cain, Stan (Swem, Ted (2) 2)
  • California (Collins, Bruce 9)
  • callers (Sam Sr., Tony 4)
  • Cambell, Dr. (Brown, William (1) 13)
  • camp (David, David and Kitty 2), (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • Camp Denali -- Mt. McKinley National Park (Swem, Ted 12)
  • camp -- all kids born in (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • camp -- cut wood (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 12)
  • camp -- dog ran bear off (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 4)
  • camp -- first time; three days, make fire, leave wood for the next person (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1)
  • camp -- good food (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • camp -- had violin there (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • camp -- he would babysit and tell stories (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • camp -- living out from village (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • camp -- set up and waited (Williams, Susie 2)
  • camp -- set up for holidays (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • camp -- ten miles below Allakaket (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • camp -- work, got wood (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • camping (Collins, Bruce 15), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2), (Swem, Ted 7)
  • camping -- can't seem to get taken out even for one night (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 8)
  • camping -- peaceful, fun (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • camping -- tent (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • camping -- winter needs (Mekiana, Justus (1) 7)
  • camps -- other families (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • camps -- winter, summer, spring (Ned, Stanley 1)
  • campsite -- during tuberculosis outbreak (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 10)
  • Canada (Bane, Ray (2) 5)
  • Canadian government (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • Canadian-U.S. international park (Swem, Ted 15)
  • canned meat (Reakoff, Jack 6)
  • canning (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • canoe (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1)
  • canoe -- Joe made it from Hughes to Allakaket in one and a half days (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • canoe -- traveled up (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • canvas -- making dresses (Vent, Mary 2)
  • canyon floor (Brockman, Ross 8)
  • canyons (Brockman, Ross 8)
  • career -- goals (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • career -- school teacher (Bane, Ray (1) 1)
  • caribou (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3), (Brown, William (1) 7), (David, David and Kitty 2), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3, 4), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 6), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 1), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1), (Ulen, Tishu 1)
  • caribou hunting (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 4), (Mekiana, Justus (2) 1), (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 2), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5, 6)
  • caribou hunting -- don't make noise; learn by hunting rabbits (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1)
  • caribou legging boots (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • Caribou Mountain (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9)
  • caribou skin (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 3)
  • caribou skin boots (Vent, Mary 4)
  • caribou spring bull -- tame (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • caribou -- also scarce in past (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • caribou -- blond, supposed to be magical (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • caribou -- bones used in broth; source of fat (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 6)
  • caribou -- bulls, rutting (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • caribou -- cow skins (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • caribou -- died (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • caribou -- extreme decline 1970s; emergency closure; not predicted, poorly handled (Reakoff, Jack 9)
  • caribou -- fall migration (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • caribou -- February kill (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 9)
  • caribou -- following in winter (Mekiana, Justus (1) 3)
  • caribou -- frozen (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • caribou -- killed by dogs (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 9)
  • caribou -- lack of (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • caribou -- lead to people (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 2)
  • caribou -- meat (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 7), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • caribou -- migration (Morry, Riley 7), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 8)
  • caribou -- mini famine, 1960's (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 6)
  • caribou -- no more from south in 1940's (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • caribou -- Porcupine Herd (Johnson, Walter (1) 14)
  • caribou -- quantity used as dog meat (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 4)
  • caribou -- range (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • caribou -- selection, fat, healthy (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 8)
  • caribou -- shooting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • caribou -- sittings (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • caribou -- skinning (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • caribou -- started to come back from South (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • caribou -- thrashing (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • caribou -- too weak to carry (Mekiana, Debbie 3)
  • caribou -- tuttu (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • caribou -- use of (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • caribou -- Western Herd (Collins, Bruce 10), (Johnson, Walter (1) 14), (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • caribou -- women roles(Schmitt, Dennis (1) 9)
  • Carlson, Bert -- wood cutting (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • carpenter saw -- accompaniment (Brockman, Ross 4)
  • Carpenter, Clara -- teacher (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • Carpenter, Louie (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • Carter, Clara -- missionary (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 9)
  • Carter, Jimmy (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Carter, President -- declared (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • Carter, President (Collins, Bruce 2)
  • Cascade Lake (Kauffmann, John 12)
  • Cascade Mountains (Swem, Ted 10)
  • Casey (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • cash economy -- got to earn a living (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • caste system (Brown, William (1) 14)
  • cat (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • cat trail (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9)
  • cat trains (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • cat -- $28,000 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • cat -- train, 1964 (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 7)
  • Catch 22 -- park worries over too high a kill, then says we don't use resource enough to justify a resident zone (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • Caterpillar (Johnson, Walter (1) 6), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16), (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Caterpillar -- tractor (English, Bill and Shirley 2)
  • Catholic Bishop -- baptized with Native names (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • Catholics (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • cave (Brockman, Ross 7, 8)
  • cave -- description (Brockman, Ross 8)
  • Cavers' Club (Brockman, Ross 7)
  • Cavick Creek
  • Cedar Rapids (Swem, Ted 2, 3)
  • Cedar Rapids, IO -- born (Swem, Ted 1)
  • celebrations -- Christmas (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 5)
  • celebrations -- Fourth of July (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • celebrations -- holidays (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • celery (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • Celia -- 6th grade (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • census -- Elijah Kikinia family (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 7)
  • census -- Frank Rolland family (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 5)
  • census -- Homer Mekiana family (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 12)
  • census -- Simon Paneak family (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 8)
  • census -- while visiting (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 10)
  • Center for Northern Environment (Bane, Ray (1) 6)
  • centerdome (Brown, William (2) 2)
  • Central Brooks Range (Brown, William (1) 8), (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • Central Brooks Range Region (Brown, William (1) 4)
  • Central Brooks Region (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • ceremony -- got married, August 8; repeated words they didn't understand (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • certificates -- appreciation (Gray, Millie 8)
  • Cessna 180 (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5)
  • Ceza -- mother; live long time, ninety-five (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • chain saw (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • chainsaw (Johnson, Walter (1) 10)
  • Chalkyitsik (Nelson, Richard 10)
  • Chalkyitsik -- dissertation (Nelson, Richard 1)
  • Champagne, IL (Kauffmann, John 1)
  • Chandalar (Brown, William (1) 6, 14), (Johnson, Walter (1) 11, 14)
  • Chandalar Lake (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5), (Reakoff, Jack 1), (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • Chandalar River (Lounsbury, George 4), (Reakoff, Jack 3)
  • Chandler (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Chandler East Fork (Place) (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • Chandler Lake (English, Bill and Shirley 16), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 8), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • Chandler Lake -- 1st airplane landing in 1944 or 1945 (Mekiana, Justus (1) 4)
  • Chandler Lake -- caribou (Mekiana, Justus (1) 8)
  • Chandler Lake -- last trip with father (Mekiana, Debbie 3)
  • Chandler Lake-miut (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • change (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 7)
  • change -- acceptance (Collins, Bruce 5)
  • change -- after war, all different (William, William and Effie (2) 2)
  • change -- anticipated much later (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 6)
  • change -- cultural (Bane, Ray (2) 4), (Brown, William (1) 12)
  • change -- development like malignant cancer; can't be stopped (Ned, Stanley 13)
  • change -- fewer living out on land, more flying over it (Schmitz, Dave 6)
  • change -- first noticed when about seven or eight; 1957 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • change -- happening too close together now (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • change -- lack of in hunting (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 6)
  • change -- lifestyle (Bane, Ray (2) 4)
  • change -- more power came from settlement (Bifelt, Fred Lee 2)
  • change -- most apparent since 1960's (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • change -- philosophical; fewer likely to go out these days (Schmitz, Dave 9)
  • change -- political nightmare (Bane, Ray (1) 10)
  • change -- sent in personnel to talk, listen, learn (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • change -- too fast (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • change -- village (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 6)
  • changes -- food stamps; energy assistance; Aid For Dependent Children (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 6)
  • changes -- the occurrence of (Mekiana, Justus (2) 1)
  • chap -- getting it out (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 5)
  • Chapell, Oliver (Johnson, Walter (1) 11)
  • Chapman, Sydney (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 15)
  • Charlie, Larson (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 8), (Sam Sr., Tony 4)
  • Charlie, Mary -- now (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 8)
  • Chase, Don (Collins, Bruce 8)
  • check points (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • Cheechako -- was one, liked to ride along (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • Chena Hot Springs (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • Chena Hot Springs Road (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9)
  • Chena River -- barge test (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 2)
  • Chena River -- trapline (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • Chichagof Island (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • chicken (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • Chief Henry (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Chief Henry and Grandma Bessie (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • Chief John and Mary (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Chief Moses -- Ceza's father (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • Chief Moses -- many stories about, good trapper, fishing (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • chief -- looked to the future (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • childhood neighbors (Brockman, Ross 3)
  • children (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • children -- "extra eyes" (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • children -- 1940-1960; eleven kids (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • children -- Abel; Freddy; Beverly; Stanley (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • children -- accidents (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 15)
  • children -- after going out for high school, don't look normal anymore; look mean (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • children -- born (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • children -- caribou hunting (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • children -- curiosity (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 9)
  • children -- didn't grow up with TV (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • children -- eight, all moved away (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 1)
  • children -- eight, had to fly to cabin (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • children -- eight; six boys, two girls (David, David and Kitty 3)
  • children -- first one in 1948 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 7)
  • children -- five (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 1)
  • children -- four (Ulen, Tishu 1)
  • children -- free reign (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • children -- future leaders (Morry, Riley 12)
  • children -- grown up in bush (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • children -- had eleven, lost four (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 7)
  • children -- John, Millie, Myrtle (died 1948), Jean (Gray, Millie 4)
  • children -- last child born 1964 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • children -- mother had three (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • children -- mother's; eight, six sisters, two brothers (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • children -- need to learn from elders, get back skills (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • children -- new generation doesn't know about spring camp (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • children -- no boredom (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • children -- reading (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • children -- responsibility (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • children -- roles (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 1)
  • children -- Ronnie, Harding, Jerry (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • children -- sent to school (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • children -- seven (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • children -- should value culture ( Mekiana, Debbie 6)
  • children -- spread around (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • children -- stay in yard (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • children -- stayed with other families when parent got sick (David, David and Kitty 7)
  • children -- still live upriver (Bifelt, Madeline 6)
  • children -- teaching them to learn from everybody (Bifelt, Fred Lee 10)
  • children -- they have to make a living after we are gone (Beetus, Joe and Celia 9)
  • children -- three (Bifelt, Fred Lee 1)
  • children -- three from first husband (Williams, Susie 3)
  • children -- today bored, life is too easy (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • children -- traplines (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • children -- visits (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • Childs, Frank (Swem, Ted 3)
  • Chilkoot (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • Chilkoot Pass (Swem, Ted 12, 13)
  • chores -- saw wood, pack water (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4)
  • Christian Village (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6)
  • Christianity (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • Christianity -- Elijah Kakinya (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • Christiansen, Hans (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • Christmas (English, Bill and Shirley 20), (Johnson, Walter (1) 13), (Sam Sr., Tony 5)
  • Christmas break (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6)
  • Christmas -- had fiddle to himself (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Chugiak (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • Chukchi-Immaruk -- Bering Land Bridge (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • chum salmon (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • church (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13), (Williams, Susie 1)
  • church -- Allakaket (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • church -- degraded Native ways, restricted people and language (Ned, Stanley 4)
  • church -- finished in one spring (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • church -- gathered in tent to listen to sermon (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • Church -- plans for building begin; finished 1991(Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • church -- Russian name for (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • church -- wanted to build church from tree (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • churches -- lack of (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • Civil Aviation Administration -- built all in one summer, 1941 (William, William and Effie (2) 2)
  • Civil Aviation Administration -- built residence (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • civil engineer work (Swem, Ted 3)
  • civil war -- stories (Brockman, Ross 3)
  • claims (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2)
  • claims -- state versus government (Collins, Bruce 11)
  • Claus -- doubled for (Henderson, Joe 3)
  • cleaning (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4)
  • Cleanmiller, Lotta -- Australian (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • Clear River Headwaters (Kauffmann, John 5)
  • clients -- enjoyed experience (Henderson, Joe 2)
  • clients -- teach them before going; slow pace (Henderson, Joe 10)
  • Clifford, Clark -- opposed (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • cliffs (Brockman, Ross 8)
  • clinic -- start without training, 1978 (David, David and Kitty 6)
  • clock -- thinking the ticking was woodworms (Vent, Mary 2)
  • cloth dance -- make circle with cloth; pass it around; bolts wound together (Williams, Susie 9)
  • cloth diapers (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • clothes (English, Bill and Shirley 21), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4)
  • clothes -- caribou skin (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • clothes -- sewing
  • clothes -- two pair: school and home (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • clothing -- today traditional little used, mostly sold (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • co-management -- decisions (Bane, Ray (1) 11)
  • co-op store (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • cod liver oil (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 9)
  • Coe College -- Cedar Rapids (Swem, Ted 3)
  • coffee (English, Bill and Shirley 17)
  • Coffman, John (Swem, Ted 15)
  • Coghill (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 3)
  • Cold Creek
  • Coldfoot (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5), (Johnson, Walter (1) 2, 6, 10), (Lounsbury, George 2, 3, 4, 7), (Pepper, Jim (2) 2), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 6)
  • Coldfoot Classic Race (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • Coldfoot landing strip (Johnson, Walter (1) 3)
  • Coldfoot -- landing strip (English, Bill and Shirley 3, 4, 20)
  • Coldfoot -- storekeeper (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • college (Mekiana, Debbie 5)
  • Collins, George (Swem, Ted 5, 7, 15), (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • Colorado Game and Fish Department (Swem, Ted 3)
  • Colorado State University (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • Colorado -- 1943 move to (Swem, Ted 3)
  • Colville River (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2), (Johnson, Walter (1) 9), (Lounsbury, George 4), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2), (Morry, Riley 1)
  • co-management -- help with regulation (Ned, Stanley 16)
  • commercial fish (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • commercial fishing (Reakoff, Jack 7, 8)
  • commercial license -- 1956 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • commercial use licenses (Schmitz, Dave 7)
  • common interest -- Natives and National Park Service (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • communal family (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 10)
  • communication (Bane, Ray (1) 12), (Bane, Ray (2) 2), (English, Bill and Shirley 12, 16)
  • communication -- Fairbanks (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • communication -- links (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • communication -- need to break down barriers (Bifelt, Fred Lee 8)
  • communication -- networks (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • communication -- some want to talk, others don't (Williams, Susie 12)
  • communication -- Tanana (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • communications -- equipment and coverage (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 6)
  • communities -- today, share school (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • community (Mekiana, Debbie 5)
  • community -- helps economy (Henderson, Joe 6)
  • community -- ideal (English, Bill and Shirley 25)
  • community -- importance of (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • compromises -- found in no other land law in America (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • compromises -- reasons for (Pepper, Jim (2) 1)
  • concerns -- influx of hunters up the Koyukuk River (Bifelt, Fred Lee 6)
  • concerns -- people feared they might be forced off the land (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3)
  • conflict -- authority (Ned, Stanley 7)
  • conflict -- biological vs. cultural needs (Bane, Ray (1) 10)
  • conflict -- interagency (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • conflict -- intergovernmental (Collins, Bruce 17)
  • conflict -- Iñupiaq and Indians (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • conflict -- Natives of Anaktuvuk Pass and National Park Service (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 1)
  • conflict -- no escape; little 'til one is on way to town (Holly, Susan 8)
  • conflict -- no scientific proof of either, yet whites don't see it that way (Ned, Stanley 6)
  • conflict -- preservation versus loss of freedom (Schmitz, Dave 7)
  • conflicts -- over land (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • conflicts -- will increase (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • Congress (Bane, Ray (1) 7), (Pepper, Jim (2) 3), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 1)
  • Congress -- deadline, Dec 21, 1973 (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Congress -- far thinking (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • Congress -- intent within parks (Brown, William (2) 7)
  • Congress -- protect over time (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • Congress -- unofficial rule, don't accept concessions if other party will vote against the result (Pepper, Jim (1) 4)
  • Congressional deadline -- January 1, 1984 (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 2)
  • Congressional intent -- accommodate Anaktuvuk Pass (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 9)
  • congressional limits (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • conservation (Pepper, Jim (1) 7, 12), (Brown, William (2) 6)
  • conservation agencies (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • conservation groups (Brown, William (1) 1)
  • conservation movement (Brown, William (1) 15)
  • conservationists (Collins, Bruce 14)
  • conservationists -- saw urgency in protections amidst development (Bane, Ray (1) 6)
  • consolidation (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3)
  • construction (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3), (Bifelt, Madeline 7)
  • construction materials -- transportation (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • construction work -- repairs, digging (Gray, Millie 9)
  • construction -- road (Henderson, Joe 9)
  • construction -- spring, 1970 (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • construction -- workers stayed there (Henderson, Joe 5)
  • consultants -- never before in business, Natives had to rely upon outside advice (Bifelt, Fred Lee 4)
  • consumption -- personal (Bifelt, Fred Lee 5)
  • Contact Creek (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 6, 13)
  • contact -- formation (Collins, Bruce 7)
  • contact -- western (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • contact -- with outsiders, stress on identity (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 6)
  • contract hauling (Henzie, Moses and Marie 2)
  • control -- emanated from higher up and often at odds with planning (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • controlled use -- renewable resources (Schmitz, Dave 10)
  • controversy (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • convoys (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • Cook Inlet (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • cook stove -- accidentally making fire in oven (Vent, Mary 2)
  • Cook, John (Collins, Bruce 2), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • Cook, John -- Regional Director (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • Cook, Julia (Vent, Mary 1, 5)
  • Cook, Mrs. Tom (Vent, Mary 5)
  • cooking (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5), (Vent, Mary 1)
  • cooperative activities -- Washington D.C. (Swem, Ted 5)
  • Cooperative Management (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • cooperative management -- favored allowing subsistence for newcomers (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Cooperative Park Studies Unit (CPSU) -- University of Alaska Fairbanks (Collins, Bruce 6)
  • Coordinator for Federal Aid to Wildlife Restoration (Swem, Ted 3)
  • copper companies (Schmitz, Dave 9)
  • copper mine (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1, 6)
  • Copper River Delta (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Cora -- Hannah's sister (Gray, Millie 6)
  • corporations -- relationship between village and regional (Bifelt, Fred Lee 4)
  • correspondence school (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • corridor easements (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 1)
  • corridor -- management regime should be more like the park (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • corridor -- subsistence hunt only (Reakoff, Jack 10)
  • Cosmos Hills -- mountain (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • Cosser, Jerry -- Frontier Flying (Schmitz, Dave 2)
  • cost (Schmitz, Dave 6)
  • Costello, Ron (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • cotton tree -- split, formed perimeter around trap (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 5)
  • cottonwood trees (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 5)
  • council (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)
  • council -- current members (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)
  • council -- meeting in house (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)
  • council -- needed before post office could be built (Mekiana, Justus (1) 14)
  • council -- talk about getting post office (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)
  • country school (Brockman, Ross 6)
  • country -- cut up (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • country -- good, many moose; rabbits; marten; dogs (Williams, Susie 5)
  • countryside -- description (Brockman, Ross 8)
  • couple -- April 1947 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 7)
  • couples -- three got married at once (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • Courtney, Tom (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • cousins -- Evansville (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • CPSU (Bane, Ray (1) 7)
  • crackers -- first experience eating (Vent, Mary 2)
  • crafts for sale (Henderson, Joe 6)
  • Crafts, Ed (Swem, Ted 9, 10)
  • crafts -- beading; carving (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • crafts -- bowl carving (Schmitz, Dave 13)
  • Craggy Peak (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • craters (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • credibility -- with local people (Schmitz, Dave 11)
  • credit (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • credit -- gave villagers $200.00 credit (Mekiana, Justus 17)
  • Creech, Jim (Brown, William (1) 3)
  • Cressy -- black miner (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • Crevice Creek (Collins, Bruce 7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2, 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 5), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3), (Schmitz, Dave 4)
  • Crevice Creek -- 1963 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 13),
  • Crevice Creek -- like it there (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • Crevice Creek -- not a winter mining creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 3)
  • crippled -- six years old (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 1)
  • Croshack, Louis (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 13)
  • Cross, John (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 14)
  • Crosson, Joe (English, Bill and Shirley 13)
  • Crowder, Jim (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • Crowl, Bill (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 2, 4)
  • cruiseship (Swem, Ted 2)
  • Cub -- crashed out on Noatak (Holly, Susan 1)
  • Cue -- Madeline's husband, met him (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • cultural anthropologist -- definition: one who doesn't have a culture anymore (Bane, Ray (1) 8)
  • cultural anthropology (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • cultural heterogeneity (Pepper, Jim (2) 3)
  • cultural translator (Ned, Stanley 11)
  • culture change -- devastating (Bifelt, Fred Lee 9)
  • culture loss -- missionaries, teachers, miners (Ned, Stanley 6)
  • culture shock (Bane, Ray (1) 4), (Bifelt, Fred Lee 9)
  • culture -- borrowing (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • culture -- didn't know Allakaket and Alatna were different people when growing up (David, David and Kitty 4)
  • culture -- difference (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 7)
  • culture -- different perspectives (Bane, Ray (1) 8)
  • culture -- don't want to lose (Mekiana, Debbie 5)
  • culture -- got it from old culture (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • culture -- many things won't be taped because they will be misunderstood (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • culture -- no record of traditional use of All Terrain Vehicles (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 1)
  • culture -- once conscious, is it culture anymore?; playacting (Bane, Ray (1) 8)
  • culture -- pride; competence; strong identity; self-esteem (Bane, Ray (1) 3)
  • culture -- strong, can get back ( Mekiana, Debbie 6)
  • culture -- trading, sharing ideas (Morry, Riley 12)
  • Cunningham, Bob -- Denali (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • current -- needs to be straight, catch fish all winter (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 5)
  • Curtis Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2)
  • Cusack, Joe (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 13)
  • customers -- warm, dry, well-fed, easy (Henderson, Joe 8)
  • Cutoff (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 3, 4, 9, 10), (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1), (Williams, Susie 1)
  • Cutoff -- Christmas (Vent, Mary 4)
  • Cutoff -- isolated (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • Cutoff -- Labovski too stingy (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • Cutoff -- lots of meat (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Cutoff -- village (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1)
  • cutting fish (Vent, Mary 4)
  • cutting logs (Brown, William (1) 8)
  • cutting wood (Bane, Ray (2) 4)
  • cutting wood -- hand saws (Schmitz, Dave 3)
  • D-1, D-2 withdrawals -- assessment and recommendation (Kauffmann, John 5)
  • D-2 (Brown, William (1) 2, 3)
  • D-2 Bill (Bane, Ray (1) 7)
  • D-2 withdrawls (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • D-2 -- compromise (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • D-2 -- to expire in 1979 (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • D-4 Cat (Gray, Millie 9)
  • D-7 Cat (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • dad -- fireman (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 1)
  • dad -- flying (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • dad -- good hunter (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6)
  • dad -- hunter (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 1)
  • dad -- navy (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2)
  • dad -- part time carpenter (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 3)
  • dad -- raised animals (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 1)
  • dad -- trap (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • dad -- work (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6)
  • Dakli Pass (Nelson, Richard 8)
  • Dall Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • Dalton (Henderson, Joe 5)
  • Dalton Highway (Reakoff, Jack 10)
  • dam -- Natives hauled logs; automatic trap door; formed big lake (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1)
  • damage -- scar on land (Morry, Riley 7)
  • dance halls (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • dance tunes -- 1941 (Brockman, Ross 5)
  • dance -- every night for week (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • dance -- kids danced (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • dance -- nightly (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • dances (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • dances -- first performs at eleven (Sam Sr., Tony 2)
  • dancing (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • dancing -- men, stretch hands, stomp feet (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • dancing -- music (Vent, Mary 4)
  • dancing -- sex roles (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • dancing -- women, wave hands (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • Dapkis, David -- Bureau of Outdoor Recreation in charge of wild river studies (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • Darlin, Don (Sam Sr., Tony 6)
  • Darling, Mary (English, Bill and Shirley 16)
  • dart guns (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • data -- critical to know your facts (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • daughter (Williams, Susie 4)
  • daughter -- Christy (Schmitz, Dave 11)
  • daughter -- Helen, born in tent, 50 below, Hog River (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • daughter -- her death makes him quit again for three months (Sam Sr., Tony 2)
  • daughter -- June ate tail, wasn't supposed to (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • daughter -- Patty (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • David, Eva (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • David, Kitty -- recommendations (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • David, Kitty -- sledding (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • David, Kitty -- values (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • David -- values (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • daytime -- singing (Williams, Susie 9)
  • DC-3 -- lands with blade for cat (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • dead fall trap (Vent, Mary 4)
  • deals -- fewer sleazy deals, more factual requirements (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • death -- "weight of mistakes", keep offending spirits (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • death -- people gather to help spiritually (Ned, Stanley 12)
  • deceased -- Ralph, Philip, Junior (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • December -- fox; lynx; wolverine; wolf; hauling water; trail to town (Holly, Susan 4)
  • December -- marten; alternate lines (Holly, Susan 4)
  • decision -- too fast; forty-nine years ago (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • definitions -- domicile vs residence (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • Delaware River (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • Delaware Watergap National Recreational Area (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 2)
  • delivering babies (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 15)
  • delivery -- babies; first one 1965 (David, David and Kitty 6)
  • Delta (Johnson, Walter (1) 14)
  • demography -- most urbanized state in America (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Demoski, Leo (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • Denali (Collins, Bruce 2, 12, 17), (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • Dennerline, Chip -- staff chief for Tony Knowles (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • dental floss (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • Denver (Swem, Ted 4)
  • Denver Service Center (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 2)
  • Denver Service Center -- National Park Service (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 2)
  • Denver, CO -- regional office (Swem, Ted 3)
  • Department of Agriculture (Swem, Ted 10)
  • Department of Fish and Game Advisory Committee
  • Department of Fish and Game -- caribou to feed dogs became illegal (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 5)
  • Department of Interior (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • Department of Natural Resources (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • Department of the Interior (Swem, Ted 3, 10)
  • dependence -- we lose people all the time; too much (Williams, Susie 13)
  • depression -- acute case (Johnson, Walter (1) 12)
  • Derenfurth, Norm D. -- former leader of American Everest Expedition (Kauffmann, John 3)
  • Detritus (Brown, William (1) 4)
  • development (Bane, Ray (2) 4), (Brown, William (1) 8), (Collins, Bruce 14)
  • development -- no provisions for minor impacts (Schmitz, Dave 10)
  • development -- price, conservation areas established (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • deviations -- from normal National Park policies (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • Dewild, Allen (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • Dewilder, Ricco (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • diaries (Brown, William (1) 11)
  • diarrhea (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • died -- 1944 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • died -- asked to be buried in Hughes; Fairbanks; wrong (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • diesel -- fuel made possible to stay (Morry, Riley 2)
  • diet -- Eskimo food (Mekiana, Justus (2) 1)
  • Dietrich River (Reakoff, Jack 2, 3)
  • differences -- Schmitz favors consumptive use with control (Schmitz, Dave 8)
  • difficulties -- personal; resident and ranger (Schmitz, Dave 12)
  • Dillion, John (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • dinner date (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • Dinook -- same as Tinuk (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • diptheria (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 13)
  • Derendoff, Angeline and Richard (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • Derendoff, Richard (Sam Sr., Tony 4)
  • Derendoff, Richard and Angeline (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 6)
  • Derendoff, Richard -- willing to marry (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • discipline (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 4)
  • Discovery Channel (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • disease -- spread (David, David and Kitty 7)
  • dispute -- Vernetti failed to pay Sackett for working store; court, Sackett got store (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 2)
  • distant time -- everything was human, birds, fish, animals, wolverine (Simon, Lydia 1)
  • distemper -- from two girls playing with dog (Williams, Susie 2)
  • dividend (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3)
  • divisions -- conservation vs. development (Brown, William (2) 7)
  • doctor -- his mistakes a cultural mirror; intrusive; crude (Bane, Ray (1) 3)
  • doctors -- misunderstood also (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • dog mushing (Bane, Ray (1) 2), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 10)
  • dog mushing tours -- custom trips (Henderson, Joe 2)
  • dog pack -- stiff skin, doesn't poke into dog (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3)
  • dog salmon (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1), (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • dog sled (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 6), (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • dog sled -- hauled boat over (Bifelt, Madeline 3)
  • dog sledding (Henzie, Moses and Marie 8), (Schmitz, Dave 4)
  • dog sleds (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • dog sleds -- spruce (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 9)
  • dog team (Bane, Ray (1) 3), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 7), (Nelson, Richard 8, 10), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 1), (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • dog team trip -- 1973; one year leave of absence (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • dog team -- affordability (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 4)
  • dog team -- grew (David, David and Kitty 5)
  • dog team -- mail run (English, Bill and Shirley 3)
  • dog team -- October (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • dog team -- restrictions (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 5)
  • dog team -- 'till 1957 (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • dog trail (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • dog -- big, like bear (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 4)
  • dog -- burial (Lounsbury, George 10)
  • dog -- packing (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • dog -- temperament (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • dog -- wolf hybrids (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 9)
  • dogfood (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • dogs (Lounsbury, George 10), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 11)
  • dogs -- breaking trail (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • dogs -- breeding with wolves (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3, 9)
  • dogs -- care of (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 4)
  • dogs -- care of and winning races (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 2)
  • dogs -- goal to have them pay for themselves (Henderson, Joe 10)
  • dogs -- good, watchdogs too (Henzie, Moses and Marie 8)
  • dogs -- hard on, bleeding paws (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • dogs -- he used two, while Ceza worked ahead (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • dogs -- justification, resource to hunt (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 4)
  • dogs -- last person to use (Henzie, Moses and Marie 8)
  • dogs -- learn to handle packs (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • dogs -- learned how to use; reliable; first time, tipped (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 4)
  • dogs -- Marie rode in sled (Henzie, Moses and Marie 8)
  • dogs -- must listen even if tired (Vent, Bobby 4)
  • dogs -- one and a half tons of food; straw; tallow (Holly, Susan 5)
  • dogs -- operated in pairs (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 9)
  • dogs -- packing (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5), (Morry, Riley 10), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • dogs -- sharing to line up river (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • dogs -- sickness (Henzie, Moses and Marie 8)
  • dogs -- signals (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • dogs -- sizes (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • dogs -- three or four; one person leading (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 11)
  • dogs -- used for hauling wood (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • dogteam -- Catherine took over (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 3)
  • dogteam -- eight dogs (Morry, Riley 10)
  • dogteam -- seven dogs (Bifelt, Madeline 2)
  • dogteams (Morry, Riley 10)
  • dogteams -- caribou migration (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 8)
  • Dooley -- gas boat (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Dooley -- hauling freight too (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • door -- grizzly bear, fur side in (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 3)
  • Doors, Herbert (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • Dorothy (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • Dorothy and Jim (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • Dorothy -- eats a lot, good worker (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • Doyon (Schmitz, Dave 7)
  • Doyon Native Corporation (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • Doyon -- big (Simon, Lydia 1)
  • draft registration -- required (William, William and Effie (2) 2)
  • draft -- no one local (William, William and Effie (2) 2)
  • dredging (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2)
  • drinking (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • drinking -- Johnny Oldman told me all I'll get is trouble (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • drinking -- quit, 1975 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • driving dogs (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 4, 8)
  • driving dogs -- David's first experience at nine; two dogs (David, David and Kitty 5)
  • drug abuse -- symptoms of deeper problem (Bifelt, Fred Lee 9)
  • dry crackers (Vent, Mary 2)
  • dual residence -- Bettles and bush (Holly, Susan 2)
  • Dubin, Corby -- wife (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • Dubin, Sam (Bifelt, Madeline 7), (English, Bill and Shirley 1), (Johnson, Walter (1) 6), (Lounsbury, George 4), (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • Dubin, Sam, Mrs. (Johnson, Walter (1) 6)
  • Dubin, Sam -- badly burned, flown out (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • Dubin, Sam -- Bettles store (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Dubin, Sam -- store (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • Dubin, Sam -- storekeeper (Vent, Mary 3)
  • Dubin -- owned stores, boats, mail-run (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Dubin -- returned to run store (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • ducks -- gutting (Ned, Stanley 2)
  • ducks -- old squaw (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • ducks -- proper treatment (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • Dulbi (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3), (Sam Sr., Tony 1)
  • Dulbi River (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 8)
  • Dulbi Slough (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1, 10), (Vent, Mary 3)
  • Dulbi -- 1927; store (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • Dulbi -- gave too much away; went broke (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • Dulbi -- mother (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 1)
  • Dulbi -- store (Vent, Mary 3)
  • Dyea (Swem, Ted 12)
  • Eagle (Collins, Bruce 6), (Lounsbury, George 14)
  • Eagle Island (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • Eagle Island Blues (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 8)
  • Eagle, Henry (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • Eagle, John (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • Eagle -- vandalism (Collins, Bruce 8)
  • earrings (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • early residents (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • Earthquake -- 1964 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • easement (Morry, Riley 8)
  • easements (Morry, Riley 6, 12)
  • easements -- tradeoffs (Morry, Riley 6)
  • Easter Creek (Collins, Bruce 13)
  • ecological integrity (Kauffmann, John 7)
  • economic -- purpose of in SW corner (Brown, William (2) 3)
  • economics (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15), (Johnson, Walter (1) 10)
  • economy -- few options (Henderson, Joe 6)
  • economy -- mixed is best (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • ecosystem -- plan for management to include culture (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • ecosystems -- enormously large in Alaska (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • Eddie (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • education (Bane, Ray (1) 1), (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • education -- adult, evening courses (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 5)
  • education -- by watching, experience (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 8)
  • education -- high school (English, Bill and Shirley 10)
  • education -- Holy Cross Mission, then outside (Gray, Millie 2)
  • education -- importance of learning white man's world (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • education -- jobs take people away to cities (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • education -- junior college (English, Bill and Shirley 10)
  • education -- learn from each other (Bifelt, Fred Lee 8)
  • education -- legislative process convinced people of the need for it (Bifelt, Fred Lee 2)
  • education -- length of (Mekiana, Justus (1) 14)
  • education -- like the Native way better (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • education -- Native involvement (Ned, Stanley 16)
  • education -- second or third grade (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • education -- territorial school replaced Mission school, 1952 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • education -- vs. other commitments (Mekiana, Justus (1) 12)
  • Edward (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • Edward, Hazel -- death (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 10)
  • Edward, Jimmy (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • Edward, John (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • Edward, Johnny (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Edward -- oldest; traveled with him (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • Edward -- quit playing (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Edwards, Bessie (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 9)
  • Edwards, Bessie -- death in fire (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 10)
  • Edwards, Hazel (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 9)
  • Edwards, Helen (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 9)
  • effect -- people keep quiet; self-conscious (Ned, Stanley 10)
  • effects -- culture loss (Mekiana, Debbie 5)
  • Effie's dad -- Ned (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • Effie -- sister (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • eggs (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • Eielson Air Force Base (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 3)
  • Eielson, Ben -- got lost, dropped note; where is Fairbanks (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Eisenhower, Dwight (Swem, Ted 6, 9)
  • Ekok, Wesley -- teacher, companion for study (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • elders (Ned, Stanley 18)
  • elders -- as teachers; professors (Ned, Stanley 2)
  • elders -- educators (Nelson, Richard 4)
  • elders -- enjoy work with (Ned, Stanley 13)
  • elders -- most died in old days (David, David and Kitty 7)
  • elders -- staying and working with (Mekiana, Debbie 5)
  • elders -- taught us to go to church (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • elders -- working with young ( Mekiana, Debbie 6)
  • electronics (Gray, Millie 7)
  • elementary school -- correspondence (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • eligibility of subsistence (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7)
  • Elijas (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Eliza -- mother born in Hughes (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1)
  • elk meat (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 12)
  • Ellingson, Knut (Lounsbury, George 4), (Johnson, Walter (1) 3, 11)
  • Ellington, Newt
  • Elliott, Tim (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2)
  • Elsner, Bob (Mekiana, Justus 9)
  • ELT (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3)
  • emergency gear (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • emergency landings (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Emma Creek (Johnson, Walter (1) 3)
  • emotions -- be joyful about it, not sad (Williams, Susie 10)
  • emotions -- release from mourning (Williams, Susie 9)
  • employees -- National Park Service, should be trained by architects of agreement (Morry, Riley 12)
  • employment (Bifelt, Fred Lee 9)
  • encampment (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • endurance ski/hike race (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • enforcement -- "I hardly go in anymore" (Henderson, Joe 7)
  • English degree (Kauffmann, John 1)
  • English language (Mekiana, Justus (1) 14)
  • English, Bill (Johnson, Walter (1) 2, 3, 6, 8, 12), (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • English, Mary (English, Bill and Shirley 1), (Johnson, Walter (1) 9), (Johnson, Walter (2) 3)
  • English, Mary -- bread (Johnson, Walter (1) 10)
  • English, Mr. (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • English, R.
  • English, Shirley (English, Bill and Shirley 8, 14)
  • English, William (English, Bill and Shirley 1)
  • English -- few spoke it (Vent, Mary 2)
  • English -- speaking a little (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4)
  • enlistment (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • entry points (Henderson, Joe 8)
  • environment -- unique, transition for interior to Arctic (Reakoff, Jack 12)
  • Environmental Impact Statement -- team put in final form (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Environmental Impact Statment -- difficult (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • environmental planner (Bane, Ray (1) 12)
  • environmentalist (Reakoff, Jack 2), (Swem, Ted (2) 5)
  • environmentalist -- first one in Bureau of Reclamation (Swem, Ted 4)
  • environmentalists (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • environmentalists -- felt too much development (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • epidemic -- 1925; half the people died (Williams, Susie 2)
  • Episcopal Archdeacon (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • Episcopal missionary (Williams, Susie 7)
  • Episcopal Native priest (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • Episcopal school -- Allakaket; never went (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Episcopalians (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • equipment (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • equipment -- amplifier (Henzie, Moses and Marie 9)
  • equipment -- walked in (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9)
  • Ernie Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 6)
  • Ernie Lake -- haven't been west of (Holly, Susan 7)
  • Ernie Pass (Mekiana, Justus (1) 18), (Mekiana, Justus (2) 1)
  • Ernie Pass -- where Daniel "got stuck" (Mekiana, Justus (1) 11)
  • Eskimo (Bane, Ray (2) 4), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • Eskimo dances ( Mekiana, Debbie 6)
  • Eskimo man (Brockman, Ross 7)
  • Eskimo -- Alatna side (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Eskimo -- culture, marine mammal intensive (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • Eskimo -- cultures of (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • Eskimo -- mixing with Indians (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Eskimo -- taught language (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • Eskimos (Brockman, Ross 4), (English, Bill and Shirley 4), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • Eskimos -- live on Alatna side (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • Ester Dome (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • Ester, Auntie -- made rice pudding (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Etherington, Wes (Lounsbury, George 4), (Johnson, Walter (1) 14)
  • ethics -- guiding ethic deteriorated in 1970's (Reakoff, Jack 3)
  • ethnography (Brown, William (1) 6), (Nelson, Richard 2)
  • Eva (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • Eva -- Indian from Tanana (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • Eva -- learned to talk Eskimo; treated as one of Eskimos (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • Eva -- nurse (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • Evans, Charlie (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • Evans, Gerald -- Fairbanks (Bifelt, Madeline 6)
  • Evans, John William -- grandfather (Gray, Millie 1)
  • Evans, John -- barging supplies (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3)
  • Evans, Nelson (Bifelt, Madeline 6)
  • Evans, Richard (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • Evans, Wilfred (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4, 5)
  • Evans, Wilfred Jr. (Bifelt, Madeline 6)
  • Evans, Wilfred -- brought food, bought furs (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • Evans, Wilfred -- dad worked for (Bifelt, Madeline 6)
  • Evans, Wilfred -- father (Gray, Millie 2)
  • Evans, Wilfred -- kind man (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • Evans, Wilfred -- married Clara Tobuk (Bifelt, Madeline 6)
  • Evans, Wilfred -- married to our aunt; mother's sister, became our uncle (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • Evans, Wilfred -- store (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • Evans, Wilfred -- worked for him (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • Evansville (Brown, William (1) 11), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4, 5), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7)
  • Evansville Inc. (Schmitz, Dave 7)
  • Evansville -- April, 1956 (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • Evansville -- moved to in 1956 to school children (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 1)
  • Evansville -- retirement (Gray, Millie 8)
  • Everhart, Bill (Swem, Ted (2) 3, 4)
  • exclusions -- parts of Kobuk, John, Koyukuk Rivers; entire north side of Brooks Range (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • exclusive guiding areas -- took away (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1)
  • exercise (Vent, Bobby 4)
  • existing trail (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • existing use (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • expenses -- dogs, $2500-3000 per year (Holly, Susan 5)
  • experience -- "green" (Schmitz, Dave 2)
  • experience -- lack of (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3)
  • exploration (Bane, Ray (2) 6) , (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • Explorer's Journal -- publication of Explorer's Club (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • explorers -- Navy, Coast Guard (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • F-27 (Schmitz, Dave 2)
  • facilities -- upgrade (Morry, Riley 11)
  • factors -- relevant to formation of the park (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Fairbanks (Brown, William (1) 7, 9), (Collins, Bruce 6), (English, Bill and Shirley 4, 11, 12, 19, 22), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 1, 5, 8), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 1), (Gray, Millie 8), (Johnson, Walter (1) 8, 11, 12, 13), (Lounsbury, George 1, 2, 7), (Mekiana, Debbie 5), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17), (Morry, Riley 2), (Ned, Stanley 1), (Nelson, Richard 1, 8), (Reakoff, Jack2), (Swem, Ted 7), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • Fairbanks --1940's (English, Bill and Shirley 14)
  • Fairbanks -- 1960; fourth place (David, David and Kitty 5)
  • Fairbanks -- accident, Joe died (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1)
  • Fairbanks -- boats came all the way (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Fairbanks -- brought back dogs (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • Fairbanks -- Catherine taught at elementary school (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 8)
  • Fairbanks -- church (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • Fairbanks -- dance halls (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • Fairbanks -- Dubin died there (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • Fairbanks -- flew to (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Fairbanks -- go once a year (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • Fairbanks -- high school (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Fairbanks -- Intensive care (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 7)
  • Fairbanks -- kids went to high school (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6)
  • Fairbanks -- no work (Gray, Millie 8)
  • Fairbanks -- ordered from (Morry, Riley 10)
  • Fairbanks -- pig farm (Schmitz, Dave 4)
  • Fairbanks -- Pioneer Igloo #8 (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • Fairbanks -- Stuck came from (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Fairbanks -- teachers (Mekiana, Justus (1) 12)
  • Fairbanks -- three weeks training; twelve people (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3)
  • Fairbanks -- University of Alaska (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • Fairbanks -- will miss scenery, people, food, Inupiaq atmosphere ( Mekiana, Debbie 6)
  • Fairbanks Daily News Miner (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • Fairbanks Environmental Center --co-founder (Bane, Ray (1) 6)
  • Fairbanks Exploration company (Lounsbury, George 9)
  • Fairbanks Hotel (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • fall (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • fall -- cut wood (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • fall -- go trapping 'til Christmas, then back out (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • fall -- hunting access (Reakoff, Jack 6)
  • fall -- moose hunt (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • fall -- moving (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • fall -- village visitors (Holly, Susan 7)
  • fall -- woodcutting near Bettles (Bifelt, Madeline 7)
  • falltime -- 1938 (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • fall hunt -- bear, rabbits, spruce hens (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 3)
  • fall hunt -- precluded in park by access regulations (Reakoff, Jack 6)
  • fall hunt -- park affect on (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • families -- not many (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • family -- one big one (Ned, Stanley 12)
  • family -- practiced delivering babies (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 14)
  • family -- six girls, four boys (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • family -- Washington Evening Star (Kauffmann, John 1)
  • family -- working class (Bane, Ray (1) 1)
  • Fanning, Ken (Collins, Bruce 2)
  • farm work (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 3)
  • Farm -- early experiences (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2)
  • farming (English, Bill and Shirley 10)
  • farthest wilderness event (Kauffmann, John 8)
  • father (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1, 10), (David, David and Kitty 1, 2), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1), (Williams, Susie 1)
  • Father Ross -- spoke Native language (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • father's brother (Williams, Susie 1)
  • father's father -- forgot (Ulen, Tishu 4)
  • father's mother (Williams, Susie 1)
  • father's mother -- what she said goes; six boys (Ulen, Tishu 4)
  • father -- active, worked up to age seventy (Gray, Millie 9)
  • father -- asked if I was going to break promise (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • father -- came and took his son away (Vent, Bobby 1)
  • father -- civil engineer (Swem, Ted 1)
  • father -- died (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • father -- died 1969 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1)
  • father -- died early; at nine, had to help out so not much school (Williams, Susie 1)
  • father -- died when child (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • father -- died when I was still too small to travel (Williams, Susie 8)
  • father -- died when three (David, David and Kitty 2), (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • father -- died young (Williams, Susie 4)
  • father -- Dora's (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 2)
  • father -- engineering school (Gray, Millie 1)
  • father -- Fairbanks hospital, died at home (Mekiana, Debbie 3)
  • father -- family settled in Iowa 1840's (Swem, Ted 1)
  • father -- flying from Galena to Chandalar Lake (Reakoff, Jack 2), (Ulen, Tishu 5)
  • father -- from Kobuk but moved to Alatna (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 1)
  • father -- Galena (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 8)
  • father -- gave tobacco, said don't steal (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 6)
  • father -- gave William away (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • father -- getting supplies from grandfather for his store at Koyukuk Station (Gray, Millie 1)
  • father -- going out with (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • father -- good hunter (Sam Sr., Tony 1)
  • father -- got cancer (Mekiana, Debbie 3)
  • father -- he stayed in Hughes every summer, we stayed in camp (Bifelt, Madeline 7)
  • father -- heavy; strong; generous (Ulen, Tishu 4)
  • father -- hunted bear in summer (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • father -- Huslia (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1)
  • father -- Justus' father read and wrote English (Mekiana, Justus (1) 14)
  • father -- Kitty's, traveled over by dog team (David, David and Kitty 4)
  • father -- Kobuk (Ulen, Tishu 1)
  • father -- learned to read from church in Barrow (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • father -- Leon; died year born (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • father -- market hunter (Ulen, Tishu 1)
  • father -- mining camp, two years (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • father -- navy officer; dentist (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • father -- Ned (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • father -- nice guy, good hunter (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1)
  • father -- ninety (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • father -- only time he worked for wages; one month (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1)
  • father -- pursued bear (Mekiana, Debbie 2)
  • father -- read magazines to teach (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • father -- said would be good experience (Ned, Stanley 7)
  • father -- snowshoes (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • father -- teased all the time (William, William and Effie (1) 2)
  • father -- Titus Henzie (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • father -- trapping (Sam Sr., Tony 1)
  • father -- trapping, hunting, fishing (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • father -- urges him to continue (Sam Sr., Tony 2)
  • father -- used to be good storytellers (Simon, Lydia 2)
  • father -- worked all the time (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 4)
  • father -- worked on boats (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 2)
  • favorites -- Old Keiser, Queenie (Vent, Bobby 4)
  • feast -- last trip (Mekiana, Debbie 3)
  • feasts ( Mekiana, Debbie 6)
  • February -- beaver trapping (Holly, Susan 4)
  • February -- moving out (Beetus, Joe and Celia 2)
  • Federal Aviation Administration (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • Federal Aviation Administration -- CAA became (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Federal Aviation Administration -- job (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • federal estate percentage (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • federal government -- intervening (Brown, William (2) 7)
  • federal government -- took input (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • federal government -- took over (Ned, Stanley 15)
  • feeding (Henderson, Joe 4)
  • fence -- make with it (Williams, Susie 9)
  • Ferguson, Jack (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Fickus' -- help out the Barkly's (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 1)
  • Fickus' -- take turn teaching (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Fickus, Bill (Collins, Bruce 7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 3), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • Fickus, Bill and Matt -- getting supplies (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Fickus, Bill -- 1957
  • Fickus, Bill -- accident (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • Fickus, Bill -- airport maintenance (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Fickus, Bill -- attitudes toward park (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • Fickus, Bill -- competition for Lill (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • Fickus, Bill -- doesn't have a drivers license anymore (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Fickus, Bill -- fall over (Fickus, Bill and Fickus (5) 1)
  • Fickus, Bill -- guiding 1967 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • Fickus, Bill -- marked trail (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • Fickus, Bill -- never aerial hunt (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4)
  • Fickus, Bill -- never been in hospital (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Fickus, Bill -- not a production hunter (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 6)
  • Fickus, Bill -- opposed to mining operations (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1)
  • Fickus, Bill -- pack dogs on sheep hunts (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • Fickus, Bill -- quit guiding (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1)
  • Fickus, Bill -- won't leave (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • Fickus, Debbie (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 3)
  • Fickus, Debbie -- 8th grade graduation (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Fickus, Debbie -- Fairbanks Police (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Fickus, Debbie -- help out younger kids (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Fickus, Debbie -- law school (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Fickus, Debbie -- Miss Alaska (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Fickus, Debbie -- Miss USA contest (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • Fickus, Debbie -- move to Anchorage (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • Fickus, Debbie -- move to Fairbanks (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • Fickus, Debbie -- paralegal secretary (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Fickus, Debbie -- read a lot (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • Fickus, Frank (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2)
  • Fickus, Frank -- murder (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • Fickus, Lill -- attitudes toward park (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • Fickus, Lill -- beadwork (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Fickus, Lill -- brother (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 3), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • Fickus, Lill -- didn't finish school (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5)
  • Fickus, Lill -- friends in Fairbanks (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • Fickus, Lill -- giving birth (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Fickus, Lill -- like to visit Lower 48 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • Fickus, Lill -- no washing machine (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Fickus, Lill -- proud of kids (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Fickus, Lill -- quit trapping (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • Fickus, Lill -- wanted to be nurse (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5)
  • Fickus, Linda (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • Fickus, Linda -- Miss Teen Alaska (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Fickus, Matt (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Fickus, Matt -- flying (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Fickus, Matt -- pilot (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Fickus, Mike (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • Fickus, Nick (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2)
  • Fickus, Tim (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 5)
  • Fickus, Tim and Linda -- went to Pennsylvania (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • Fickus, Tim -- not a pilot (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Fickus, Tim -- recovery (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Fickus, Tim -- shot (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Fickus -- tip wings hello (Holly, Susan 7)
  • fiddle -- mail order (Brockman, Ross 9)
  • fighting for space (Kauffmann, John 7)
  • film project -- Alaska's Park Resources (Kauffmann, John 3)
  • filming -- three months, much was cut (Henderson, Joe 3)
  • finances (Bifelt, Fred Lee 4)
  • Finck, Chip (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • findings (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 1)
  • fire season (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • fire -- they burned, boy died (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • fire -- uncle dies, Sam Dubin badly injured (Bifelt, Madeline 7)
  • firecracker -- blew his fingers off as child (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • firefighting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 3)
  • firefighting, 1969 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 1)
  • firewood -- willows (Morry, Riley 1)
  • first aid (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • first aid -- training in community (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 13)
  • first date -- church (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • First National Bank -- Fairbanks (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • first -- as small girl (Gray, Millie 11)
  • fish (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 6), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • Fish & Wildlife Service (Brown, William (1) 15)
  • Fish & Wildlife Service -- wolf bounty (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 9)
  • Fish and Game (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1), (Reakoff, Jack 2, 5)
  • Fish and Wildlife Service (Pepper, Jim (1) 2), (Pepper, Jim (2) 3), (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Fish and Wildlife Service -- advocates of sport hunting (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • fish camp (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1, 3), (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) (1) 8), (David, David and Kitty 8), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2), (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • fish camp -- 1952, last year out (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 6)
  • fish camp -- getting winter food (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • fish camp -- mouth of Kanuti River (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) (1) 3)
  • fish camp -- seining (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • fish camp -- twelve mile (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4), (Henzie, Moses and Marie 8)
  • fish camps -- can't glorify the life; missed things too (Bifelt, Fred Lee 5)
  • fish camps -- nobody goes out today (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • Fish Creek (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • fish fences (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • fish net (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 8), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 8)
  • fish net -- different ways of setting nets (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 8)
  • fish nets -- catch a few whitefish (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • fish nets -- description (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • fish nets -- through ice; October (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • fish trap (Bane, Ray (2) 6)
  • fish trap -- description (Williams, Susie 3)
  • fish trap -- lush (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 4)
  • fish trap -- setting, taking care (Williams, Susie 3)
  • fish traps (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1), (Bifelt, Madeline 1), (English, Bill and Shirley 5), (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • fish traps -- dead fall -- kills wolverine (Simon, Lydia 1)
  • fish -- cutting (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • fish -- didn't come right away; hard (Williams, Susie 2)
  • fish -- freeze them (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 6)
  • fish -- frozen (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • fish -- lived mostly from; late August (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • fish -- many kinds (Williams, Susie 3)
  • fish -- Marie cut and dried (Henzie, Moses and Marie 8)
  • fish -- net, cutting (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • fish -- not many those days (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 8)
  • fish -- salmon, whitefish (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • fish -- second important source of food (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • fish -- thick in stream (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • fish -- whitefish, sheefish, dog salmon, suckers, loche (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • fishcamp (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • fishing (Bifelt, Fred Lee 5), (David, David and Kitty 8), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 7, 8), (English, Bill and Shirley 5), (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 2), (Ulen, Tishu 2), (Vent, Bobby 2), (Swem, Ted 7)
  • fishing site (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • fishing -- good (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • fishing -- ice (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • fishing -- pike (Vent, Mary 4)
  • fishing -- seining (Gray, Millie 4)
  • fishing -- sheefish, whitefish, salmon, grayling, pike, suckers, lush (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 3)
  • fishing -- trout (Ulen, Tishu 5)
  • fishing -- with stones (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • fishing -- Yukon (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1)
  • fishnets -- making with shuttle and gage (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • fishtraps -- blackfish (Vent, Mary 1)
  • float trip (English, Bill and Shirley 24)
  • float trips (Holly, Susan 7)
  • floaters -- going through prime hunting land (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • floating -- raft (Ulen, Tishu 3)
  • floor -- plywood (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • floor -- willow branches and caribou skin (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • flour -- accidentally boiling it (Vent, Mary 2)
  • flowers (Brockman, Ross 8), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • flu -- age fourteen (Bifelt, Madeline 5)
  • flu -- Anvik, many died, loose dogs (Vent, Bobby 1)
  • fly-way -- multinational agreements (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • flying lessons -- cost (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • flying machine -- thought they layed on board (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • flying -- learning (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • food (English, Bill and Shirley 21)
  • food storage -- cellar (Vent, Mary 4)
  • food -- caribou (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3, 4, 6)
  • food -- fish (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • food -- garden, bread (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • food -- grow a lot (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • food -- plenty; fish; berries; roots; rabbits (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • food -- sharing (English, Bill and Shirley 5), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • food -- sheep (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • food -- staples are minimal (Mekiana, Justus (2) 1)
  • foods -- berries; flour; sugar (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • foodstamps (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • foot race (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • football -- caribou skin stuffed with hair (Vent, Mary 5)
  • foreigners -- use park (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • Forest Service area (Swem, Ted 11)
  • forestry and wildlife management degrees (Swem, Ted 3)
  • Fort Bent, CO (Swem, Ted 4)
  • Fort Braggs, North Carolina (Brockman, Ross 9)
  • Fort Carson -- Colorado (Ned, Stanley 8)
  • Fort Dick -- New Jersey; two and half months (Ned, Stanley 8)
  • Fort Hughes -- stayed two months, boot camp (Ned, Stanley 8)
  • Fort Larned (Swem, Ted 4)
  • Fort Wainwright (Mekiana, Justus (1) 9)
  • Fort Yukon (English, Bill and Shirley 12, 15), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5, 7), (Gray, Millie 6), (Sam Sr., Tony 4)
  • Fort Yukon -- hospital closure (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6)
  • Fort Yukon -- learning about fur work (Gray, Millie 7)
  • Fort Yukon -- sister Bertha and Johnson went to (David, David and Kitty 7)
  • Forty -- cook (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • Forty -- neighbor (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4)
  • Fortymile (Lounsbury, George 2)
  • foster couple -- stayed with; Fairbanks (Ned, Stanley 7)
  • Fourth of July (English, Bill and Shirley 20), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1), (Williams, Susie 2)
  • Fourth of July -- potlatch (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • Fox Furs (Gray, Millie 8)
  • fox hat (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • fox skins (Mekiana, Justus (1) 4)
  • fox trot (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • fox -- goes hunting (Simon, Lydia 1)
  • fox -- made song (Simon, Lydia 2)
  • fox -- says "big shot died" (Simon, Lydia 1)
  • fox -- smart (Simon, Lydia 1)
  • fragile resource (Kauffmann, John 8)
  • frame -- basketlike, semi rigid (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 3)
  • Frank (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Frank, George Sr. (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 5)
  • Frank -- all the girls across river wanted him (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • Franklin Jr. (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • Franklin, Madeline (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • freedom -- to go where you want, camp where you want (Henderson, Joe 8)
  • freeze-up (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 6)
  • freeze-up -- fish nets under ice (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 3)
  • freeze-up -- travel obstacle (Holly, Susan 3)
  • freight (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3), (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • freight -- air (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • freight -- essentials (Holly, Susan 3)
  • freight -- hauled it up in June (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • freight -- hauling, age 14-15 (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • freight -- once a year (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • freight -- once per month (Henzie, Moses and Marie 2)
  • freight -- wood (Henzie, Moses and Marie 8)
  • freighting (Gray, Millie 2)
  • freighting -- boat and air (Holly, Susan 3)
  • freighting -- ends with air travel (Gray, Millie 7)
  • freighting -- no longer happening (Gray, Millie 9)
  • friend -- support (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • Frontier Flying Service (Collins, Bruce 15)
  • frostbite -- story (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 7)
  • fruit (English, Bill and Shirley 20)
  • fuel caches (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • fuel -- $165 for 55 gallon gasoline (Henzie, Moses and Marie 8)
  • fun -- very important (Williams, Susie 4)
  • fundraising -- offerings; raffle (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • funeral -- lot of work; cleaning the body, cooking, sewing (Williams, Susie 9)
  • funeral -- preparation; coffin, clothes (Bifelt, Madeline 5)
  • funerals (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • Fur Rendezvous (Vent, Bobby 4)
  • fur -- parkies, pants, boots, rope (Williams, Susie 9)
  • fur -- same as money (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • fur -- scarcity (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • fur -- traded for goods (Williams, Susie 9)
  • fur -- used to be good business (Williams, Susie 8)
  • future -- generation to generation (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • future -- go back to college (Bifelt, Fred Lee 1)
  • future -- requires rethinking, new direction (Bane, Ray (1) 15)
  • future -- wild (Schmitz, Dave 10)
  • Gaffney, General -- Arctic wear jacket (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 6)
  • Galena (Bifelt, Fred Lee 9), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2), (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Galena -- Air Force (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Galena -- high school (Bifelt, Fred Lee 1)
  • Galena -- more Western influence (Ned, Stanley 11)
  • Game Board -- ignoring recommendations (Bifelt, Fred Lee 6)
  • game warden -- learned himself, sent to Alaska, one of the best (William, William and Effie (1) 10)
  • game -- decline (Lounsbury, George 9)
  • game -- dropped off in 1940's, old game (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • game -- marten, lynx, wolf, mink, fox (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • game -- mink; fox; caribou-came every year (Beetus, Joe and Celia 2)
  • game -- thicker now (Reakoff, Jack 6)
  • games (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2) (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 11)
  • games -- sledding; baseball game; volleyball; football -- old timers used to play (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • garden (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • garden -- he taught others how to (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • gardening (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • gardening -- May (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • gas lamp -- filled up (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • gas station (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3)
  • gas -- doesn't take much for small one (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Gasser, George (Johnson, Walter (2) 3)
  • Gatahee, Burn (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • Gates (Swem, Ted 12), (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Gates of the Arctic (Bane, Ray (1) 12), (Bifelt, Fred Lee 9), (Brown, William (1) 6), (Collins, Bruce 10, 17), (English, Bill and Shirley 23), (Morry, Riley 5, 8), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 6), (Nelson, Richard 1, 8, 9), (Pepper, Jim (1) 2, 3, 7), (Pepper, Jim (2) 2), (Swem, Ted 7), (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • Gates of the Arctic as "premier wilderness park" (Kauffmann, John 8)
  • Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve (Brown, William (2) 6)
  • Gates of the Arctic Planning -- extreme ideal of National Park Service (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 2)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- chief ranger (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- described as "ultimate wilderness" (Brown, William (2) 2)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- human impact (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- issues (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- job offer (Bane, Ray (1) 6)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- land marks; named by Marshall (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- local attitudes toward (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- local use (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- long used as resource in reserve (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- lost idea of being total ecosystem to development interests (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- name attracts business, but can't advertise (Henderson, Joe 7)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- only park I'd work for (Holly, Susan 6)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- past time to leave; baggage; turmoil (Bane, Ray (1) 12)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- regional historian, project historian (Brown, William (1) 3)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- spiritual importance (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- subsistence (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- trips (Henderson, Joe 2)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- usage restrictions (Collins, Bruce 14)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- vastness (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- visitors (Collins, Bruce 15)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- wanted to protect against roads, development (Bane, Ray (1) 10)
  • Gates study (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Gates -- first study of (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • gathering -- begin about June 20 (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • Gaunt Beauty, Tenuous Life (Brown, William (1) 4)
  • Gayle, Rick (Collins, Bruce 2)
  • gear -- recovery (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • Geist, Otto (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • genepool (Pepper, Jim (2) 3)
  • generations -- they come after us (Williams, Susie 12)
  • geography (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4)
  • geological crews (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • geology class trip (Swem, Ted 2)
  • geology trip (Swem, Ted 3)
  • George (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • George the Greek (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • George Washington Memorial Parkway (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • George Washington University (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • Georgetown University -- Law School (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • Gerald -- electronics technician (Gray, Millie 7)
  • Germany (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 3)
  • GI Bill (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • gift shop (Morry, Riley 11)
  • gift wrapping -- techniques (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 5)
  • gifts (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 5)
  • gifts -- parkies, boots, mitts, jackets (Williams, Susie 9)
  • gifts -- slippers, boots, vests, mooseskin gloves, mittens, marten hats, blankets, socks (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • girls -- ate it; no other meat (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • girls -- honor their state (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Glacier (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • Glacier Bay (Collins, Bruce 8), (Swem, Ted 11, 14), (Swem, Ted (2) 2)
  • Glacier Bay National Monument (Kauffmann, John 3)
  • glaciers -- melting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • Gladys -- sister (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • Glennallen (Collins, Bruce 6)
  • global shrinking (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • goal -- helping others, working for the Lord (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • goal -- one year adventure in Alaska (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • gold (Johnson, Walter (1) 8), (Lounsbury, George 4),
  • Gold Creek (Johnson, Walter (1) 5), (Lounsbury, George 3, 9, 10)
  • gold dredges (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • gold mining (Sam Sr., Tony 1)
  • Gold Rush (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • Gold Rush history (Swem, Ted 12)
  • gold rush -- 1898; moose population crashed (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • gold rush -- good for trading post (Gray, Millie 1)
  • gold rush -- over one hundred cabins in Hughes (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • gold -- price (Johnson, Walter (1) 5)
  • gold -- scales (Lounsbury, George 10)
  • gold -- search for (Brockman, Ross 8)
  • gold -- sunburn (Johnson, Walter (1) 5)
  • Golden North Hotel (Swem, Ted 12)
  • Golden Towers -- Fairbanks (Lounsbury, George 8)
  • good lady -- made snow-shoes, sled (Ulen, Tishu 4)
  • Good, Jack (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • Gordon, Bishop -- offered deal on school (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • gospel music -- 1970's (Sam Sr., Tony 6)
  • government agencies (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 5)
  • government presence -- designed for future (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • government -- anti sentiment (Collins, Bruce 6)
  • government -- just one (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • government -- state and federal (Ned, Stanley 15)
  • governor (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)
  • governor -- schoolhouse (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • grade school principal -- trip to Alaska (Swem, Ted 2)
  • Grand Canyon of Noatak (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • Grand Teton National Park (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • grandchildren (Beetus, Joe and Celia 9), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • grandchildren -- today they get mad, talk back (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • grandfather (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11), (Mekiana, Debbie 4), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1), (Williams, Susie 3)
  • grandfather -- attended meeting (Morry, Riley 2)
  • grandfather -- Bergman, Billy (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • grandfather -- brought in muskrats early in morning, cooked hotcakes (Ned, Stanley 2)
  • grandfather -- Chief Moses; Alfred Isaac's uncle (William, William and Effie (1) 6)
  • grandfather -- coming to town with (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • grandfather -- didn't want to give me back (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 2)
  • grandfather -- good to kids, sent them stateside for education (Gray, Millie 1)
  • grandfather -- mom's dad (Morry, Riley 4)
  • grandfather -- offered to walk to Allakaket for holiday (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • grandfather -- Old Chief Moses (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • grandfather -- Old Henzie (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • grandfather -- respected, helpful man (Morry, Riley 4)
  • grandfather -- running trading post (Gray, Millie 1)
  • grandfather -- stories of early day games (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • grandfather -- taught skills (Ned, Stanley 2)
  • grandfather -- trader; lost money (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • grandfather -- travel (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • Grandma Cathleen -- nearly died, measles (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • Grandma Christine -- sister (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • grandma -- had stroke, crippled hands (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • grandma -- Madeline (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 8)
  • Grandmother Louise -- grandfather's sister from Huslia (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • grandmother -- died when Effie was seven or eight (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • grandmother -- died, 1940 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 3)
  • grandmother -- divided fish (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • grandmother -- don't know her name (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • grandmother -- father's side; served the girls first (Ulen, Tishu 1)
  • grandmother -- Henzie, Julia (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • grandmother -- mother's mother (Ulen, Tishu 4)
  • grandmother -- sewing for sale; candlelight (Henzie, Moses and Marie 5)
  • grandmother -- sewing with salmon skin (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • grandmother -- treatment; had to keep in dark tent (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • Grandpa Joe -- first hunt with at eleven (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • Grandpa Sammy (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • Grandpa Sammy -- lost two stores (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • grandpa -- had house on other side; before the Indians came (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • grandparents (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • grandparents -- growing up with Neds (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • grandparents -- living with; fishing; play; happiness (Gray, Millie 4)
  • grandparents -- mother's parents raised her (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 3)
  • grandparents -- mother's side (Mekiana, Debbie 4)
  • grandparents -- raised by (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • grandparents -- showed us how to live (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 4)
  • grandparents -- Tobuk, Tinuk (Gray, Millie 4)
  • grandson -- Brown, Mark (Sam Sr., Tony 6)
  • grandson -- started own band playing bars at seventeen (Sam Sr., Tony 6)
  • Gravel -- shot his mouth off (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • gravel bars -- landing (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • gravel berms (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • Gravel, Mike Senator (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • Gravel, Mike -- threatened to kill legislation (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • Gray, Millie -- cousin (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • grayling (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 8), (English, Bill and Shirley 5), (Johnson, Walter (1) 14), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3), (Vent, Bobby 1)
  • grayling -- first catch, good trap (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 5)
  • grease (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • Great Depression (English, Bill and Shirley 10)
  • great grandpa -- rich (Vent, Mary 2)
  • great spirit -- created Nunamiut (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • Griffits, Dick (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 7)
  • Griffits, Dick -- finished trip (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 7)
  • Grizzly Adams (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • grizzly bear (Lounsbury, George 8)
  • grizzly bear -- story (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • grizzly bears (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • grizzly skin -- used for houses, door, dog pack (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3)
  • grizzly -- aklaq (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • grizzly -- Angatkuq (river) (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • grizzly -- as a threat (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • grizzly -- impaling (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • groceries (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 4)
  • groceries -- coffee, sugar, tea (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17)
  • grocery (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17)
  • grocery store (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3)
  • grooming (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • ground sluicing (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 3)
  • ground squirrel -- trap (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5)
  • ground truthing -- Arrigetch (Kauffmann, John 5)
  • grounding -- always made it through (Gray, Millie 3)
  • group size -- limits (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 6)
  • growth -- impact (Collins, Bruce 10)
  • GS 3 -- seasonal ranger (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • Gubser, Nicholas (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • Guide Board (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1)
  • guide experience -- early (Schmitz, Dave 4)
  • guides (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • guides -- contracts (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3)
  • guides -- increase pressure (Reakoff, Jack 4)
  • guides -- most angered (Bane, Ray (1) 14)
  • guides -- opposed park (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • guides -- permanent (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • guides -- recreational (Collins, Bruce 6)
  • guides -- regulation (Collins, Bruce 14)
  • guiding (Collins, Bruce 16), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • guiding areas -- were a good thing (Reakoff, Jack 3)
  • guiding income -- chief source (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1)
  • guiding licenses -- proposal to issue (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 4)
  • guiding -- aerial hunting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4)
  • guiding -- early, had specific areas for each guide (Reakoff, Jack 3)
  • guiding -- he wanted somebody to do that from Huslia; people were against it (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 4)
  • guiding -- often wrongly conjured; small supplement to income, taking out three to four hunters per year (Reakoff, Jack 3)
  • guitar (Henzie, Moses and Marie 9)
  • guitar -- boys play (Sam Sr., Tony 6)
  • gun -- bought .22 single shot for a no good mink skin (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • guns (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • guns -- for sale (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • guns -- personal protection (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • guns -- responsibility (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • Gustavus (Brown, William (1) 2)
  • Gwich'in -- Athabascan (Brown, William (1) 6)
  • Hagen, Mr. and Mrs -- teachers (Mekiana, Justus (1) 12)
  • Hagget, Jack -- big, husky; lazy (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • Haines, Mr. (Brockman, Ross 3)
  • Haines -- took twenty-four dogs on location (Henderson, Joe 3)
  • Hamlin River (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • Hammond River (Brown, William (1) 7), (English, Bill and Shirley 7, 18, 20), (Johnson, Walter (1) 3, 5, 8, 11, 12), (Lounsbury, George 3, 5, 12), (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Hammond River -- upper (Lounsbury, George 7)
  • Hammond, Jay (Swem, Ted 7)
  • Hankie, John (Holly, Susan 4)
  • Hanky, John (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • Hannah, Jim (Collins, Bruce 8)
  • Hannah -- her daughter, Health Aide in Evansville; Rhoda (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • Hanson, Senator (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Hanzel and Gretel (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • happy house -- at summer camp (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 14)
  • Happy, Celia -- mother (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 1)
  • hard times (Sam Sr., Tony 3), (Vent, Mary 1)
  • hard times -- crippled, yet started a family (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • hard times -- crutches until thirty years old (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 1)
  • hard times -- no money; good life, but times of want (Bifelt, Fred Lee 5)
  • hard times -- not much time for school (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • harnesses -- binary lines (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 9)
  • Harry, Ross (Lounsbury, George 2, 14)
  • Hartel, Paul (Collins, Bruce 8)
  • Hartzog, George (Swem, Ted 10, 14), (Swem, Ted (2) 2, 3)
  • Harvard University -- graduate school (Swem, Ted 3)
  • harvest (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 5)
  • Harvey (English, Bill and Shirley 18)
  • Harvey, Ken (English, Bill and Shirley 5, 8)
  • hats (Gray, Millie 7)
  • hats -- fur (English, Bill and Shirley 6)
  • Haul Road (Brown, William (1) 7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 6), (Lounsbury, George 7, 9, 14)
  • Haul Road -- 1974 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10), (Johnson, Walter (1) 7, 15), (Johnson, Walter (2) 4), (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • Haul Road -- better route (Morry, Riley 7)
  • Haul Road -- construction "like burying one of your relatives" (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • hauling freight (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • hauling wood (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • hauling wood -- with dogs (David, David and Kitty 5)
  • hauling -- boat (Beetus, Joe and Celia 2)
  • hauling -- dogs, dried meat, family, tent, Yukon stove (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • hauling -- ice (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • hauling -- meat for sale (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • hauling -- pulled seven foot basket sleigh; loaded, one dog (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 4)
  • Hawaii (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • Hawaii -- trip (Swem, Ted 7)
  • hay (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 5)
  • hay -- 30 acres (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 5)
  • hay -- grower (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • hay -- mow (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 5)
  • headquarters -- placement of in Gates Park (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • headwater lakes (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • health (Johnson, Walter (1) 12)
  • Health Aide (David, David and Kitty 6)
  • Health Aide volunteer -- only one, 1958-69 (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 14)
  • health -- alcohol related (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 4)
  • health -- drug problems (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 4)
  • health -- mental (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 4)
  • health -- nurses aide, wages (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 2)
  • health -- patient hostel (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 2)
  • health -- patients feel better with local aids; more open (David, David and Kitty 6)
  • health -- public health nurses (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 13)
  • health -- use of sulpher (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 9)
  • hearings -- almost done just to have record of dealing with Natives (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • Heflinger, Fred (Lounsbury, George 2)
  • heft -- not a problem
  • Heidelberg (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 6)
  • helicopter (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • helicopter pilot -- day pack spotted (Fickus, Bill and Fickus (5) 1)
  • Helmerick, Bud -- guiding area (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • Helmericks, Bud (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Hemingway, Ernest (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • Henderson, Joe (Collins, Bruce 15)
  • Henderson, Sherry -- wife, storekeeper (Henderson, Joe 5)
  • Henry, Alda -- beadwork; changed name to Alda Frank (Bifelt, Madeline 9)
  • Henry, Matthew -- married Lavine's adopted sister (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Henry, Matthew -- Huslia (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Henry, Samson -- council member, wanted new church (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • Henry, South Fork (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Henshaw (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1, 4, 7)
  • Henshaw Creek -- south fork (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • Henshaw -- mother checked trap (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 6)
  • Henshaw -- trail to Allakaket (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Henson, Al (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • Henzie, Moses -- get along nice; trap together, good cook (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 6)
  • Henzie, Moses -- got started on fiddle (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Henzie, Moses -- grandfather was Old Henzie (William, William and Effie (1) 6)
  • heritage (Henderson, Joe 11)
  • Herrmann, Sepp (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • hernia (Lounsbury, George 7)
  • Herschel Island (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Hess Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9)
  • Hickel Highway (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8, 10), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2), (Holly, Susan 2, 4), (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • Hickel Highway -- before (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • Hickel Highway -- cat train (Morry, Riley 7)
  • Hickel Highway -- remains (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • Hickel, Walter -- 1974 Governor (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 7)
  • Hickel, Walter -- trip (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • hides (Bifelt, Madeline 9)
  • hides -- moose, wolverine (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • Hieb, Dave (Swem, Ted 4)
  • high school (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2), (Ned, Stanley 1)
  • high school -- Fairbanks
  • high water (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 5)
  • highbush berries (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • hiking (Bane, Ray (2) 5), (Holly, Susan 7)
  • Hill, Amelia (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • Hill, Amelia -- extracting teeth (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • Hill, Amelia -- missionary (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • Hill, Amelia -- missionary, nurse (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 1)
  • Hill, Miss (Bifelt, Madeline 2)
  • Hill, Miss Amelia (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • Hill, Miss -- good nurse (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • Hill, Miss -- minister, nurse (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • Hill, Miss -- nurse (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 4), (David, David and Kitty 6)
  • Hines, Clara -- missionary (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 9)
  • Hines, Miss (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Hiram College -- graduated in 1972 (Schmitz, Dave 1)
  • historic site -- definition (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • historic site -- evaluation (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • historic site -- preservation (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • historic site -- surveys (Brown, William (1) 3)
  • historic sites (Brown, William (1) 1, 13)
  • historic sites -- good provision (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3)
  • historic studies (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • historical narrative (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • historical site (Brown, William (1) 4)
  • history (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • history -- human (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • history -- market hunters (Reakoff, Jack 6)
  • history -- ninety-nine percent of Alaska was federal land before any of this started (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • history -- preserve history and culture (Henderson, Joe 11)
  • hitting the mark -- excellent technique; complete control (Henderson, Joe 4)
  • Hoagland, Joe (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1), (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • Hoagland, Joe -- old miner
  • Hog River (William, William and Effie (1) 6)
  • Hog River John -- built house (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3)
  • Hog River -- hard traveling (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • Hog River -- Hogatza River (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 12), (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3), (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 3)
  • Hog River -- Hogatza river, cabin; 1950 (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Hog River -- spring camp (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • Holbrook Training Center (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • holiday potlatch (Vent, Mary 4)
  • holidays (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • holidays -- get together (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • Holland, John -- snuck his female dog over to breed (Henderson, Joe 10)
  • Hollier, Susan (Collins, Bruce 8)
  • Holly, Tom (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Holy Cross -- school (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • Holy Cross -- sent by sidewheeler to school (Vent, Bobby 1)
  • Holzworth, John (Swem, Ted 11)
  • Homer (Johnson, Walter (2) 2)
  • Homer, Mekiana (Mekiana, Justus (1) 14)
  • homesites (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • homestead -- Nevada (Brockman, Ross 6)
  • homesteaders (Collins, Bruce 5)
  • homesteading (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • homesteads (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1)
  • Hope, Johnny -- used to carry me when only six (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • Hope, Ludie (Johnson, Walter (1) 10)
  • Hope, Ludie -- auntie (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Hope, Putu (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1, 2), (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Hope, Putu -- have grandchildren up here (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Hope, Sam (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Hope, Sammy (Lounsbury, George 3, 4), (Johnson, Walter (1) 10)
  • Hope, Sammy -- Putu's brother (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Hope -- family (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • hope -- that people will take care of themselves and each other (Williams, Susie 13)
  • Hopis (Brown, William (1) 6)
  • horse -- crossing river (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • horse -- stepped on Tim (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • horses (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2, 10), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • horses -- 7 to 9 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 5)
  • horses -- boarding (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • horses -- chase grizzly bears (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • horses -- horse barn (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • horses -- kick with back feet (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • horses -- one for everyone (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • hospital (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • hospital work (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5)
  • hospital -- Fort Yukon (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6)
  • hospital -- housekeeping, twelve years (Gray, Millie 8)
  • hospital -- Tanana and Mt. Edgecumbe (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • hot plates (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • Hot Springs (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • Hot Springs National Park (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • house -- between Hughes and Allakaket (Williams, Susie 7)
  • house -- built across river for peace, quiet (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • house -- first, 1940 (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • house -- Hughes (Williams, Susie 4)
  • house -- moving from bank; rollers, logs, jacks, winch (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • house -- sod (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • houses -- description, sod (igluruk) subterranean tents -- description, skin (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • houses -- log and sod (Morry, Riley 1)
  • Hudokkaakk'at -- mouth of Old Man Creek (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • Hughes (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6), (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5), (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3), (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3), (English, Bill and Shirley 2), (Gray, Millie 2), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9), (Ned, Stanley 11), (Nelson, Richard 8, 9, 10), (Sam Sr., Tony 1), (William, William and Effie (1) 2, 4, 5)
  • Hughes -- age fourteen (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Hughes -- dog sled down with five dogs, no trail (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • Hughes -- dogs stayed with Lavine (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • Hughes -- earthquake (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • Hughes -- foot race week after giving birth (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • Hughes -- forty miles below (Williams, Susie 5)
  • Hughes -- James family store (English, Bill and Shirley 16)
  • Hughes -- moved there in 1942 (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Hughes -- not much to eat (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • Hughes -- parents near there (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • Hughes -- revived (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • Hughes -- school
  • Hughes -- three years (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • Hughes -- visit relatives upriver (Holly, Susan 7)
  • Hugo family (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 14)
  • Hugo, Henry (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • Hugo, Jack Rice (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 13)
  • Hugo, John (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 10), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • Hulee, Eddie(Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • humans -- part of, not masters (Kauffmann, John 9)
  • Humbolt River Valley (Brockman, Ross 6)
  • Hummel, Ed (Swem, Ted 3)
  • Hunt Fork (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2, 6, 7), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15), (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 1), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11)
  • Hunt Fork -- area from where trees were brought (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • hunt -- in one place (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3)
  • hunter (Mekiana, Debbie 3)
  • hunters (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • hunting (Bifelt, Fred Lee 5), (Brockman, Ross 4), (Brown, William (1) 2), (Collins, Bruce 16), (David, David and Kitty 2, 8), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1, 7, 8), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4) (Holly, Susan 1) (Morry, Riley 2, 5, 10), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 6)
  • hunting camp (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1)
  • hunting trapping (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • hunting -- always following game (Ulen, Tishu 1)
  • hunting -- bear (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • hunting -- bear story (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • hunting -- black bear, moose, sheep, caribou (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • hunting -- black bear; grizzly bear (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • hunting -- bow (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • hunting -- by canoe (Bifelt, Madeline 3)
  • hunting -- caribou (English, Bill and Shirley 5), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 6), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3, 6, 9)
  • hunting -- caribou, behind rocks (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 8)
  • hunting -- caribou, techniques (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • hunting -- children participation (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • hunting -- closed areas, concentrated users (Holly, Susan 6)
  • hunting -- considerations (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 8)
  • hunting -- didn't go, happy when they came home with meat (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • hunting -- drying meat to prevent spoilage (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • hunting -- ducks, muskrat (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1)
  • hunting -- expert at sitting (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • hunting -- fall, individualistic (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 8)
  • hunting -- first time at twelve or earlier; .22 rifle (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 4)
  • hunting -- for others (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 9)
  • hunting -- good down there; invited us (Williams, Susie 7)
  • hunting -- grizzly means courage (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • hunting -- grizzly, techniques (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • hunting -- grizzly, when to hunt (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • hunting -- inexperience with caribou (Schmitz, Dave 2)
  • hunting -- learned from them (Ned, Stanley 2)
  • hunting -- moose (Holly, Susan 4), (Lounsbury, George 8), (Sam Sr., Tony 3)
  • hunting -- moose and caribou (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • hunting -- moose, caribou, sheep (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • hunting -- never directly discuss plans (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 7)
  • hunting -- no chance for school (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • hunting -- overkill (English, Bill and Shirley 21)
  • hunting -- rabbit, chicken, grouse, ptarmigan; hardly any moose (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • hunting -- rabbits (English, Bill and Shirley 5)
  • hunting -- restricted by Park Service boundaries (Mekiana, Justus (2) 1)
  • hunting -- restrictions (Collins, Bruce 3), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 6)
  • hunting -- sheep(English, Bill and Shirley 5)
  • hunting -- sheep, grizzly, black bear (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3)
  • hunting -- sheep; caribou; black bear; moose (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • hunting -- sport (Collins, Bruce 3, 15)
  • hunting -- stories (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • hunting -- technique change (English, Bill and Shirley 21)
  • hunting -- throwing sticks (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • hunting -- use of dogs (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • hunting -- use of rifles (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • hunting -- used to be the best up there (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • hunting -- winter, communal (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 8)
  • hunting -- wounded animals (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • Huntington, Jim (Vent, Mary 3)
  • Huntington, Jim -- in his old Allakaket store (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • Huntington, Jim -- wrote Juneau about school (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • Huntington, Jimmy (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3)
  • Huntington, Jimmy -- Hog River, learning from each other (Vent, Bobby 3)
  • Huntington, Sydney (Vent, Mary 3)
  • Huntington -- started store, 1940s (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • Hunt Fork (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10), (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • Hunts Fork -- alternate village site (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3, 6)
  • huntsfork
  • husband -- crippled by chipped bone in leg (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 6)
  • husband -- didn't like her to eat bear, hutlanee for him (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • husband -- died of TB while she was carrying daughter Isabel (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • husband -- employment (Holly, Susan 4)
  • husband -- first died (Williams, Susie 3)
  • husband -- go to mining camp in summer (Williams, Susie 4)
  • husband -- her grandma (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • husband -- she followed to Alaska (Holly, Susan 1)
  • husband -- South Fork River (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • husband -- stationed at Ladd Airforce Base (Gray, Millie 8)
  • husband -- Tom (Holly, Susan 1)
  • Huslia (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 4), (Bifelt, Fred Lee 1, 3), (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1), (Gray, Millie 2), (Holly, Susan 7), (Ned, Stanley 11), (Nelson, Richard 8, 9, 10)
  • Huslia River (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • Huslia River -- North Fork (Vent, Mary 3)
  • Huslia -- three years (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • Husted, Jim (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Hutchinson, Bill (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3, 4)
  • Hutchinson, Bill -- airplane crash (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3)
  • Hutchinson, Bill -- death (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • Hutchinson, Bill -- tanning (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • hutlanee (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3)
  • hutlanee -- intermarriage (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • hutlanee -- restrictions regarding bear; not enforced on Alatna side (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • Hutlannee -- taboo; rules regarding game (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 7)
  • ice (Brockman, Ross 8), (Ulen, Tishu 5)
  • ice falling through (Schmitz, Dave 3)
  • ice -- break through (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • ice -- let form (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 5)
  • ice -- thin (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • Ida (Williams, Susie 1)
  • identity -- embracing technology (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 6)
  • Iditarod -- dog injuries (Vent, Bobby 3)
  • Iditarod -- putting together a team of good, honest village dogs (Vent, Bobby 3)
  • Iditarod -- Rainy Pass, Unalakleet, Nome (Vent, Bobby 3)
  • igloos (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • igloos -- sod & stone (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 3)
  • Ikiaqpak (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5, 18), (Mekiana, Justus (2) 1)
  • Ikiaqpak -- caribou (Mekiana, Justus (1) 8)
  • Iliamna (Swem, Ted 12)
  • illness -- from dry meat (Williams, Susie 2)
  • illness -- got warning not to come in (Williams, Susie 2)
  • Imaigñiq (Mekiana, Justus (1) 12)
  • immunizations (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 13)
  • Imnavaich (Mekiana, Justus (1) 6)
  • Imp -- Wilfred Evans' boat (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • impact -- commercial; hurts a lot (Henderson, Joe 7)
  • impact -- negative (Holly, Susan 6)
  • impact -- on federal law (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • impact -- personal; can still hunt and fish (Henderson, Joe 7)
  • impact -- positives; good place for subsistence activities and dog mushing; large area (Henderson, Joe 7)
  • implementation -- patience, compromise, sensitivity (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • impressions (Kauffmann, John 4)
  • inaccessibility (Collins, Bruce 13)
  • inboard (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • income -- $8000 between them (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • income -- firefighting; commercial fishing, etc. (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • income -- need for more opportunities (Bifelt, Fred Lee 9)
  • income -- small (Henderson, Joe 9)
  • Indian Creek (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Indian hunter -- perceptions of (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • Indian Mountain (Sam Sr., Tony 1)
  • Indian Mountain -- he took care of mining camp (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • Indian Reorganization Act (Ned, Stanley 15)
  • Indian River (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • Indian Wars (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • Indian way (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • Indian -- cultures of (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • Indian -- Eva (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • Indians (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • infection -- ear (Bifelt, Madeline 5)
  • influence (Schmitz, Dave 11)
  • influences -- friend; movie "White Wilderness," filmed mostly in Brooks Range (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • Ingstad, Helge (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 13)
  • Ingstad, Helge -- Scandinavian living in area (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 6)
  • inherent tension -- wilderness mandate vs living area (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • inholdings -- placer mines (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Iniakuk Lake (Kauffmann, John 7)
  • injuries -- White had bullet scars (William, William and Effie (1) 10)
  • inlaws -- lived with (Williams, Susie 3)
  • insurance (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1), (Henderson, Joe 7), (Schmitz, Dave 6)
  • insurance -- high price, guides need to take more hunters (Reakoff, Jack 4)
  • interests -- camping, hiking, hunting (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • Interior Department Grumman Goose (Kauffmann, John 4)
  • Interior, Department of (Brown, William (2) 7)
  • interior -- mountain valleys (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • intermarriage (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • international park (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • intimidation (Collins, Bruce 4)
  • intrinsic value (Kauffmann, John 9)
  • introduction -- January 29, 1979 (Brockman, Ross 1)
  • Inulereck, Hugh (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 10)
  • Inupiaq (Bane, Ray (2) 4), (English, Bill and Shirley 17), ( Mekiana, Debbie 6)
  • Iñupiaq people (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Inupiaq -- grandmother taught (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Inupiaq -- how to become (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • Inupiaq -- language learning (Mekiana, Debbie 5)
  • Inupiaq -- learning language (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • involvement -- 1940's (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • Iowa State University (Swem, Ted 3)
  • Irish (English, Bill and Shirley 9)
  • Irving, Dr. (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 15)
  • Irving, Dr. Lawrence (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 15)
  • Irving, Dr. -- grandfather worked with (Morry, Riley 4)
  • Isaac, Alfred (Williams, Susie 7)
  • Isaac, Alfred -- father (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • Isaac, Happy John -- father (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 1)
  • Isaac, Happy John -- Hog River (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3)
  • Isaac, John (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • Isaac, Julia -- mother (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • Isaac -- father's father (William, William and Effie (1) 6)
  • Isabel -- sister (Bifelt, Madeline 5)
  • isolation (Brown, William (1) 12), (Schmitz, Dave 3)
  • isolation -- no post office 'till 1947; no school (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • Issac, Dr. Paul (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 12)
  • Issac, Dr. -- sent Fickus medical supplies (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 12)
  • issues (Holly, Susan 1)
  • issues -- children must understand (Morry, Riley 12)
  • issues -- several issues being worked on when Pepper joined the National Park Service -- Alaska (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • itchalik -- tuttu tent (Mekiana, Justus (1) 3)
  • Itchugaq , Wilbur (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2) (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 9)
  • Itchulok, Wilber
  • Itkillik people (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Itkillik River (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2), (Reakoff, Jack 10)
  • Itqiligmiut (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Itqiligmiut -- go through the Itqiliq (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • ivrulik -- sod house (Mekiana, Justus (1) 3)
  • Jack, Charlie (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Jackson, Sheldon (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • James (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • James, Johnny (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • James, Les -- Hughes (Bifelt, Madeline 7)
  • James, Les -- wife, weather report to Wien (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • janitoring -- clinic and city hall, 1979 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 2)
  • jigs (Sam Sr., Tony 4)
  • Jim River (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Jim River -- built trapping cabin (Henderson, Joe 1)
  • job (Ned, Stanley 13)
  • job offer -- 1981, first superintendent of Gates of the Arctic National Park (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • job -- cook's helper (Gray, Millie 7)
  • job -- garment industry (Gray, Millie 8)
  • job -- liaison between NPS and local communities; explore area (Bane, Ray (1) 7)
  • job -- like it a lot (Holly, Susan 6)
  • jobs -- foundry (Bane, Ray (1) 1)
  • jobs -- store; bed and breakfast; campground; trapping; dog sled tours (Henderson, Joe 1)
  • jobs -- strong work ethic; variety (Bifelt, Fred Lee 1)
  • jobs -- variety, seasonal (Schmitz, Dave 4)
  • John River (Brown, William (2) 1), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5, 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2, 4, 5 ), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3), (Holly, Susan 7), (Johnson, Walter (1) 14), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1, 3), (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 1), (Reakoff, Jack 2), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 2, 6), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3), (Schmitz, Dave 4, 5, 8), (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • John River Valley (Pepper, Jim (1) 3), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 7)
  • John River -- respected each other's lines (Holly, Susan 4)
  • John River -- stay 'til slush ice (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • John River -- vacant spot (Holly, Susan 2)
  • John, Arctic (Brown, William (1) 13), (Johnson, Walter (1) 3, 4, 9, 12)
  • John, Arctic -- father (Johnson, Walter (1) 9)
  • John, Ester (Johnson, Walter (1) 4, 9)
  • John, Grandma Molly -- Sitka (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • John, Lucy (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • John, Molly (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • John, Peter -- Minto; knows the old way (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • Johnson (Gray, Millie 10)
  • Johnson Administration -- National Monument and Proprosal, 1968 (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • Johnson Administration -- proposed 2 units separated by John River Valley (Kauffmann, John 7)
  • Johnson Proclamations (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Johnson, Bill (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Johnson, David (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • Johnson, Dr. Walter, Wiseman, 1940 (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • Johnson, Dr. -- "athletes and esthetes" (Brown, William (2) 2)
  • Johnson, Ernie (Brown, William (1) 7), (Brown, William (2) 1), (Lounsbury, George 1)
  • Johnson, Ernie -- not enough credit (Schmitz, Dave 13)
  • Johnson, Jim (Lounsbury, George 4)
  • Johnson, Lady Bird (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Johnson, Lyndon (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Johnson, Lyndon -- story (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Johnson, Walt (English, Bill and Shirley 12, 23)
  • Johnson, Walter (English, Bill and Shirley 13)
  • Johnson, Walter -- sold it to them (Henderson, Joe 5)
  • Johnson -- adopted out (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • joint use area (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • Jonas family (Johnson, Walter (1) 9)
  • Jonas, Jacob (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Jonas, Mrs. (Lounsbury, George 2, 6, 7, 10)
  • Jonas, Mrs. -- death (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Jonas -- children (Johnson, Walter (1) 4)
  • Jones (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1)
  • Jones, Anore (Nelson, Richard 5)
  • Jones, Bobby (English, Bill and Shirley 8, 9)), (Johnson, Walter (1) 11, 13), (Lounsbury, George 3, 4, 6), (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Jones, Harry -- first storekeeper (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3)
  • Jones, Keith (Nelson, Richard 5)
  • Jones, Professor Eliza (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • Jones, Randy (Pepper, Jim (1) 4), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • Josephine -- California (Bifelt, Madeline 6), (Gray, Millie 7)
  • Josephine -- California, eight kids
  • journals (Brown, William (1) 11)
  • Julia, Auntie (Williams, Susie 7)
  • July -- molting geese; taking (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • Juneau (Brown, William (1) 8), (English, Bill and Shirley 22), (Nelson, Richard 8)
  • Junior -- thirty-six years for the Federal Aviation Administration (Gray, Millie 7)
  • Justine -- grandmother (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 8)
  • K'oyitl'ots'ina' (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3)
  • Kakiññaa , Elijah Groovenstein (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Kakinya, Elijah (Brown, William (1) 13), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5, 10), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 7), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2, 4, 13)
  • Kakinya, Elijah -- false ivory tooth (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 14)
  • Kakinya, Abraham (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 7, 14)
  • Kakinya, Elijah -- cultural resource (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • Kakinya, Elijah -- proud man, admirable (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • Kakinya, Mae (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 7, 13)
  • Kakinya, Marie (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3, 6)
  • Kakinya, Ruth -- adopted (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 7)
  • Kaktovik (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 1)
  • Kaltag (Vent, Bobby 2), (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Kantishna River (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Kantishna -- trapping, two winters (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • Kantner, Erna
  • Kantner, Howie (Nelson, Richard 5)
  • Kanuti (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 6), (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • Kanuti area (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4)
  • Kanuti Flats (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1, 9), (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 2), (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • Kanuti Flats -- winter, people traveling lake to lake for blackfish (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge (Schmitz, Dave 7)
  • Kanuti Pass (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • Kanuti River (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9), (David, David and Kitty 2), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • Kanuti -- 1955, last time over (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • Kanutna River (Beetus, Joe and Celia 2)
  • Katmai (Swem, Ted 7, 14)
  • Katmai addition (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Katmai National Monument
  • Katmai Park (Collins, Bruce 5)
  • Katmai -- brown bears (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • Katmai -- fishing (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • Katmai -- signed (Swem, Ted (2) 5)
  • Katmai -- volcanism (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • Kauffmann, John (Bane, Ray (1) 6), (Pepper, Jim (1) 4)
  • Kauffmann, John -- administration of Park (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • Kauffmann, John -- explored much (Bane, Ray (1) 7)
  • Kauffmann, John -- played important role in feasibility study; "key man" (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • Kauffmann, John -- wanted wandering rights (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • Kauffmann -- enjoyable, preservation oriented (Schmitz, Dave 8)
  • Kauffmann -- got out in country; had public means to do so (Schmitz, Dave 8)
  • Kauffmann, John (Schmitz, Dave 8)
  • Kavick, Ben (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 13)
  • Kavik -- translated "wolverine" (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 8)
  • Kavik Creek
  • Kavik Creek -- upper Anaktiktok (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 8)
  • Kay, Bessie (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • Kay, Bessie -- missionary (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 5, 11)
  • Kay, Bessie -- missionary, only teacher (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 2)
  • Kay, Miss -- gave chance to play violin (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Kay, Miss -- said talk English only; believed her, lost our understanding (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Kay, Miss Bessie (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3), (Bifelt, Madeline 2), (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • Keller, Pat -- preacher (Vent, Mary 5)
  • Kelly's Mistake (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • Kenai Fjords National Park (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Kennedy, John F. (Swem, Ted 10)
  • Kennedy, Mary and Philip (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Kennedy, Pres. John (Swem, Ted 5)
  • Kenton, Daniel -- father's brothers
  • Ketcher, Dave (Henderson, Joe 10), (Schmitz, Dave 5)
  • KFAR -- "Tundra Topics", as forecaster of outsiders (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 1)
  • Kiak Creek (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 13)
  • Kiana (Johnson, Walter (1) 9)
  • kids -- teenagers (Schmitz, Dave 4)
  • Killigmiut (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Killigmiut -- Killik people (Mekiana, Justus (1) 1)
  • Killik (Morry, Riley 2)
  • Killik Lake -- west side of Gates (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Killik River (Collins, Bruce 13), (Holly, Susan 7), (Pepper, Jim (2) 1)
  • Killik -- points dated to six to eight thousand years (Schmitz, Dave 12)
  • Killik -- springtime (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Killiq (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Killiq -- Iniqagligruaq (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • kindergarten -- first year at new school (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • King Salmon (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • Kinney, Emily (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • Kinney, Robert (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • kinship -- with land, generation after generation (Schmitz, Dave 14)
  • Kit, Burney (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • Kitligmiu -- grandfather is Kitligmiu (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Kitligmiut (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Kitliq area -- no school (Mekiana, Justus (1) 12)
  • Kitliq -- place (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5)
  • Kittillik -- people that Justus is from (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Kitty -- her younger sister (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • Kk'eeyh Daghaleetna (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Kline, Dave -- Fish and Wildlife (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • knee -- fracture, Kitty (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 15)
  • Knik Arm (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • knowledge -- learned, not instinctive, and must be passed on (Reakoff, Jack 10)
  • knowledge -- more emphasis on real experience, less on college degrees (Bifelt, Fred Lee 7)
  • knowledge -- they know a lot (Williams, Susie 12)
  • Knowles, Larry (Swem, Ted 4)
  • Kobuk (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9), (Brown, William (1) 6, 7, 10, 14), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3), (English, Bill and Shirley 3), (Johnson, Walter (1) 9), (Mekiana, Justus 3), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 1), (Nelson, Richard 8), (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4), (Schmitz, Dave 9), (Ulen, Tishu 1, 3), (Vent, Mary 5), (William, William and Effie (1) 6)
  • Kobuk Eskimos (Gray, Millie 4)
  • Kobuk National Monument (Nelson, Richard 1)
  • Kobuk people (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 5)
  • Kobuk Portage (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • Kobuk Region (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • Kobuk River (Bane, Ray (1) 5), (Bane, Ray (2) 4, 6), (Brown, William (1) 7, 11), (David, David and Kitty 1), (Holly, Susan 7), (Nelson, Richard 1), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3), (Williams, Susie6, 9)
  • Kobuk Valley National Monument (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • Kobuk River -- meeting place (Williams, Susie 9)
  • Kobuk River -- patrol; natural history; archaeology (Schmitz, Dave 12)
  • Kobuk River -- people (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • Kobuk River -- relatives (David, David and Kitty 4)
  • Kobuk -- all grandma's from (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • Kobuk -- final edit (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Kobuk -- Hope came from (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Kobuk -- people (Brown, William (2) 2)
  • Kobuk -- proposal and Environmental Impact Statement (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • Kobuk -- Selawik herd (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • Kobuk -- study (Nelson, Richard 3)
  • Kobuk -- travel by dogteam (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • Kobuk -- traveling to Alatna (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 1)
  • Kockrine, Andy -- mail carrier (Henzie, Moses and Marie 2)
  • Kodiak Island (Nelson, Richard 1)
  • Kogoluktuk (Kauffmann, John 12)
  • Kogoluktuk River -- staking land (Schmitz, Dave 9)
  • Kokrine, Andrew -- half Russian (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Kokrine -- Tony, Bergman, Andrew Jr. (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Kongumavik (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • Kongumavik Place (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • Kopkun -- my husband named after (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • Kopkun -- son that died (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • Korean War (Brown, William (1) 1), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2, 3)
  • Kostmeyer, Peter (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • Kotzebue (English, Bill and Shirley 22), (Johnson, Walter (1) 12), (Sam Sr., Tony 6), (William, William and Effie (1) 6, 9), (William, William and Effie (2) 1), (Williams, Susie 6, 7, 9), (Brown, William (2) 8), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • Kotzebue -- friend from tried to get Steven to guide (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 4)
  • Kotzebue -- manager assistant; park superintendent (Bane, Ray (1) 12)
  • Kotzebue -- Native name for (William, William and Effie (1) 6)
  • Kotzebue -- rainy, foggy (Ulen, Tishu 3)
  • Koyuk (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 13)
  • Koyukon (Bane, Ray (1) 6), (Brown, William (1) 6)
  • Koyukon Natives (Nelson, Richard 11)
  • Koyukon -- traditions (Nelson, Richard 11)
  • Koyukuk (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3), (Bane, Ray (2) 4), (Brown, William (1) 5, 14), (Brown, William (2) 1), (Johnson, Walter (1) 3, 14), (Lounsbury, George 3), (Ned, Stanley 11), (Nelson, Richard 1, 2, 10, 12), (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • Koyukuk People (Ned, Stanley 11)
  • Koyukuk River (Bane, Ray (1) 6), (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3), (Bifelt, Madeline 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2), (Johnson, Walter (1) 6), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1), (Ned, Stanley11), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 2), (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Koyukuk River -- camp on north side (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • Koyukuk River -- he served whole river at one time (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • Koyukuk River -- hunting for rats in spring (Vent, Mary 3)
  • Koyukuk River -- no white people around in old days (Williams, Susie 1)
  • Koyukuk River -- North Fork area (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • Koyukuk Station (Gray, Millie 2, 5)
  • Koyukuk Station -- freighting (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • Koyukuk, Annie and Jimmy (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • Koyukuk, Annie -- father's mother (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • Koyukuk, Grafton and Agnes (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • Koyukuk, Grafton -- Denali Center (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Koyukuk, Grafton -- first cousin, played mandolin (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Koyukuk, Grafton -- stepfather, 1935 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Koyukuk, Jimmy -- father's father (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • Koyukuk, Jimmy -- lived with them (Ned, Stanley 2)
  • Koyukuk, Paul (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Koyukuk, Rita (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • Koyukuk, Walter (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • Koyukuk, Walter -- Grafton's brother (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Koyukuk, Walter -- played guitar (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Koyukuk, William (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 6)
  • Koyukuk, William -- brother (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Koyukuk -- hauling freight (Bifelt, Madeline 7)
  • Koyukuk -- less fish (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 6)
  • Koyukuk -- middle (Johnson, Walter (1) 14)
  • Koyukuk -- Middle Fork (Lounsbury, George 4, 5)
  • Koyukuk -- Middlefork bridge (Lounsbury, George 7)
  • Koyukuk -- North Fork (Brown, William (1) 5), (Lounsbury, George 6, 11)
  • Koyukuk -- remote locations (Gray, Millie 1)
  • Koyukuk -- Southfork (Lounsbury, George 4)
  • Koyukuk -- station (English, Bill and Shirley 2, 12)
  • Koyukuk -- upper (Johnson, Walter (1) 5)
  • Koyukuk -- worked all over (William, William and Effie (1) 10)
  • Kruzenstern (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • KUAC -- friends for Lill (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Kunz, Mike (Brown, William (1) 3, 6)
  • Kurupa Lake (Kauffmann, John 12)
  • Kuskokwim (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • Kuskokwim -- three whites chased Indians away, killed moose to feed dogs (William, William and Effie (1) 10)
  • Kutchin (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • Kutuk Pass (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • Kuuvangmiut (Nelson, Richard 1)
  • La Rock, Jim -- landscape architect (Kauffmann, John 5)
  • Ladd Field (Mekiana, Justus (1) 9), (Johnson, Walter (1) 2)
  • Laird, Archie (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • Lake Clark (Collins, Bruce 2), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1), (Kauffmann, John 4), (Pepper, Jim (1) 2), (Swem, Ted 7, 8, 12, 14)
  • Lake Minchumina (Brown, William (1) 14), (Collins, Bruce 2)
  • Lake Todatonten -- Todaalltonh Dinh (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • lakes -- unidentified (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • lamb (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • lamp (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • lamp -- seal oil (Bane, Ray (2) 6)
  • land (Pepper, Jim (2) 3)
  • Land and Water Conservation Fund Act -- Congress (Swem, Ted 9)
  • land claims -- first heard in 1970; seventh or eighth grade (Bifelt, Fred Lee 2)
  • land deal -- brought Park and Village closer (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 9)
  • land deal -- proposed (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 9)
  • land issues (Morry, Riley 11)
  • land ownership (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • land selection -- impact of highway on (Morry, Riley 7)
  • land selections -- block D-2 areas (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • land withdrawals -- township and range lines (Kauffmann, John 11)
  • land -- "keep discovering" (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • land -- accessibility (English, Bill and Shirley 23, 24)
  • land -- accessibility
  • land -- culture is based in it (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • land -- discovery of new (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • land -- dividing of (Brown, William (2) 2)
  • land -- divisions (Bane, Ray (2) 4)
  • land -- federal (Brown, William (2) 2), (Collins, Bruce 5)
  • land -- Federal division (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • land -- federally owned (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • land -- fortress of "wild values" (Brown, William (2) 2)
  • land -- human impact (Johnson, Walter (1) 15)
  • land -- important, raised with it, village to village (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • land -- life depends upon (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 6)
  • land -- management (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • land -- National Park caliber landscape (Brown, William (2) 2)
  • land -- National Park is 8.7 million acres of landscape (Brown, William (2) 3)
  • land -- Native management (Bane, Ray (2) 5)
  • land -- Native use (Nelson, Richard 4, 5, 6)
  • land -- not enough in private hands (Schmitz, Dave 10)
  • land -- not exploited (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • land -- park system (English, Bill and Shirley 23)
  • land -- pick berries, cut wood, fishing, trapping (Beetus, Joe and Celia 9)
  • land -- policy (Mekiana, Justus (1) 18)
  • land -- protection of by Natives within area (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • land -- shared by people of all areas (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • land -- spirituality (Nelson, Richard 9, 10, 11)
  • land -- State selections (Brown, William (1) 15)
  • land -- status quo (Nelson, Richard 6)
  • land -- that is our store for fresh food (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • land -- traditional (Brown, William (1) 15)
  • land -- traditional use of (Mekiana, Justus (1) 18)
  • land -- usage (Nelson, Richard 3)
  • land -- value as collateral (Morry, Riley 11)
  • landing strip -- shovel, pick axes (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • Lands Program -- worked as cook, 1972-75 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 2)
  • lands -- cultural (Brown, William (1) 6)
  • landscape architecture (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 2)
  • language (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • language -- English spoken in school; hard (Ned, Stanley 4)
  • language -- loss (Mekiana, Debbie 6), (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • language -- loss of (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • language -- Natives have hard time with English, meanings differ (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • language -- Natives use mix of tongues (Ned, Stanley 10)
  • language -- punished for use of Native tongue (Ned, Stanley 4)
  • lanterns -- coleman (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 3)
  • LaRocka, Joe (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • Larry's Flying Service (Collins, Bruce 15)
  • last supper (Ned, Stanley 12)
  • last supper -- respect for deceased (Ned, Stanley 6)
  • Lathrop High School (Lounsbury, George 2), (Ned, Stanley 1)
  • Lathrop High School -- three years (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • Lathrop -- distractions (Ned, Stanley 7)
  • Latitude -- 67 degrees 37 minutes
  • Laughlin, William (Nelson, Richard 1)
  • Laura -- Ceza's mother (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • lawsuit -- feds vs state -- state won lower John River (Kauffmann, John 7)
  • law -- Alaska State Constitution (Brown, William (2) 7)
  • law -- enormously responsive (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • law -- no code of appeal (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • law -- reinterpretations (Brown, William (2) 7)
  • law -- statutory amendments (Brown, William (2) 7)
  • law -- whites, no historical precedent (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • laws -- come from outside (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • laws -- enforcement (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • laws -- some are bum, some O.K. (Williams, Susie 12)
  • lawyers (Schmitz, Dave 6)
  • lawyers -- took advantage (Bifelt, Fred Lee 4)
  • learning area (Collins, Bruce 7)
  • learning -- from everybody (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • learning -- new words like "contiguous" (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3)
  • learning -- slow; retrospective (Bane, Ray (1) 3)
  • Lee, Allen (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • Lee, Charlie (Bane, Ray (1) 6)
  • Lee, Richard (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • legacy -- arrival in 1981 effected by earlier enforcement oriented approach (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • legal terms (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • leggings -- caribou (Henzie, Moses and Marie 5)
  • legislation (Brown, William (2) 6)
  • legislation -- fitting park to it (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • legislation -- would plan around studies (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Leon (Williams, Susie 1)
  • Leonard, Harry (Henderson, Joe 10), (Johnson, Walter (1) 12), (Lounsbury, George 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11), (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Leonard, Harry -- "real nice country for a long time" (Reakoff, Jack 12)
  • Leonard, Harry -- casket for his dog (Henderson, Joe 10)
  • Leonard, Harry -- inheritance of property (Lounsbury, George 12)
  • Leonard, Savanna (Lounsbury, George 9)
  • Les, James -- 1937, he and his wife arrived for mining (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • lesson -- learn, watch, listen (Williams, Susie 12)
  • letter -- Holzworth (Swem, Ted 11)
  • liaison (Bane, Ray (1) 12)
  • Libbey -- family name (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Libby, David (Brown, William (1) 11)
  • library (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • license from missionary (Mekiana, Justus (1) 10)
  • license -- boat pilot's; Steven only Native to have in 1965 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 2)
  • licensing -- guides, outfitters (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 6)
  • life -- the nice live long (Williams, Susie 11)
  • life -- we all need each other; treat each other good (Williams, Susie 11)
  • lifestyle -- changes (Mekiana, Justus (1) 18)
  • lifestyle -- learned, must want to do it (Reakoff, Jack 10)
  • lifestyle -- not ready to give it up; enjoy it (Holly, Susan 8)
  • lifestyle -- struggle, not private land in Bettles (Schmitz, Dave 11)
  • Light, George -- store (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • Light, George -- store manager (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Linda Creek (Johnson, Walter (1) 5), (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • lining boats -- traveling up river with dogs (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 2)
  • lining rope -- 100 or more (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 11)
  • lining -- low water, mid-June (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • lining -- pulling boats upriver with dogs (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 11)
  • lining -- up river (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • lining -- upriver, below Allakaket (Williams, Susie 2)
  • Linus (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • Linus, Agnes (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Linus, Cathleen (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Linus, Daniel -- helped haul logs (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • Linus, Kathleen -- nice woman, fed us (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • Linus, Lawrence -- he was my best friend (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 6)
  • Linus, Old (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • Linus -- second wife, Cathleen (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • liquor (English, Bill and Shirley 21)
  • Lisa (Williams, Susie 4)
  • listening -- we tell them what we know (Williams, Susie 12)
  • litmus test -- "health of the world" (Kauffmann, John 9)
  • Little Chandler Lake (Mekiana, Debbie 3)
  • Little Peter (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • Little Sammy -- Tony's father, "Old Man" (Sam Sr., Tony 3)
  • live trap (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • Livengood (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9)
  • Livengood Race (Vent, Bobby 3)
  • living -- we have to try to make, don't take our lives (Williams, Susie 13)
  • lobbying (English, Bill and Shirley 22)
  • lobbyists (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • Lobovski, Mike -- took over store; went to Yukon after one year (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • local college -- attended (Swem, Ted 2)
  • local hiring -- encouraged within villages (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • local hiring -- knowledge of land is important in park service (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • local jobs (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 3)
  • local rural resident (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • local rural resident -- defining (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • local view -- provisions shouldn't exist in first place (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • local views -- wild land, why worry? (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • location -- caribou fences every fall and spring (Morry, Riley 2)
  • location -- most beautiful in world (Morry, Riley 12)
  • locations manager -- looking for mix of dogs (Henderson, Joe 3)
  • locations -- well distributed (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • lock-up -- false image (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • lock-up -- shame (Henderson, Joe 7)
  • Lockney, TX (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • lodge -- hauled logs from South Fork & North of Evansville (Gray, Millie 9)
  • Loeschy, Ray (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • log church (Mekiana, Justus (1) 10)
  • log huts (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 3)
  • logging -- sometimes, more in past (Henderson, Joe 9)
  • logging -- Southeast Alaska (Henderson, Joe 1)
  • logs -- finding right ones (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • logs -- hauling (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • logs -- straight grain, no limbs (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • Long Island, NY (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • Loon Pond (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 6)
  • Lounsbury, George (Lounsbury, George 9)
  • Lounsbury, Jim -- made coffin, dug hole in winter (Henderson, Joe 10)
  • Lower 48 (Mekiana, Debbie 5)
  • Lower 48 -- animals in zoos (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • Lower 48 -- checkerboard lands (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • Lower Alatna (Kauffmann, John 7)
  • lower camp (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11)
  • Lozo, Suzie (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Lucy -- married (Gray, Millie 10)
  • lumber -- whipsawed (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • lures (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • lush trap -- construction (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 5)
  • lush -- good, rich fish (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 6)
  • Lydia -- first wife (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • lynx (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • lynx -- females stop producing kittens before rabbit cycle crashes (Reakoff, Jack 9)
  • lynx -- not cut up (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • lynx -- snared one, sat in trap for whole year (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • Mabel (English, Bill and Shirley 7)
  • machinery (English, Bill and Shirley 22)
  • machinists (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 3)
  • Mackey, Bill and Rick (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • Mackey, Dick -- recommendation (Henderson, Joe 3)
  • Madeline (Williams, Susie 4)
  • magazine -- subscriptions (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Maggaqtuuq (Mekiana, Justus (1) 12)
  • Maggie -- also named (Williams, Susie 1)
  • Maggie -- half-sister (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Mahalik, Dave (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3, 8)
  • Mahalik, Dave (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • mail (English, Bill and Shirley 12), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 1, 4 ), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • mail days (Brockman, Ross 2)
  • mail planes -- delivery (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • mail run -- local hire (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • mail run -- Minto (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • mail run -- one per month (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • mail run -- Simon broke trail (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • mail trail -- Tanana to Allakaket (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • mail -- everything comes this way (Holly, Susan 5)
  • mail -- get around Christmas (Holly, Susan 3)
  • mail -- parcel post (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • maintain roads (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • Make Prayers to the Raven (Nelson, Richard 2, 11, 12)
  • Malcom, Reverend -- Episcopal church (Gray, Millie 6)
  • management -- cooperation (Collins, Bruce 17)
  • management -- education (Collins, Bruce 17)
  • management -- federal mining turnover (Lounsbury, George 13)
  • management -- flexibility (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • management -- mining (Lounsbury, George 13)
  • management -- National Park Service support (Collins, Bruce 17)
  • management -- of Park (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • management -- participatory (Bane, Ray (2) 5)
  • management -- properly done, can last (Reakoff, Jack 12)
  • management -- threats, global (Collins, Bruce 11)
  • management -- tried to remain sensitive (Bane, Ray (1) 12)
  • management -- unpredictability (Collins, Bruce 17)
  • management -- when to get, leave alone (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • management -- when to take or not (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • Manley (Lounsbury, George 14)
  • manuscript -- reading of (Brockman, Ross 7)
  • many potential areas (Swem, Ted 8)
  • mapping -- had to draw the rivers (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 2)
  • mapping -- place names (Bane, Ray (2) 2)
  • maps (Brown, William (1) 3)
  • Maptigaq (Mekiana, Justus (1) 3)
  • Maptigaq -- name (Mekiana, Justus (1) 1)
  • March (Vent, Mary 5)
  • March 17 -- St. Patrick's Day (Sam Sr., Tony 5)
  • March -- close up cabin (Holly, Susan 4)
  • March -- shuttling gear back to town (Holly, Susan 3)
  • mares (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • Mariah, Grandma (Williams, Susie 2)
  • Marian-secretarial work (Gray, Millie 7)
  • marine mammal -- technology (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • Mark, Laura (Bifelt, Madeline 8), (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Mark, Laura and Peter (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • market -- hunters (Johnson, Walter (1) 10)
  • marriage (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 3)
  • marriage license (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • marriage -- 1948 (English, Bill and Shirley 14)
  • marriage -- 1953 (Mekiana, Justus (1) 8)
  • marriage -- 1959 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • marriage -- age sixteen (William, William and Effie (1) 2)
  • marriage -- age sixteen; old way (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • marriage -- Allakaket (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 7)
  • marriage -- arranged (William, William and Effie (1) 2)
  • marriage -- arranged by uncle (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • marriage -- both nineteen (David, David and Kitty 3)
  • marriage -- Christmas Eve 1959 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • marriage -- in Allakaket (Williams, Susie 6)
  • marriage -- March 4, 1953 (Mekiana, Justus (1) 10)
  • marriage -- needed each other's help (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 6)
  • marriage -- subsistence is how we live (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • marriages (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • married -- 1923-24 (Ulen, Tishu 6)
  • married -- June, 1938 (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Marshall (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • Marshall University (Bane, Ray (1) 1)
  • Marshall, Bob (Brown, William (1) 4, 13, 14), (Collins, Bruce 15), (English, Bill and Shirley 9, 25), (Lounsbury, George 9), (Pepper, Jim (1) 12) , (Swem, Ted 12), (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Marshall, Bob -- elation, reverence, ecstasy (Kauffmann, John 8)
  • Marshall, Bob -- idea of Gates to the Arctic came from him, 1929 (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • Marshall, Bob -- influence of "country of solitude" (Kauffmann, John 8)
  • Marshall, Bob -- insensitive (Schmitz, Dave 13)
  • Marshall, George (Swem, Ted 12)
  • Marshall, Jim (Swem, Ted 12)
  • Marshall, Robert (Brown, William (1) 7), (Henderson, Joe 8), (Lounsbury, George 1), (Nelson, Richard 5)
  • Marshall, Robert -- book on Wiseman (English, Bill and Shirley 18)
  • Marshall -- proves point on endless discovering (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • Marshall -- writings about value for wilderness (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • Marston, Colonel Muktuk (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 9)
  • marten (Pepper, Jim (1) 12), (Reakoff, Jack 6), (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • marten -- good meat (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • marten -- hat (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • Martha and Abraham (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • Martin Sliscoe Bench (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • Martin, Guy (Pepper, Jim (2) 1)
  • Mary Jane -- daughter (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • Mary, Pete (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • Mary -- Kenai (Bifelt, Madeline 6)
  • Mary -- mother (Ulen, Tishu 1)
  • Masauluk -- grandmother's Eskimo name (Mekiana, Debbie 4)
  • Mascot Creek (Lounsbury, George 11)
  • Mascot Creek cabin (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • masks (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • masks -- as barter (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • master plan study -- Mt. McKinley (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • masu roots (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • math (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4)
  • Matthew (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Mattes, Merle (Swem, Ted (2) 3, 4)
  • Mautner, Kathy (Nelson, Richard 1, 8, 11)
  • May -- hunting trip (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • May -- store gears up (Henderson, Joe 9)
  • Mayo Clinic -- Minneapolis (Lounsbury, George 8)
  • McCanick Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2)
  • McCarry, Paul -- Interpretive Planner (Kauffmann, John 5)
  • McConnell, Mac (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • McDowell Case -- effect is more attention to Native concerns (Ned, Stanley 16)
  • McDowell Case -- took away subsistence (Ned, Stanley 15)
  • McDowell Decision -- ended guiding areas several years ago (Reakoff, Jack 3)
  • McGee -- mining operation (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • McGee -- mining; got Hagget straightened up (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • McGrath (Brown, William (1) 14)
  • McGuire, Shawn (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • McKennegan's 1885 Exploration (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • McKinley (Swem, Ted 12, 14)
  • McKinley addition (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • McKinley Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • McKinley Park (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 15)
  • McKinnet, Allen (Brown, William (1) 10)
  • McMurray, Carl (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • measles epidemic (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • measles -- Huslia, 1940's (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • meat (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • meat -- caribou head (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 13)
  • meat -- caribou, sheep, black bear, grouse (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • meat -- dry (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • meat -- frozen (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • meat -- storage (Johnson, Walter (1) 10)
  • meat -- surplus (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • media (Bane, Ray (1) 7)
  • medical supplies (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 12)
  • medication -- lack of (David, David and Kitty 6)
  • medication -- old timers had them (Gray, Millie 10)
  • medication -- oral (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 14)
  • medicine (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 12)
  • medicine men -- Frank feared them (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • medicine -- showing how to use what the missionaries left (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 14)
  • medivac (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 5)
  • meeting -- public (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • meetings -- attending to learn (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • meetings -- public (Collins, Bruce 6, 7, 9)
  • meetings -- public versus individual (Collins, Bruce 9)
  • Mekiana, David (Mekiana, Debbie 4)
  • Mekiana, Doris (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 12)
  • Mekiana, Homer (Mekiana, Justus (1) 3, 14), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 4, 6, 11, 12)
  • Mekiana, Homer -- died on Christmas Eve 1967 (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17)
  • Mekiana, Homer -- dogteam (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 4)
  • Mekiana, Homer -- father's father (Mekiana, Debbie 4)
  • Mekiana, Homer -- first postmaster (Mekiana, Justus (1) 14)
  • Mekiana, Homer -- given the store to maintain (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17)
  • Mekiana, Homer -- secretary (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)
  • Mekiana, Justus (Mekiana, Justus (1) 9) (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 8)
  • Mekiana, Justus -- council member (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)
  • Mekiana, Justus -- uncle (Mekiana, Debbie 4)
  • Mekiana, Mary (Mekiana, Debbie 4)
  • Mekiana, Molly (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 12)
  • Mekiana, Rebecca (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 12)
  • Mekiana, Rebecca -- father's mother (Mekiana, Debbie 4)
  • Melcher, Senator (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • memo (Swem, Ted 8)
  • memories -- early (Ned, Stanley 1)
  • memories -- like a dream (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 2)
  • memories -- not as modern then, fewer houses (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • men -- hunting (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 10)
  • men -- made songs in old days (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • Mendelsohn, Dorothy (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • Mendelsohn, Randy (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11), (Ned, Stanley 4)
  • Mendelson, Randy
  • meningitis -- sister died, eleven years old (Bifelt, Madeline 5)
  • Merrill Pass (Kauffmann, John 4)
  • Mertie, John M. (Johnson, Walter (1) 5)
  • messages -- exchanges (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • Messenger Feast (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • metal (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • Meter, Dion -- drown (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Meter, Fred (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Meter, Fred -- death (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Meter, Fred -- killed (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Meters Family (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Meters -- slide show in California (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • microwaves (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • mid 1950's (Swem, Ted 6)
  • Midnight Sun (Brockman, Ross 7)
  • Midus Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2)
  • midwest upbringing (Swem, Ted 1)
  • migration (Morry, Riley 2)
  • migration -- following caribou (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 11)
  • military (Collins, Bruce 7), (Johnson, Walter (1) 3)
  • mill (Brockman, Ross 1)
  • Miller, Anita (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • Miller, Frank (Lounsbury, George 4)
  • Miller, Freddy -- pilot who came for Dubin (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • Miller, Jim (Lounsbury, George 4)
  • Miller, Mrs. (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 13)
  • Miller, Richard (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • Miller, Tennessee (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • Miller, Vern (Lounsbury, George 4)
  • Millie -- oldest, raised kids (Gray, Millie 5)
  • Minano, Mr. -- Japanese (Brown, William (1) 8)
  • mine -- laborers (Brown, William (1) 12)
  • Minealik (Schmitz, Dave 9)
  • miner -- hard work; thirty years (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1)
  • Mineral Act (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • minerals -- copper belts (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • miners (Brown, William (1) 6), (English, Bill and Shirley 6), (Johnson, Walter (1) 8), (Williams, Susie 4)
  • miners -- hunting (English, Bill and Shirley 5)
  • miners -- Klondike (English, Bill and Shirley 4)
  • miners -- white (Ulen, Tishu 1)
  • mines (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • mines -- in SW corner (Brown, William (1) 10), (Brown, William (2) 3)
  • Mining (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1), (Brockman, Ross 7), (Brown, William (1) 5, 7, 9, 10), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8),(Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 3, 7 ), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5), (Johnson, Walter (1) 3, 4, 15), (Kauffmann, John 10), (Lounsbury, George 3), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • Mining Act (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • mining camp -- 1964 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 12)
  • mining claims (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 1), (Kauffmann, John 7)
  • mining ground -- stacked (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • mining sites (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • mining -- 1994 first year not doing it (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 3)
  • mining -- camp -- Wiseman (Johnson, Walter (1) 9)
  • mining -- claims (Brown, William (1) 8), (Lounsbury, George 7)
  • mining -- deep hole (Brown, William (1) 10)
  • mining -- gin poles (Brown, William (1) 8)
  • mining -- Glacier River (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • mining -- going down too (Williams, Susie 8)
  • mining -- gold (English, Bill and Shirley 22), (Johnson, Walter (1) 5), (Lounsbury, George 2, 5, 9, 12)
  • mining -- Jim Poles
  • mining -- laborer; oiler, $2.65/hour (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 12)
  • mining -- mechanization (Brown, William (1) 10)
  • mining -- methods (Johnson, Walter (1) 5)
  • mining -- Native claims (Brown, William (1) 12)
  • mining -- placer (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • mining -- placer gold (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • mining -- potential (Collins, Bruce 11)
  • mining -- recreational (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • mining -- shafts (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • mining -- sluicing (Lounsbury, George 12)
  • mining -- strike (Brown, William (1) 8)
  • mining -- success (Johnson, Walter (1) 11)
  • mining -- summers (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • mining -- technology (Johnson, Walter (1) 5, 15)
  • mining -- turnover (Brown, William (1) 8)
  • mining -- winter (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • mining -- Wiseman (Johnson, Walter (2) 2)
  • mink -- ate baked (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • Minnie Creek (Johnson, Walter (1) 5)
  • minority -- first hand experience as (Bane, Ray (1) 3)
  • Minto (English, Bill and Shirley 15), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • Mintzmyer, Lorraine (Swem, Ted 4)
  • Miscovich, George (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • misfortune -- father injured back after purchase, lost place (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Miss Anchorage (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Miss Boyce (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 9)
  • Miss Creese -- Ft. Yukon Hospital, nurse (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 9)
  • Miss Hill (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Miss North Pole (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Miss Southcentral (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Miss Teen USA Pageant (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • Miss USA Pageant (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Mission (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • Mission 66 (Swem, Ted 5, 6)
  • Mission 66 Program (Swem, Ted 2, 4)
  • Mission -- changes (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • Mission -- he worked there (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • Mission -- stayed one winter (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • Mission -- trading clothes for wood (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4)
  • Mission -- uncle put Effie in (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • Mission -- well built (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • missionaries (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 1), (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • missionaries -- Allakaket (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • missionaries -- came way out there by dog team (Williams, Susie 7)
  • missionaries -- Christmas activities (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 2)
  • missionaries -- discipline of children (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • missionaries -- left 1953 (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • missionaries -- little help (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • missionaries -- naming (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 10)
  • missionaries -- offered to build mission (Williams, Susie 1)
  • missionaries -- took away things (Ned, Stanley 6)
  • missionary (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • Missouri Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • mittens (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • Mo, Tony (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 2)
  • moccasins -- mooseskin and beads (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 5)
  • modernity (English, Bill and Shirley 21)
  • mom -- flying experience (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • mom -- miss Lill while at high school (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6)
  • money (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • money -- bought property on fourth Avenue; bars, cafes (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • money -- bounty on wolf pups (Mekiana, Justus (1) 6)
  • money -- cashed big checks for Attlas, held the money for them (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • money -- left it behind, never found (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1)
  • money -- made $1500 and started store (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • money -- Natives don't have enough to fight (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • money -- need healthy marriage with subsistence (Bifelt, Fred Lee 10)
  • Montigak, Morry (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11, 12)
  • monument addition (Swem, Ted 11)
  • Monument Proclamation -- 1978; dynamite; protests (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • Monument Task Force (Collins, Bruce 2)
  • Monuments Proclamation (Bane, Ray (1) 12)
  • Moonies Lake (Ulen, Tishu 5)
  • moose (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8), (Johnson, Walter (1) 14), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 6)
  • moose hunting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 5)
  • moose hunting -- trusting you'll get one when time comes (Holly, Susan 6)
  • moose population (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • moose -- 1960's availability (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • Moose -- ate at the table (Henderson, Joe 10)
  • moose -- came back (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • moose -- first appearance in Alatna (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 3)
  • moose -- first kill (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • moose -- had never seen before (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • moose -- hunting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • moose -- hunting pressure (Holly, Susan 6)
  • moose -- lack of (Bifelt, Madeline 1), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • moose -- many in 1900 (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • moose -- none on Koyukuk in old days (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 2)
  • moose -- pop the eyes so animal will not see; respect (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • moose -- scarce in past (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • Moose -- the dog (Henderson, Joe 10)
  • moose -- tuttuvuk (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • moose -- using everything, brain, sinew (Henzie, Moses and Marie 5)
  • moose-skin boat -- preserves skin, keep wet (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3)
  • moosehides -- tanning still (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • mooseskin boat (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • mooseskin boat -- haul meat (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • morning prayer (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • Morris, Dora (Collins, Bruce 6)
  • Morris, Jerry (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Morris, Neil (Collins, Bruce 6)
  • Morris, Ryan
  • Morry, Ayapana (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • Morry, Billy (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11)
  • Morry, Billy -- president of council (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)
  • Morry, John (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11)
  • Morry, John -- became Eskimo father (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • Morry, Mark -- brother (Morry, Riley 10)
  • Morry, Old Man (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2, 5, 8, 9)
  • Morry, Old Man -- he and family (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Morry, Peter (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Morry, Riley (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • Morry, Sven (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • Morse Code (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • Morton, Roger (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Moses plays fiddle (Henzie, Moses and Marie 10)
  • Moses, Beatus -- champion, 1961 (David, David and Kitty 5)
  • Moses, Bertha -- end of health aide career (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 4)
  • Moses, Bertha -- resident 10 years, house manager (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 3)
  • Moses, Ceza (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1)
  • Moses, Chief -- used to live there (William, William and Effie (1) 6)
  • Moses, Henry (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5), (William, William and Effie (1) 6)
  • Moses, Henry -- mother's brother; Lucy (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 2)
  • Moses, Henry -- worked on steamboats (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Moses, Johnson (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 7)
  • Moses, Johnson -- Allakaket (Schmitz, Dave 13)
  • Moses, Tony (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 6)
  • Moses, Tony and Beetus; cousins (William, William and Effie (1) 6)
  • Moses -- Henry and Lucy (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • mosquitoes (Brown, William (1) 10)
  • Moss, Senator -- Utah (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • mother (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1, 10), (David, David and Kitty 1, 2), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1), (Ulen, Tishu 4), (Williams, Susie 1,7)
  • mother's mother (Williams, Susie 1)
  • mother -- adopted to (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • mother -- bad back, recovered (Ulen, Tishu 1)
  • mother -- Dalby (Williams, Susie 1)
  • mother -- David David's (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • mother -- deceased (Ned, Stanley 1)
  • mother -- died at forty (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • mother -- died giving birth to twins (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 10)
  • mother -- died of tuberculosis before Millie knew her (Gray, Millie 4)
  • mother -- died when Madeline was eighteen (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • mother -- died when six (Vent, Bobby 1)
  • mother -- died while baby (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • mother -- died, Kitty nine years (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • mother -- drove dogs; pitched tent; trek (Ulen, Tishu 4)
  • mother -- Elizabeth (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • mother -- gave Effie away because other children died (William, William and Effie (1) 2)
  • mother -- Ida (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • mother -- learned from (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 8)
  • mother -- lesson: don't ever say cross words to friends; don't be mean (Williams, Susie 11)
  • mother -- Lilly (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • mother -- Madeline; Ruby (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • mother -- Minnesota (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • mother -- outdoor and nature interests (Swem, Ted 1)
  • mother -- parents (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • mother -- postmaster (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • mother -- raised by (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • mother -- raised seven children not her own (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • mother -- ran camp; drove dogteam (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • mother -- Selawik (Ulen, Tishu 1)
  • mother -- she wasn't decided about the marriage either (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • mother -- sickness (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • mother -- skin sewing; moose and caribou (Bifelt, Madeline 9)
  • mother -- snaring (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • mother -- stayed in Anaktuvuk Pass (Mekiana, Debbie 3)
  • mother -- teacher, early 1970's (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • mother -- three children (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 1)
  • mother -- tough, good teacher (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • mother -- wanted her to sew instead (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 4)
  • mother -- wanted to help with the sick and grieving (Williams, Susie 2)
  • mother -- went out hunting (Williams, Susie 1)
  • mother -- went trapping with (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • motor -- first; nine horse Johnson (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • Mount Edgecumbe (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • Mount Edgecumbe -- father went to
  • mountaineer -- Yosemite Anaktuvuk Pass (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • mountains (Brockman, Ross 1, 8)
  • mountains -- description (Brockman, Ross 7)
  • Mounted Police -- looked for O'Connell (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17)
  • mourning -- shared (Ned, Stanley 12)
  • mouth -- tsaalaa kkaakk'at (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • movement -- good signs ( Mekiana, Debbie 6)
  • moving around (Sam Sr., Tony 3)
  • Mowry, Billy
  • Mowry, John
  • Mr. Jonas (Johnson, Walter (1) 9)
  • Mrs. Jonas -- Kobuk (Johnson, Walter (1) 9)
  • Mt. McKinley National Park (Swem, Ted 7)
  • Mt. Doonerak (Brown, William (2) 1, 5), (English, Bill and Shirley 18)
  • Mt. Edgecumbe (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5, 6), (Morry, Riley 2)
  • Mt. Edgecumbe -- 1966; strange place (Ned, Stanley 7)
  • Mt. Edgecumbe -- father went to (David, David and Kitty 7)
  • Mt. Edgecumbe -- fixed legs (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 1)
  • Mt. Edgecumbe -- left after two years (Ned, Stanley 7)
  • Mt. Edgecumbe -- two years (Ned, Stanley 1)
  • Mt. Ingikpak (Kauffmann, John 4)
  • Mt. McKinley (Brown, William (1) 14)
  • Mt. McKinley National Park (Brown, William (2) 1), (Kauffmann, John 3)
  • Mt. McKinley superintendent (Swem, Ted (2) 2)
  • Mt. Rainier (Swem, Ted 10)
  • mukluks (English, Bill and Shirley 6), (Gray, Millie 7), (Johnson, Walter (1) 10), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 9, 11)
  • multi-discipline team approach (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • Murie, Adolf (Swem, Ted 12)
  • Murie, Olaus (Johnson, Walter (1) 8), (Swem, Ted 12)
  • Murphy Dome (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • Murphy, Jim (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • museum -- job, cultural education (Mekiana, Debbie 4)
  • mushing -- trips, March and April (Henderson, Joe 9)
  • music (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • music -- alto singer; guitar; trombone (Gray, Millie 2)
  • music -- drum, large flat, willow stick (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • music -- father buys boat and violin (Sam Sr., Tony 1)
  • music -- got interested while small (Henzie, Moses and Marie 9)
  • music -- men beat drums (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • music -- the idea got in (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • music -- Tony learns from father (Sam Sr., Tony 1)
  • muskrat -- hunting and trapping (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • muskrat -- trapping to make money for motor (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • muskrat -- walking, with dogs (Bifelt, Madeline 3)
  • muskrats -- skinning (Ned, Stanley 2)
  • Musser, John (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • Musser, Rhoda and John (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • Myrtle Creek (Lounsbury, George 4), (Johnson, Walter (1) 5)
  • myth of creation (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • Nageak, Anna (Brown, William (1) 13)
  • Nagu area (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Naknek Lake West (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • naming -- accepting English names (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 8)
  • naming -- adopting fathers Christian name as last name (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 10)
  • NANA -- vice-president (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • Napaktualuit Mountain (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • Napoleon, Grandma (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • Napoleon -- family (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • Narvaqvagmiut (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Narvaqvagmiut -- Chandalar people (Mekiana, Justus (1) 1)
  • Naske, Claus (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • Naske, Claus -- enormous hostility to conservation areas (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • National Archives (Brown, William (1) 10)
  • national attention (Swem, Ted 6)
  • National Environmental Study Area -- guide on how to do environmental education (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Naional Forest Service (Brown, William (1) 15), (Collins, Bruce 11)
  • National Geographic -- trip chronicled (Schmitz, Dave 8)
  • National Guard (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 3)
  • National Interest Lands (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • National Park land additions(Brown, William (1) 15), (Swem, Ted 10)
  • National Park Service (Bane, Ray (1) 5), (Brown, William (1) 1, 15),(Brown, William (2) 6), (Collins, Bruce 3), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6), (Henderson, Joe 7), (Mekiana, Debbie 2), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 18), (Nelson, Richard 8, 10), (Pepper, Jim (1) 7), (Pepper, Jim (2) 3), (Schmitz, Dave 7), (Swem, Ted 3, 4, 5, 9)
  • National Park Service goal -- try to make legislation work before changing it (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • National Park Service implementation (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • National Park Service lands -- discussion of acreage; disputed figures (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • National Park Service mandate -- small price now or large price in future (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • National Park Service Organic Act (Bane, Ray (1) 11)
  • National Park Service personnel moved to Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Swem, Ted 10)
  • National Park Service responsibility -- implement, not create (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • National Park Service -- 1972 (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • National Park Service -- acceptance (Collins, Bruce 6)
  • National Park Service -- agreement (Swem, Ted 10)
  • National Park Service -- Alaska Region (Brown, William (1) 2)
  • National Park Service -- anti sentiment (Collins, Bruce 9)
  • National Park Service -- bureaucracy (Collins, Bruce 9)
  • National Park Service -- conflicts (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 5), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 8)
  • National Park Service -- correspondence (Swem, Ted 11)
  • National Park Service -- Division of Plans and Objectives; 1971 (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • National Park Service -- do more in Alaska (Swem, Ted 8)
  • National Park Service -- documentation of Native use (Nelson, Richard 4)
  • National Park Service -- environmental education; writing (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • National Park Service -- evolution in Alaska (Swem, Ted (2) 2)
  • National Park Service -- fifty to fifty-five million acres; of three hundred seventy-five acres (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • National Park Service -- first contact with (Swem, Ted 2)
  • National Park Service -- flexible employer (Holly, Susan 6)
  • National Park Service -- game control (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 8)
  • National Park Service -- Gates of the Arctic (Lounsbury, George 13), (Nelson, Richard 4)
  • National Park Service -- geographic studies (Nelson, Richard 9)
  • National Park Service -- headquarters, D.C. historical editor (Brown, William (1) 1)
  • National Park Service -- impact on land and people (Mekiana, Justus (2) 1)
  • National Park Service -- in past, natural but not cultural preservation (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • National Park Service -- increase and improve planning (Swem, Ted 6)
  • National Park Service -- interactions with individuals (Collins, Bruce 9)
  • National Park Service -- interim rules (Collins, Bruce 4)
  • National Park Service -- interpreter of land (Nelson, Richard 10)
  • National Park Service -- new additions (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • National Park Service -- Northeast Region, publication officer (Brown, William (1) 1)
  • National Park Service -- opinions of,(Lounsbury, George 10)
  • National Park Service -- opposed their exclusion (Kauffmann, John 7)
  • National Park Service -- personal conflict (Nelson, Richard 4)
  • National Park Service -- possible agreement (Morry, Riley 12)
  • National Park Service -- prerequisites (Brown, William (1) 3)
  • National Park Service -- ranger (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • National Park Service -- recommendations (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 9)
  • National Park Service -- relations, Anaktuvuk Pass (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 8)
  • National Park Service -- researcher selection (Nelson, Richard 3)
  • National Park Service -- resolution (Swem, Ted 13)
  • National Park Service -- response to Holzworth (Swem, Ted 11)
  • National Park Service -- significance (Brown, William (1) 3)
  • National Park Service -- Southwest Region, regional historian (Brown, William (1) 1)
  • National Park Service -- subsistence studies (Nelson, Richard 2)
  • National Park Service -- summer 1938 (Swem, Ted 3)
  • National Park Service -- task force, enforcement oriented; helicopters; uniforms (Bane, Ray (1) 14)
  • National Park Service -- tight security (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • National Park Service -- turnover (Nelson, Richard 4)
  • National Park Service -- visionary, concerned with American Experience (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • National Park Service -- visit occasionally (Holly, Susan 7)
  • National Park Service -- wanted different kind of park than in Lower 48 (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • National Park Service -- was trying to be understanding; sense of teamwork (Bane, Ray (1) 14)
  • National Park Service -- worked closely with (Swem, Ted 4)
  • National Park -- introduced idea of (Morry, Riley 5)
  • National Parks -- first time established over objection of Congressional Committee (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • National Parks -- poor conditions (Swem, Ted 6)
  • National Rifle Association -- felt parks should be managed differently (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Native adaptations (Brown, William (1) 6)
  • Native Allotment (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Native Allotments (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3)
  • Native Claims Act (English, Bill and Shirley 22)
  • Native corporations (Williams, Susie 12)
  • Native culture (Bane, Ray (1) 2, 8)
  • Native Heritage -- young don't understand, nothing documented (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • Native land selections (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • Native people -- have their spirit (Ned, Stanley 6)
  • Native people -- laws designed for (Schmitz, Dave 9)
  • Native preference (Bane, Ray (1) 9), (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Native preference -- everybody belongs (Bifelt, Fred Lee 10)
  • Native students -- common problems (Ned, Stanley 10)
  • Native Subsistence Commission -- never effectively utilized (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Native villages -- brought out best food for boat (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Native ways (Ned, Stanley 18)
  • Native -- interrelations (English, Bill and Shirley 17)
  • Natives -- 1960's; learned tactics (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Natives -- helped missionaries (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Natives -- how would they make a living without subsistence (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • Natives -- input slowly having effect (Ned, Stanley 15)
  • Natives -- Kauffmann's plans with them thrown out (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • Natives -- land selections (Bane, Ray (1) 6)
  • Natives -- live mostly off land (Ned, Stanley 18)
  • Natives -- no basis for understanding (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • Natives -- occupancy, thousands of years (Bane, Ray (1) 10)
  • Natives -- originally favored establishing refuges (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • Natives -- pilots, captains (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Natives -- ways at home (Ned, Stanley 18)
  • Natives -- worked for him (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1, 3)
  • Natural Landmark Studies (Swem, Ted 2)
  • Natural Monuments (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • nature (Bane, Ray (2) 6)
  • nature -- appreciation (Bane, Ray (2) 5)
  • nature -- romantic idea of (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • nature -- spirituality (Nelson, Richard 10, 11, 12)
  • Navajos (Brown, William (1) 6)
  • navigability (Collins, Bruce 11)
  • navigating -- treacherous, shallow (Gray, Millie 3)
  • navigation -- difficulty (English, Bill and Shirley 12)
  • navigation -- water (English, Bill and Shirley 4)
  • Navy Department (Brown, William (1) 1)
  • Nebraska (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • Neck, Victor (English, Bill and Shirley 20), (Lounsbury, George 4)
  • Ned, Alvin (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • Ned, Francis (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • Ned, Francis -- mother (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • Ned, Lilly -- mother's mother (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • Ned, Ned -- mother's father (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • Ned, Pauline -- mother (Ned, Stanley 1)
  • Ned, Pauline -- mother's niece (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Ned, Simon (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3), (Williams, Susie 2)
  • Ned, Simon -- father (Ned, Stanley 1)
  • needs -- changing; health care; stability (Schmitz, Dave 11)
  • negotiation (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • negotiation -- with National Park Service (Morry, Riley 6)
  • negotiations -- continued after Ring left (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 1)
  • negotiations -- nearing agreement (Morry, Riley 6)
  • Nelson, Dick (Bane, Ray (2) 1, 2), (Brown, William (1) 6)
  • Nelson, Jack -- saloon (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • Nelson, Richard (Bane, Ray (1) 2, 5, 7)
  • Nenana (English, Bill and Shirley 2, 12)
  • Ness, Albert (Johnson, Walter (1) 3, 11, 13), (Johnson, Walter (2) 3)
  • Nevada -- ninety percent is owned by the federal government (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • new area and boundary studies (Swem, Ted 5)
  • new area studies (Swem, Ted 5)
  • new area -- proposal (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • new areas -- National Park Service (Swem, Ted 14)
  • New Portage trail -- Bettles (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • New Year (Sam Sr., Tony 5)
  • New Years -- potlatch (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • New York (Swem, Ted 11)
  • New York Times (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • newcomers (Schmitz, Dave 11), (Reakoff, Jack 10)
  • Newman, Stell (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • Newport, Rhode Island (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2)
  • news (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Nichols, Bob (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • Nichols, Robert -- part-time archaeologist (Kauffmann, John 5)
  • Nictune (Fleagle), Betty (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • Nictune, Clara -- died at 11 yrs old (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 2)
  • Nictune, Kitty (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 2)
  • Nictune, Oscar (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • Nictune, Oscar Sr. (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • Nictune, Oscar -- dad worked for Wilfred (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • Nictune, Oscar -- father (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 1)
  • Nictune, Oscar -- his sister lived here briefly (Gray, Millie 10)
  • Nictune, Wallace and Florence (Holly, Susan 4)
  • Nictune, Wally -- small, seven years old, went too (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • Nigliq -- place (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Nigliq -- place in springtime (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Nigliq -- trading place (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Ninemile Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 6)
  • Nixon (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Noatagmiut (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • Noatak (Brown, William (1) 5, 6, 12), (Collins, Bruce 14), (Sam Sr., Tony 6), (Schmitz, Dave 8), (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • Noatak Basin (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • Noatak Inupiat Preserve (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • Noatak Preserve (Collins, Bruce 17)
  • Noatak Resource Reserve (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Noatak River (Collins, Bruce 13), (Holly, Susan 1, 7), (Schmitz, Dave 5)
  • Noatak Valley (Bane, Ray (2) 6)
  • Noatak's importance -- scientific value, biological diversity, archeology (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • Noatak -- people (Brown, William (2) 2)
  • Nolan (Henderson, Joe 8), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • Nolan Creek (English, Bill and Shirley 7, 8), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7), (Johnson, Walter (1) 3, 5, 8, 11, 13), (Lounsbury, George 3, 4, 9, 10, 11)
  • Nolan River (English, Bill and Shirley 20)
  • Nolan Road -- sheep (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Nolan -- cabin (Henderson, Joe 1)
  • Nolen, Walter (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • nomadism (Schmitz, Dave 11)
  • nomads (English, Bill and Shirley 16)
  • Nome (English, Bill and Shirley 18, 22), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2), (William, William and Effie (1) 9), (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Nome -- mining (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • Nome -- road to (Johnson, Walter (1) 15)
  • non-Native culture (Bane, Ray (1) 8)
  • non-Native -- acculturation (Nelson, Richard 5)
  • non-Natives -- few; missionaries; avoided (Bane, Ray (1) 3)
  • non-Natives -- often running, escaping a too confining culture; individualistic (Bane, Ray (1) 8)
  • non-Natives -- pasted in at the end (Schmitz, Dave 9)
  • non-resident tags (Reakoff, Jack 4)
  • Nordale Hotel -- fire (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 10)
  • North American Classic (David, David and Kitty 5)
  • North Coast -- culture (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • North Fork (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5, 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • North Fork (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5)
  • North Fork -- prior to park formation (Holly, Susan 1)
  • North Fork -- split up in winter time (Mekiana, Justus (1) 10)
  • North Pole (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • North Slope (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5), (Nelson, Richard 10)
  • North Slope Borough (Brown, William (1) 2), (Brown, William (2) 6)
  • North Slope -- oil strike, 1968 (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 7)
  • North Star Polaris (Brockman, Ross 5)
  • North Village -- cultural ethos (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 6)
  • Northeast Areas (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • northeast -- corner of Park (Brown, William (2) 3)
  • Northern Airways -- DC-2 (English, Bill and Shirley 15)
  • Northern Commercial Company (English, Bill and Shirley 1)
  • Northwest Territories -- Ft. Smith to Hudson Bay (Schmitz, Dave 4)
  • Norton, George -- found some of it, drank himself to death in Fairbanks (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1)
  • Norwegian -- was in store at fire (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • Norwegians (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 7)
  • notes (Brockman, Ross 7)
  • Notti, Joe (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • Notti, Joe -- too kind for business (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • Notti -- had barge (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • November -- start catching lush (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 5)
  • November -- trapping; tent camps; trapping -- November (Holly, Susan 4)
  • Nowler, Vincent (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • NPS -- wrongly condemned (Bane, Ray (1) 9)
  • nugget gold (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2)
  • Nuiqsut (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Nuiqsut -- serious access problem (Holly, Susan 1)
  • Nulaiyuk -- grandma married to (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • Nulato (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10), (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3), (Ned, Stanley 11), (Sam Sr., Tony 5), (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Nulato -- church (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • Nulato -- doctor came up (Williams, Susie 2)
  • Nulato -- downriver villages (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Nulato -- first learning English (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3)
  • Nulato -- mother feared priest would steal children (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • Nulato -- outfit from (Vent, Mary 3)
  • Nulato-Bettles run -- steamboat (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Nunamiut (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 1, 13, 14), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2, 3, 5, 15), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • Nunamiut Divide (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • Nunamiut National Park -- introduced idea of
  • Nunamiut National Wildlands (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • Nunamiut Park -- protect land, values (Morry, Riley 5)
  • Nunamiut people (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Nunamiut -- "land people" (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • Nunamiut -- against road to North Slope (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 7)
  • Nunamiut -- Anaktuvuk Pass (Schmitz, Dave 12)
  • Nunamiut -- communal sharing (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 10)
  • Nunamiut -- compromise (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 8)
  • Nunamiut -- creation (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • Nunamiut -- cultural identity (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 7)
  • Nunamiut -- distinguished from other Eskimos (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • Nunamiut -- fear of being supplanted from land (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 7)
  • Nunamiut -- fishing (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • Nunamiut -- identity (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • Nunamiut -- ties to land (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 8)
  • Nunamiut -- two or three groups (Morry, Riley 2)
  • Nunamiut -- views of Park (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 8)
  • Nunamiut -- world view (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 9)
  • nurse -- married priest (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • Nurses Award -- 1989 (Gray, Millie 8)
  • nurses -- public health (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 13)
  • nursing -- started as nurse's aide, 1958 (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 14)
  • O'Connell, Pat (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17)
  • O'Leary, Diane (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • oats(Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 5)
  • Obiss, Frank (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 6)
  • October -- cabin chores; mixing bait; break trail (Holly, Susan 4)
  • October -- many people left then (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 6)
  • OEO Program -- now VISTA (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • Office of Management and Budget -- agenda (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • Ohio (Gray, Millie 8), (Schmitz, Dave 1)
  • Ohkuliak-name given to Ethel from Simon Paneak
  • oil companies (Collins, Bruce 14), (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • oil revenue -- began declining (Reakoff, Jack 4)
  • oil -- barrels (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 3)
  • oil -- development (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 6)
  • oil -- early 1960's (Morry, Riley 1)
  • oil -- exploration (Brown, William (1) 6)
  • oil -- non-renewable, more damaging (Schmitz, Dave 10)
  • oil -- only reason land settlement took place (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • oil/gas pipelines (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Okokmilaga (Collins, Bruce 13)
  • Olcott, George (Swem, Ted 6)
  • Old Bergman (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3), (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • Old Bettles (Lounsbury, George 4), (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Old Bettles -- clothes sewn for; six years old (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • Old Bettles -- Sam Dubin, first visit (Gray, Millie 3)
  • Old Bettles -- store (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • Old Crow, Canada (English, Bill and Shirley 15)
  • Old Crow -- dad from (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5)
  • Old Cutoff -- Huslia (Vent, Mary 3)
  • old days -- change (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • old days -- comfortable houses (Morry, Riley 1)
  • old days -- difficulty getting shells (Morry Riley 9)
  • old days -- dogs, feed them (Morry Riley 9)
  • old days -- everybody went to church (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • old days -- had potlatch outside (Williams, Susie 9)
  • old days -- had to walk, make effort (Morry, Riley 2)
  • old days -- teach often to sing, dance (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • old days -- travel (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • old days -- tuberculosis (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • Old Henzie -- made trip (William, William and Effie (1) 6)
  • Old Henzie -- Moses Henzie's grandparents (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Old Hickel Highway (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9)
  • Old James (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • Old Koyukuk -- booming place (Sam Sr., Tony 5)
  • Old Maggie (Williams, Susie 1)
  • Old Maggie -- family trapping camp (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 7)
  • Old Man Abraham -- Hughes; gave me rifle, brand new 2520 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • Old Man Attla (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Old Man Camp (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • Old Man Creek (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9, 10), (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • Old Man Creek -- beautiful river, fun going down river (Bifelt, Madeline 3)
  • Old Man Creek -- beginning of April (Bifelt, Madeline 2)
  • Old Man Creek -- whitefish (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • Old Man People -- Kanuti (Ned, Stanley 11)
  • Old Man River (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • Old Man River -- set trap around August (Williams, Susie 3)
  • Old Man River -- spring; birch for snowshoes (Williams, Susie 2)
  • Old Man River -- trapping (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Old Man River -- twelve miles below Allakaket (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • Old Man River -- two months (Beetus, Joe and Celia 2)
  • Old man Sammy (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • old people -- hardly any around anymore (Williams, Susie 13)
  • old people -- listened to (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • old people -- watched fish traps (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 6)
  • Old Sam (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 3)
  • old times -- people really smart, learned from their elders (Williams, Susie 10)
  • old times -- they were smart, did things easy (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • Old Town (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3)
  • old ways (Williams, Susie 13)
  • old ways -- important (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Oldman, Abraham (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Oldman, Johnny (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • Oldman, Johnny -- uncle, teach me a lot (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • Oldman, Martha (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • Oldman, Uncle John (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • old-timers (Johnson, Walter (1) 11), (Lounsbury, George 10)
  • old-timers -- gardening (Johnson, Walter (2) 3)
  • old-timers -- lifestyle (Johnson, Walter (1) 11)
  • Olin, Francis -- grandfather (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 8)
  • Olin, Mary -- mother (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 8)
  • Olson, Mr. (Johnson, Walter (1) 11)
  • Olson, Sig (Swem, Ted 12, 13), (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • Olson, Sig Sr. (Swem, Ted 12), (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • Olson, Sig -- influence (Swem, Ted 14)
  • Olson, Stuart (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • Olson, Stuart -- accident (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • Olson, Stuart -- death (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • Olympic National Park (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • Omaha Regional Office (Swem, Ted 4)
  • Omaha, Nebraska (Swem, Ted 3)
  • one step (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Onion Portage (Brown, William (1) 7), (Nelson, Richard 3, 5)
  • Ooguk, Jesse
  • Oolah Pass (Henderson, Joe 8)
  • Oolah -- James Tobuk (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 7)
  • open house -- upper floor collapsed (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • open pit mine (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1)
  • opened June 1983 (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 3)
  • Openheim, Mr. and Mrs. (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • opinion (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 1)
  • opportunity -- abandoned cabin in central Brooks (Schmitz, Dave 2)
  • opportunity -- for young people, guiding would help (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 4)
  • optimism -- about unique place and attitude (Henderson, Joe 11)
  • oral history (Brown, William (1) 11)
  • Oriole Mt. (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • outboard motor -- got first one in about 1947 (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • outdoor experience -- childhood (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission (Swem, Ted 9)
  • outdoors -- intrigue (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • outfitters (Collins, Bruce 14)
  • outsiders -- suspicion (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • Owens, Harold (Vent, Bobby 1)
  • owl (Simon, Lydia 2)
  • oxygen (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 4)
  • Ozark National Scenic Riverways (Swem, Ted 4)
  • Pacer (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • pageant -- questions at (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • Paige, Amy (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Palmer -- Pioneer Home (Lounsbury, George 4)
  • Paneak brothers (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • Paneak, Mabel -- 7 years old (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 9)
  • Paneak, Raymond -- 10 years old (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 9)
  • Paneak, Robert (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11)
  • Paneak, Robert -- 12 years old (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 9)
  • Paneak, Simon (Brown, William (1) 7), (Johnson, Walter (1) 11), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5, 10, 14, 17), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 8, 15)
  • Paneak, Simon -- grandfather (Morry, Riley 2)
  • Paneak, Simon -- vice-president (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)
  • Paneak, Susie(Ross-Oliver,Ethel 2), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 5)
  • Panniaq, Simon (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • paperwork -- need a sherpa (Schmitz, Dave 7)
  • parents (Collins, Bruce 1), (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • parents -- did not know about them (William, William and Effie (1) 2)
  • parents -- explored areas to trap in winter (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 4)
  • parents -- moved before married (Williams, Susie 4)
  • parents -- reaction to flying (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • parents -- still living (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5)
  • parents -- Tony Moses (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • parents -- worked so hard they didn't make it to old age (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 4)
  • park (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • park access -- now very limited, hence no concern (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • park establishment -- opinions (Collins, Bruce 3)
  • park formation -- debates (Brown, William (1) 2)
  • park laws (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • park management -- learning (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • park management -- planning (Brown, William (1) 4)
  • park patrols (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 6)
  • park planner (Kauffmann, John 5)
  • park planners -- those who neglected political process felt betrayed (Pepper, Jim (1) 4)
  • park planning -- first management effort (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • park presence -- effects of rules on wildness (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • Park Service (English, Bill and Shirley 24), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 6)
  • Park Service Officer -- kill deemed legitimate (Mekiana, Debbie 2)
  • Park Service -- anti sentiment (Collins, Bruce 6)
  • Park Service -- management in Alaska (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • park specialist -- planner (Kauffmann, John 2)
  • park studies -- cultural (Nelson, Richard 9)
  • park usage -- old-timers use (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • park values -- importance (Brown, William (2) 7)
  • Park's For America
  • Park's For America -- identify areas in
  • Park's For America -- info compiled
  • Park -- 1980; enforcement oriented (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • park -- against (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 8)
  • park -- bridling a horse (Schmitz, Dave 6)
  • park -- cannot access from Wiseman in fall when snowpack not formed (Reakoff, Jack 6)
  • park -- changed things (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 8)
  • park -- controversy (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7)
  • park -- development (Johnson, Walter (1) 15)
  • park -- differences from Lower 48 (Collins, Bruce 9)
  • park -- formation (Bane, Ray (2) 1)
  • park -- formation upset husband (Holly, Susan 1)
  • park -- ideal function (Nelson, Richard 6)
  • park -- less skiers (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • park -- no guide hunting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 6)
  • park -- not well liked (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 8)
  • park -- number of people who use (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • park -- opposition to (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • park -- potential functions (Nelson, Richard 12)
  • park -- regulations (Collins, Bruce 7)
  • park -- restrictions (English, Bill and Shirley 23)
  • park -- ruined guiding business (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1)
  • park -- usage by locals (Reakoff, Jack 10)
  • parka -- don't make (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • parka -- got cloth for (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • parka -- outer, fur side out (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 10)
  • parkas (English, Bill and Shirley 6), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • parkas -- inner, fur side in (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 10)
  • parkies (Gray, Millie 7)
  • Parks For America (Swem, Ted 5, 15), (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • Parks For America -- identify areas in (Swem, Ted 5)
  • Parks For America -- information compiled (Swem, Ted 6)
  • parks -- everlasting (Brown, William (2) 7)
  • parks -- improvement and development (Swem, Ted 6)
  • parks -- traditional approach wouldn't work (Bane, Ray (1) 6)
  • part -- small speaking (Henderson, Joe 3)
  • Patsy, Tony (Sam Sr., Tony 5)
  • Paulson, Ed (Gray, Millie 10)
  • Pearl, Charlie (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • pelvic exams (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 4)
  • pen pals (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • penicillin (Johnson, Walter (1) 12), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 13, 14)
  • Penn State (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • Pennsylvania -- flew back from (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • people (Kauffmann, John 10)
  • people -- Alaska (Pepper, Jim (2) 3)
  • people -- gather this way (Williams, Susie 8)
  • people -- getting along, helping one another (Williams, Susie 12)
  • people -- importance (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • people -- influx of (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • people -- influx of into valleys (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • people -- influx of outsiders (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • people -- know where want to go (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • people -- materially poor, culturally rich (Bane, Ray (1) 3)
  • people -- nice group (Ulen, Tishu 6)
  • people -- relieved by potlatch (Williams, Susie 8)
  • people -- talking ill of others is not nice (Williams, Susie 10)
  • people -- try to take land from us (Beetus, Joe and Celia 9)
  • people -- want access to traditional hunting & fishing areas (Brown, William (2) 6)
  • permafrost (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • permit -- 10 wolf (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4)
  • permit -- 2 wolf (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4)
  • permit -- hunt in park (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7)
  • permits (Ned, Stanley 17), (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • permits -- require to break Native cultural rules (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 7)
  • perpetuation (Kauffmann, John 8)
  • personal use -- haven't seen much (Holly, Susan 7)
  • personality -- everybody's friend; good man (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • personality -- friendly (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 4)
  • personality -- friendly; talker (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1)
  • personality -- good, really took care of people (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • perspectives -- each side has hard time understanding the other (Bane, Ray (1) 8)
  • Pet Lake (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7)
  • Peter's Point (Mekiana, Justus (1) 3)
  • Peter, Grandpa (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2, 6)
  • Peters, Clay -- Parks Committee (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • Peters, Julia (Gray, Millie 6)
  • petitions (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • Petroleum Reserve (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Philadelphia (Pepper, Jim (1) 1), (Swem, Ted 4)
  • Phillips Field (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • philosophy -- conservative (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3)
  • philosophy -- problems not from taking of game, but rather destroying habitat (Schmitz, Dave 10)
  • physiography -- should have determined boundaries (Kauffmann, John 11)
  • Pick River (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • Pickies, Less (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • pike (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • pike -- cooked on stick (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • pilagaqusaaq -- substitute for willows used in summertime (Mekiana, Justus 7)
  • pilgrimages (Brown, William (2) 2)
  • pilot license (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • Pilot, Sally (Vent, Mary 1)
  • pilot -- boats (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • pilot -- twenty-four years, quit 1970 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 2)
  • pilots -- pioneer (English, Bill and Shirley 12)
  • Pingalo, Sammy -- cousin (Ulen, Tishu 4)
  • Pingalo, Sammy -- grandfather, didn't know (Ulen, Tishu 4)
  • Pingel, Mr. (English, Bill and Shirley 9)
  • Pingle, Henry (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • Pioneer Hall (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • Pioneer Hall -- staying at (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • pipeline (Bane, Ray (1) 6), (Brockman, Ross 7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10), (Johnson, Walter (1) 15), (Lounsbury, George 7, 9, 14), (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • pipeline corridor (Schmitz, Dave 7)
  • pipeline corridor -- hunting closed (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • pipeline corridors -- most flexible Bureau of Land Management policy (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • pipeline oil (Bane, Ray (2) 4)
  • pipeline -- 1975; screwed up everything (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • pipeline -- construction (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • pipeline -- controversy (English, Bill and Shirley 19)
  • pipeline -- didn't want it there (Morry, Riley 7)
  • pipeline -- halted for years (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • pipeline -- Middle Fork drainage (Lounsbury, George 7)
  • pipeline -- started work on park after (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • pipeline -- stopped migration (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • Piper Cub (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • Pitka, Catherine (Gray, Millie 5)
  • Pitka, Charlie -- second mail runner (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Pitot, Albert -- moved married to Ludie, captain on steamboat (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • place names -- kids don't travel and learn (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • place names -- map; to be completed with elders (Ned, Stanley 18)
  • placer mining claims (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • places -- communal (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • plane -- Cessna 180 capable of landing (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • plane -- pontoon landing after ice goes out (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • plane -- slow back then (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • planning (Swem, Ted 6)
  • planning team -- Central Broods Range and Noatak (Kauffmann, John 5)
  • planning -- Alaska should be different (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • plans -- cafe; museum; log cabins (Henderson, Joe 5)
  • plant -- identification (Johnson, Walter (2) 3)
  • plants -- collection of (Johnson, Walter (2) 3)
  • plaster mining (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • plastic window (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 3)
  • playing guitar (Sam Sr., Tony 2)
  • pledge of allegience (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • pneumonia -- caused by fall; seven years old (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 4)
  • pneumonia -- lost one brother and one sister (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 10)
  • pneumonia -- medicine, took all spring to recover (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 4)
  • pneumonia -- no medication; leads to tuberculosis (David, David and Kitty 7)
  • pneumonia -- viral (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 9)
  • pocket knives (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • Point Barrow (Johnson, Walter (1) 9), (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Point Barrow -- married to Bessie (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • pokes -- seal (Ulen, Tishu 3)
  • poles -- formed fence (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 5)
  • policies -- explanations (Collins, Bruce 9)
  • policy goal -- grandfather users, phase out non-Natives (Bane, Ray (1) 10)
  • policy -- cooperative management plans thrown out at last minute, defeating purpose (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • policy -- decision-making hard to trace (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • polio (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 13)
  • political pressures -- conservation groups (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • political process -- based on negotiation, like it or not (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • political process -- determines policy (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • politics (Collins, Bruce 17), (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • politics -- acreage (Kauffmann, John 11)
  • politics -- compromises (Bane, Ray (1) 9)
  • politics -- left leaning (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • politics -- many party settlement (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • politics -- Natives involved as necessity, not because they chose it (Bifelt, Fred Lee 2)
  • politics -- not bureaucratic control, but political (Pepper, Jim (1) 6)
  • politics -- passionate, contentious (Pepper, Jim (1) 4)
  • politics -- state vs federal government (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • Pollock, Frank (English, Bill and Shirley 13)
  • Poncho Villa (Lounsbury, George 9)
  • population (Brown, William (1) 8)
  • population -- 57 to 60 people in Anaktuvuk Pass when elected first village council (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)
  • population -- citizenship (English, Bill and Shirley 9)
  • population -- sex disparities (English, Bill and Shirley 7)
  • population -- turnover (Collins, Bruce 7, 8), (English, Bill and Shirley 7), (Johnson, Walter (1) 15)
  • Porchot, Pat (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • Porchot, Pat -- then Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, now state senator (Schmitz, Dave 8)
  • porcupine (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • Porcupine Caribou Herd (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • Porcupine Creek (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • porcupine quills -- dying (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • Porcupine River (English, Bill and Shirley 15), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • porcupine -- August (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • Portage Trail (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • Portland (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • possessions -- deceased's, given away (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • post office (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • post office department (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)
  • Post Office Inspector (Mekiana, Justus (1) 14)
  • post office -- Rausch, Bob (Mekiana, Justus (1) 14)
  • post office -- required college educated person to run it (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)
  • Post Office -- shared (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • post-master (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • postmaster -- Barrow Eskimo (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • potatoes (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • potlatch (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • potlatch -- always brought meat or something (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • potlatch -- bury him, make song (Simon, Lydia 1)
  • potlatch -- changes in (Ned, Stanley 6)
  • potlatch -- food, gifts (Simon, Lydia 2)
  • potlatch -- for all of them (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • potlatch -- funeral; best food, fresh meat (Ned, Stanley 12)
  • potlatch -- given by Chief Moses (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • potlatch -- important (Ned, Stanley 6)
  • potlatch -- long history (Williams, Susie 8)
  • potlatch -- much work; gather; hunt; cook (Williams, Susie 8)
  • potlatch -- not enough to bury dead, still don't forget (Williams, Susie 8)
  • potlatch -- outdoors, big fire (Williams, Susie 9)
  • potlatch -- pay them back (Williams, Susie 9)
  • potlatches -- April (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • potlatches -- funeral and memorial; changes (Ned, Stanley 11)
  • Potter Island (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • pottery -- clay and feathers (Vent, Mary 1)
  • practice -- every night (Sam Sr., Tony 2)
  • pregnancy -- had baby in Allakaket (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • prejudice -- found everywhere (Ned, Stanley 8)
  • prejudice -- runs both ways (Bifelt, Fred Lee 8)
  • premier wilderness park (Kauffmann, John 9)
  • Presbyterian Mission -- organ (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • preservation -- management (Brown, William (1) 1)
  • President Johnson -- killed proposal, reasons provided (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • presidential proclamation for new national monuments (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Presidential Proclamation of Monuments -- 1979, Alaskan opinions (Collins, Bruce 3)
  • press (Collins, Bruce 14)
  • press -- proactive (Collins, Bruce 5)
  • prevention -- long run results (Collins, Bruce 11)
  • priest (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • priest -- seventeen years (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • Princeton University (Kauffmann, John 1)
  • principal -- description of trip (Swem, Ted 2)
  • private inholdings (Kauffmann, John 10)
  • privileges -- rangers vs campers (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • problem -- outsiders lacked understanding (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • problems -- caused by too few numbers of rangers for growing number of campers (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • problems -- examples of and possible solutions (Brown, William (2) 6)
  • proclamations signing (Swem, Ted (2) 5)
  • professional guiding (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • professors -- old people (Ned, Stanley 13)
  • project -- pioneer effort (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • projects -- many attempts, many failures (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3)
  • promotion -- sent pictures of dog lot, they approved (Henderson, Joe 3)
  • propane stove (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • proposal -- letter to Department of the Interior recommending park protection for Alatna, Upper Noatak, Kobuk Rivers (Bane, Ray (1) 6)
  • proposals (Swem, Ted 7)
  • Prospect Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9)
  • prospecting (Brockman, Ross 1), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2)
  • prospector (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1)
  • prostitutes (English, Bill and Shirley 7), (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • provider (Sam Sr., Tony 1)
  • provisions -- almost everything is there (Williams, Susie 12)
  • Prudhoe Bay (Pepper, Jim (1) 7, 8), (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • ptarmigan (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 6), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 4), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1 , 4)
  • public health nurse -- 1948; helped (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • public meetings (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7)
  • public relations (Collins, Bruce 2, 9)
  • Public Roads Admi nistration -- Alaska Highway (English, Bill and Shirley 10)
  • public use (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • publication -- 1964 (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • publications (Bane, Ray (1) 6)
  • pudding -- like candy, precious (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Pueblos (Brown, William (1) 6)
  • Puerto Rico -- San Juan; influence of (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • punishment -- talking of what's wrong and right (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • punishments -- Borax soap, paddle, etc. (Ned, Stanley 4)
  • Putu's son (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Puvlatuuq (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5, 10, 15)
  • Qagmaligmiut (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Qagmaligmiut -- Anaktuvuk people (Mekiana, Justus (1) 1)
  • Qagmaligmiut -- go through Anaktuvuk (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Qalutagiaq (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5, 8, 10, 18), (Mekiana, Justus (2) 1)
  • Qalutagiaq -- winter residence before Christmas (Mekiana, Justus (1) 8)
  • Qalutaq (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17)
  • qualities -- of deceased, i.e. good hunter; fast runner; hard worker; kind; helpful (Williams, Susie 10)
  • quaq -- partially frozen meat (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 8)
  • quarters -- taught in washroom; attic (Bane, Ray (1) 4)
  • Quebec (Bane, Ray (2) 5)
  • Queenie -- everybody knew it (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 4)
  • R.A.H.I. -- summer orientation (Mekiana, Debbie 4)
  • rabbit (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 6), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 4)
  • rabbit skin parka (Vent, Mary 4)
  • rabbits (Bifelt, Madeline 2)
  • rabbits -- snaring (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • Rabeau, Dr. Stuart (Johnson, Walter (1) 12)
  • races -- Anchorage and Fairbanks (Vent, Bobby 3)
  • racing -- after 16 years of dog racing, Lydia wins 1st race, 1986 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 2)
  • racing -- many trophies attributed to hard work and lots of help (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 2)
  • racing -- need dogs that will listen (Vent, Bobby 3)
  • racing -- seven dogs, 1955; got third place (David, David and Kitty 5)
  • racks -- hide drying (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 4)
  • radar screen (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • radio (Brockman, Ross 9), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 3)
  • radio -- news (Brockman, Ross 3)
  • radio -- rangers relay requests; emergencies (Holly, Susan 5)
  • radio -- single side band (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 5)
  • radio -- two way, made business, placed orders in town (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • radios -- currently no large towers in Gates Park (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • rafting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 1)
  • rail lines (English, Bill and Shirley 15)
  • railroad (Brockman, Ross 6)
  • railroads -- Wyoming and Montana (Swem, Ted 1)
  • ram (Brockman, Ross 8)
  • Rampart (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8), (Sam Sr., Tony 1, 3)
  • ranch (Brockman, Ross 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2)
  • Range Station
  • rangers -- cut funds caused less rangers in Gates Park (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • rangers -- of the Park (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • Rausch, Bob (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • raven -- signs to leave Elijah's meat alone (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • Rayburn, George (Johnson, Walter (1) 12)
  • Raymond -- lost 1975 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • reaction -- before formation, locals too casual (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • reaction -- negative (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • reaction -- renewed anger (Bane, Ray (1) 14)
  • reactions -- Native and non-Native (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • Readers Digest Book Club (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • reading (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4)
  • reading -- fables (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • Reakoff family (Lounsbury, George 2, 6)
  • Reakoff's (Holly, Susan 7)
  • Reakoff, Jack (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4, 6)
  • Reakoff, Jack -- now old timer at age thirty-five (Schmitz, Dave 13)
  • Reakoff, Mrs. (Lounsbury, George 7)
  • Reakoff, Rick (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • Real Alaska Coalition (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • real estate "time bomb" (Kauffmann, John 10)
  • reality -- didn't live up to ideal (Bane, Ray (1) 15)
  • Reckord, Holly (Nelson, Richard 2)
  • recommendation (Reakoff, Jack 11) , (Swem, Ted 9)
  • recommendation -- some areas, no guiding; no non-residents on the Haul Road (Reakoff, Jack 4)
  • recommendations -- reassess Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (Kauffmann, John 10)
  • record player -- 78's, learned from (Sam Sr., Tony 1)
  • recovered upper Ambler (Kauffmann, John 7)
  • recreation (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4)
  • Red Star Lake -- solo exploration (Schmitz, Dave 5)
  • Redington, Joe -- bought favorite dog (David, David and Kitty 5)
  • Reed River (Schmitz, Dave 12)
  • Reed, Nat (Pepper, Jim (1) 2, 3)
  • Reed, Secretary -- supported inclusion (Kauffmann, John 12)
  • Refault, Bill (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • regional aviation manager (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • Regional Chief of New Area Studies (Swem, Ted 4)
  • Regional Office -- Anchorage (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1, 2)
  • regions -- traditions vary (Ned, Stanley 11)
  • registration -- voluntary (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 6)
  • regulations (Pepper, Jim (2) 3)
  • regulations -- bear kill (Mekiana, Debbie 2)
  • regulations -- biases (Mekiana, Justus (2) 1)
  • regulations -- cabins not available to commercial ventures (Henderson, Joe 2)
  • regulations -- do not allow Eskimo people to survive off land (Mekiana, Justus (1) 18)
  • regulations -- enforcement of rules discourages people from showing visitors park (Henderson, Joe 7)
  • regulations -- made guiding too difficult (Schmitz, Dave 6)
  • regulations -- make difficult to keep customers happy and warm; driven away (Henderson, Joe 7)
  • regulations -- ridiculous (Henderson, Joe 8)
  • regulations -- some difficult; firewood; cabins; spruce boughs (Schmitz, Dave 7)
  • regulations -- state and federal (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • regulations -- state game; apply more to sport hunters than Natives (Ned, Stanley 15)
  • relations -- white/Native (Brown, William (1) 14)
  • relatives -- 10 total children (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 10)
  • religion -- animistic (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • religion -- conflict of beliefs (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • religion -- conversion (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 8)
  • religion -- outsider's discouraged (Ned, Stanley 6)
  • religion -- said to be devil worship (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • religion -- traditional beliefs (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 8)
  • remoteness (Brown, William (1) 12)
  • remove all threats (Kauffmann, John 10)
  • repeater station (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • Repo Brothers (Lounsbury, George 4)
  • research -- ethical issues (Nelson, Richard 3)
  • research -- irrelevant (Collins, Bruce 11)
  • research -- joint venture to find solution (Brown, William (2) 6)
  • research -- ownership of fieldnotes (Nelson, Richard 3)
  • resentment (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • reservoir management -- state level (Swem, Ted 3)
  • residence zone status -- NPS (Reakoff, Jack 10)
  • residence -- south of park (Holly, Susan 2)
  • residence -- Wiseman, 1971 (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • resident zone (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7)
  • resident zone communities -- visiting (Schmitz, Dave 12)
  • resident zone community (Schmitz, Dave 11)
  • resident -- long time, lived with Natives and whites (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • residents -- friendly (Morry, Riley 12)
  • residents -- law abiding (Morry Riley 9)
  • residents -- since July 4, 1985 (Holly, Susan 1)
  • residents -- Wiseman, opposed pipeline (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • resistance -- mother (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • resolutions (Swem, Ted 7)
  • resource development -- those compatible with continued subsistence (Bifelt, Fred Lee 10)
  • resource impact -- mention of fear for how all of state may receive use of ATV's if one locale is granted use (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 1)
  • resource locations (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7)
  • resource studies (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • resource -- global (Collins, Bruce 17)
  • resource -- management (Collins, Bruce 9)
  • resource -- preservation (Collins, Bruce 9)
  • resources -- comparatively few conflicts (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • resources -- contention over (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • resources -- knowledge of fish and game (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • resources -- ownership claims (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • resources -- pressure upon (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • respect -- must be mutual and recognize what each has to offer (Bifelt, Fred Lee 8)
  • responsibility (Schmitz, Dave 11)
  • responsibility -- to Natives (Bane, Ray (1) 10)
  • restaurant (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • restrictions (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 8), (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • restrictions -- difficulties for Eskimo (Mekiana, Justus (1) 18)
  • restrictions -- formerly few, no permits, liability insurance (Schmitz, Dave 6)
  • restrictions -- park (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • restrictions -- preceived (Collins, Bruce 4)
  • restrictions -- reluctantly favor (Schmitz, Dave 7)
  • result -- little listened to or used (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • results -- largely satisfactory, some qualifications (Bane, Ray (1) 15)
  • retirement (Brown, William (1) 2)
  • retirement -- said he'd spend all his money; he did (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • revenue -- from resources (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • revenue -- from wildlife refuges (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • revisitation (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • Reynolds, John -- now head of Denver Service Center (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • Richardson Highway (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • rifles (English, Bill and Shirley 21)
  • right of ways (Collins, Bruce 11)
  • Riley, Burke (Swem, Ted (2) 5)
  • Riley, Rachael (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • Ring, Dick (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 2)
  • ritual -- visiting (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2, 11)
  • river access -- lack of (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 9)
  • river house -- 1950's, good times (Williams, Susie 5)
  • river systems: Noatak, Koyukuk, Itkillik, Alatna, Killik, Colville (Kauffmann, John 11)
  • river -- break through (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • river -- captains (Brown, William (1) 11)
  • river -- conditions determine travel (Holly, Susan 3)
  • river -- cross on foot in winter, boat in summer; stay home with homework during freeze and break-up (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • river -- during break-up, couldn't cross for school (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • river -- house on (Williams, Susie 5)
  • River -- ran with boat all the way to Koyukuk Station (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • river -- scared of (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • river -- traveling; boats (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • Rivers, Guy (Lounsbury, George 7)
  • rivers -- hunting along (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • Road Commission (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • road house (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • road -- repair (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 3)
  • road -- use of (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • roadhouses (Brown, William (1) 14), (English, Bill and Shirley 16)
  • roads and rivers -- states claims (Kauffmann, John 10)
  • roads -- destroying habitat (Schmitz, Dave 10)
  • roads -- Haul Road (Brown, William (2) 3)
  • Roady, Dan (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • Roady, Dan -- cabin (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • Robert Kennedy Stadium (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Rock Island Point -- eight miles below Hughes (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • Rocky Bottom -- moose (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • role model -- try to be that for all kids (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 4)
  • rolled oats (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • romanticism (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Ronny -- her baby (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • Rooney Lake (English, Bill and Shirley 5, 17, 20)
  • Rooney, Jack (English, Bill and Shirley 17, 20)
  • Roosevelt, Mister -- Simon Paneak's son (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 8)
  • Roosevelt, Teddy (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • rope (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • rope -- bear skin (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 9)
  • rope -- cut up for snow shoes, pass around (Williams, Susie 9)
  • rope -- tied mid-boat, balance (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 11)
  • rope -- ugruk skin (Williams, Susie 9)
  • Roseberg, Oregon (English, Bill and Shirley 10, 11)
  • Rosie -- kind one (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • Round Island (Swem, Ted 14)
  • Round Island -- natural landmark area (Swem, Ted 7)
  • route -- Fairbanks, Tanana, Allakaket, Bettles, Wiseman (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • route -- oil interests reselected their own route (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • route -- Tanana to Wiseman (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • routine -- love it, hate it (Holly, Susan 8)
  • Rulland, Frank (English, Bill and Shirley 16), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5, 8, 14), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 4, 5, 8, 9)
  • Rulland, Jane (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 4, 14)
  • Rulland, Vera (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 4, 8, 9, 13)
  • runway maintenance (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3)
  • Runyan, Joe (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • rural development (Ned, Stanley 9)
  • rural preference -- don't agree; should be based on need (Bifelt, Fred Lee 10)
  • Russia -- U.S. promised in 1867 to deal with Native issue (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Rutter, John (Swem, Ted (2) 2, 3)
  • Sacket, John -- wrote Catherine in 1972 to ask her to teach about land claims in villages (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3)
  • Sackett, Jack (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 2), (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3, 4)
  • Sackett, Jack -- interpreter (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 6)
  • Sackett, Russ (Brown, William (1) 3)
  • Sackett -- didn't keep people up to date (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 2)
  • Sackett -- kind, but not modern (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 2)
  • sacrifices -- Ambler, Kogoluktuk, Shungnak (Kauffmann, John 7)
  • sacrifices -- isolation, cabin fever (Schmitz, Dave 3)
  • sadness -- many deaths (Gray, Millie 6)
  • Sagvagniqtuuq -- wolf pups (Mekiana, Justus (1) 6)
  • salmon (Johnson, Walter (1) 14), (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • salmonberries (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • Salmon River (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • Salmon, Hanna (Gray, Millie 6)
  • Sam family -- Frank & Harding (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • Sam's family -- trained dogs well (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 11)
  • Sam, Big Sophie (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Sam, Elmer (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • Sam, Frank -- sold for $25; friend, brother (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • Sam, Harding -- husband (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • Sam, Jimmy (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5)
  • Sam, Lucien (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Sam, Moses (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5)
  • Sam, Ron (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 13)
  • Sam, Selawik (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2, 3), (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Sam, Sophie (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • Sam, Tony (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Sam -- family (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Sam -- Lill's brother (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • Sammie and Sophie (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Samson -- got sick (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • Samson -- youngest brother (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • San Francisco (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • sanitation -- didn't know about (David, David and Kitty 7)
  • Santini, Congressman (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • satellite dish (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • savik (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 4)
  • sawmill (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2), (Bifelt, Madeline 6, 7)
  • Sawtooth (Swem, Ted 10)
  • Saylor, Congressman (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • Saylor, John -- Pennsylvania (Swem, Ted (2) 5)
  • scale -- beyond what can be shown on map (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • scale -- whole regions, ecosystems (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • scales (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • Scanca, Herman (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 12)
  • schedule -- depended on filling payload with people or freight (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Schloesser, Agnes -- first territorial teacher (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • Schneider, Bill (Brown, William (1) 14)
  • school (Brown, William (1) 8), (Collins, Bruce 1), (Morry, Riley 2), (Reakoff, Jack 7) ,(Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12), (Williams, Susie 6)
  • school teacher (Brockman, Ross 6)
  • school years (Brockman, Ross 9)
  • school -- 1958; Allakaket (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • school -- 1st day (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 2)
  • school -- Allakaket (Williams, Susie 1)
  • school -- built, 1950 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • school -- church, domes (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • school -- couple years, only education (Vent, Bobby 1)
  • school -- denied, flooding prevented (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • school -- didn't go, lived out; enjoyed it (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • school -- don't go out anymore since kids have school; 1940's and 1950's (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 7)
  • school -- drop out (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2)
  • school -- fifth grade; out most of the time (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • school -- forced into by missionaries, teachers, miners (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • school -- get an education (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • school -- grandchildren (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • school -- has its place, but can't get some knowledge from a book (Bifelt, Fred Lee 7)
  • school -- learning chart of basic words (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • school -- learning to read (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • school -- learning to write (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • school -- little time for; 4th grade (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • school -- maintenance (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • school -- March to May (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • school -- missed (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • school -- missionary building, one through eight (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • school -- new one built, 1980; four classrooms gym (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • school -- October to January (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • school -- one month in 1927 (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • school -- part time, 1945; mother not well then (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • school -- plan to return to finish (Ned, Stanley 9)
  • school -- quit tenth grade (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2)
  • school -- quit, wasn't ready (Ned, Stanley 9)
  • school -- second grade off and on (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1)
  • school -- September (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 3)
  • school -- sixth grade (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • school -- started at age seven (Ned, Stanley 4)
  • school -- stay in village (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • school -- staying in village (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 6)
  • school -- studied it (Bifelt, Fred Lee 2)
  • school -- third grade (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • school -- two room, frame (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • school -- wanting to go (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 2)
  • school -- white man way (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • schoolhouse (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3), (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • schoolhouse -- 1st one 1961 (Mekiana, Justus (1) 12)
  • schoolhouse -- coming in from Fairbanks or BIA (Mekiana, Justus (1) 12)
  • schoolhouse -- in Anaktuvuk (Mekiana, Justus (1) 10)
  • schooling -- most important thing today (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 8)
  • schoolkids (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 4)
  • Schwarbler, Jim -- nearest neighbor (Schmitz, Dave 3)
  • Schwarbler, Jim -- stayed on through eighties (Schmitz, Dave 9)
  • scientists (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • scow (Johnson, Walter (1) 6)
  • scow -- description (Johnson, Walter (1) 6)
  • scow -- horses (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • scows (English, Bill and Shirley 2, 3)
  • Scoyen, Eivind (Swem, Ted 14)
  • Scranton, Pennsylvania (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 1), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • script writer -- liaison for (Kauffmann, John 3)
  • scrub trees (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11)
  • seal oil (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • seal oil -- medicine (Ulen, Tishu 3)
  • seal skin (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • Sears Roebuck (Mekiana, Justus (1) 8)
  • season -- mid-June to late August (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • seasonal ranger (Kauffmann, John 2)
  • seasonal round (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • Seattle (Bifelt, Madeline 8), (Brown, William (1) 8, 9), (English, Bill and Shirley 11), (Johnson, Walter (1) 8, 11)
  • Seattle -- proposal (Morry, Riley 5)
  • Seattle-Tacoma Indian School (Gray, Millie 1)
  • Second Annual Alaska Scientific Conference (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 15)
  • second -- teenager (Gray, Millie 11)
  • Secretary Advisory Board (Swem, Ted 12)
  • Secretary of the Interior (Swem, Ted 5)
  • Secretary of the Interior's Advisory Board on National Parks (Swem, Ted 7)
  • Secretary of the Interior -- separate planning group (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • Secretary Udall (Swem, Ted 9)
  • seining (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2), (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • seizures (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 15)
  • Selawik River (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • Selawik -- people around Alatna came from (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • selection -- criteria (Morry, Riley 5)
  • selection -- land (Morry, Riley 5)
  • selections -- park was way to increase acreage (Morry, Riley 5)
  • self esteem -- low (Bifelt, Fred Lee 9)
  • self-teaching -- got to 7th grade (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 4)
  • Sellars, Dan (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • September -- boating supplies in (Holly, Susan 4)
  • September -- first time father came back from fishcamp (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • September -- store slows down; ready for mushing; trapping; setting up camps for trips (Henderson, Joe 9)
  • Septum, Bob (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • Serora National Monument (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • Service Motors (Lounsbury, George 9)
  • Service, Robert (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1), (Swem, Ted 12)
  • service -- military; drafted (Ned, Stanley 1)
  • services -- few attend today (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • services -- provided by Park; concerns better orientation (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • set netting (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • settlement size -- 25-30 people (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Seward (Brown, William (1) 9), (English, Bill and Shirley 2)
  • sewing (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 2), (Bifelt, Madeline 9), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 5)
  • sewing machines (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • sewing -- classes (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • sewing -- learning from grandmother (Henzie, Moses and Marie 5)
  • sewing -- sinew as thread (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 12)
  • sex roles -- adaptive (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 10)
  • sex -- roles (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 10)
  • Sexour, Art -- 20 oz nugget (Lounsbury, George 9)
  • Shadow of the Hunter -- Wainwright (Nelson, Richard 2)
  • Shappell, Oliver (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • shareholders (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3)
  • sharing (Mekiana, Debbie 5), (Williams, Susie 11)
  • sheep (Brockman, Ross 8), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5), (Johnson, Walter (1) 14), (Reakoff, Jack 6)
  • Sheep Creek (Lounsbury, George 4), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3)
  • sheep hunting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 12), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Sheep Mountain (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1, 2)
  • sheep -- delicacy, aura (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • sheep -- hunting (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • sheep -- many (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3)
  • sheep -- meat (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • sheep -- trails (Brockman, Ross 8)
  • Sheldon, Henry (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • Shining Lake (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • shipping -- by air (Morry, Riley 10)
  • Shishmaref -- grandma from there (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • shop -- got sick after two weeks (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 12)
  • Shorty (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • shovel (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 3)
  • Shugnak (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9), (Bane, Ray (2) 2, 4, 6), (Brown, William (1) 11, 12), (Nelson, Richard 8), (Sam Sr., Tony 6), (Williams, Susie 9)
  • Shungnak -- one year (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • Shungnak -- people (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • siblings (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5)
  • siblings -- Christopher, Steven, Louisa, Jessie, Edward, Abraham, Johnson, Isabel, Celia (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • siblings -- Simon, Olivia, Elizabeth (William, William and Effie (1) 2)
  • sickness (English, Bill and Shirley 9), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 12), (Ulen, Tishu 3)
  • sickness -- Dennis' brother, Dick (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • sickness -- flu; lost hearing; eardrums burst, bled (Ulen, Tishu 6)
  • sickness -- gangrene (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 6)
  • sickness -- lost many people (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • sickness -- Medivac (Mekiana, Debbie 3)
  • sickness -- miners sent him out to hospital where he died (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • sickness -- parents hoped to save children by giving away (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 2)
  • Sierra Club (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • Siglin, Roger (Brown, William (2) 6)
  • Signal Corps -- US Army (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • Silver Wings (English, Bill and Shirley 14)
  • Silverado Mining Company (Lounsbury, George 9)
  • Simmonds, Samuel (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 14)
  • Simon Paneak Museum (Brown, William (1) 12)
  • Simon Paneak Museum -- after school (Mekiana, Debbie 4)
  • Simon, Agnes -- mother (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 12)
  • Simon, Edwin
  • Simon, Edwin -- breaking trail (Henzie, Moses and Marie 2)
  • Simon, Edwin -- Huslia (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • Simon, Edwin -- took picture of cabin in 1935 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • Simon, Edwin -- understood too (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • Simon, Lillian (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Simon, Ned (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 7)
  • Simon, Pollack -- went with to John River (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • Simon, Pollock -- tour idea (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 11)
  • sinew -- caribou skin (Vent, Mary 1)
  • sinew -- replaced (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • sinew -- use in sewing (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • singing (English, Bill and Shirley 20), (Gray, Millie 6)
  • single management (Kauffmann, John 10)
  • Sinyalik (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • sister -- Bessie (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • sister -- died (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 1)
  • sister -- Marie Henzie's mother (William, William and Effie (1) 2)
  • sister -- near miss (Mekiana, Debbie 2)
  • sister -- Sara (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • sisters -- died of tuberculosis (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • Sitka (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • Sitka -- Pioneer Home (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • Sitka -- Sheldon Jackson High School (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • Six Mile Bluff (Vent, Bobby 1)
  • Sixty Mile trapline (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • Sixtymile Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2)
  • Sixtymile trapline (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • size -- equivalent to "4 Yellowstones" (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • size -- reasons for boundaries (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • Skagway (Swem, Ted 12, 14)
  • Skagway -- 1962 (Swem, Ted 12)
  • Skagway -- Hickel interested in (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • Skagway -- historical area (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • skiers (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 7)
  • skills -- handling ax, using gun, making camp (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 4)
  • skills -- want to learn hunting, trapping, fishing (Mekiana, Debbie 5)
  • skin boat (Bane, Ray (1) 3), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • skin -- dry in wind (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • skin -- scraping (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • skin -- stretching (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • skinning -- fast (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • skins (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • skins -- making rammage (babiche) (Henzie, Moses and Marie 5)
  • skins -- sheep, caribou (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3)
  • skins -- snowshoes, sleighs (Henzie, Moses and Marie 5)
  • Slate Creek (Johnson, Walter (1) 5)
  • Slavs (English, Bill and Shirley 9)
  • sled dogs (Brockman, Ross 4), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • sled -- bought by Stuck; broke (Williams, Susie 6)
  • sled -- building (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11)
  • sled -- construction (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 4)
  • sled -- made in tent (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • sleds -- used to make for money (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • sleigh -- built first one at fourteen (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1)
  • slide collection (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • slippers (Gray, Millie 7)
  • slippers -- beaded (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • Slisco, Martin (English, Bill and Shirley 16), (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • smallpox (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 13)
  • Smith, Cowboy (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • Smith, Frank & Mary (Gray, Millie 10)
  • Smith, Mary and Frank -- fiddle player (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • Smith, Philip -- USGS (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • Smith, Rick (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • Smith -- next teacher (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • smoke house (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Smoke, Johnny -- Stevens Village (Henzie, Moses and Marie 2)
  • smokehouse (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • snares -- grass (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • snares -- procedure (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • snares -- rabbit (Williams, Susie 7)
  • snaring (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1, 8), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 8), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • snaring rabbits (Vent, Mary 1)
  • snaring -- description; procedure (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • snaring -- fence for rabbits (Bifelt, Madeline 2)
  • snaring -- ptarmigan, rabbits (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • snaring -- rabbits (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • snaring -- rabbits, ptarmigan (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • sno-go (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • Sno-Go -- 1969, everybody got (Henzie, Moses and Marie 8)
  • snow bridges (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • snow shoes (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • snow shoes -- have trouble making (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • snow -- not a good drinking water source (Mekiana, Justus (1) 11)
  • Snowden, Harry (English, Bill and Shirley 18)
  • snowfall (English, Bill and Shirley 14)
  • snowmachine (Collins, Bruce 13), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10, 11), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17)
  • snowmachine -- risks (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 5)
  • snowmachine -- saved and borrowed money to buy a little Skidoo (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 2)
  • snowmachines -- 1960's, unreliable (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 4)
  • snowmachines -- acceptance, 1970's(Schmitt, Dennis (2) 5)
  • snowmachines -- first (Morry, Riley 10)
  • snowmachines -- ownership of (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 5)
  • snowmachine -- saved and borrowed money to buy a little Skidoo
  • snowmachines -- suspicious of (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 5)
  • snowmachines -- transition to (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 4)
  • snowshoes (Bifelt, Madeline 2), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3), (Johnson, Walter (1) 3), (Schmitz, Dave 3)
  • snowshoes -- construction (Henzie, Moses and Marie 5), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 4)
  • snowshoes -- exercise (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • snowshoes -- today nylon replaces hide; not as good (Henzie, Moses and Marie 5)
  • Soaz, Ben (Vent, Bobby 1)
  • social problems (Bifelt, Fred Lee 9)
  • social reciprocity -- people who helped at funeral are helped at potlatch (Williams, Susie 9)
  • social scientists (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • socks -- rabbit skin (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 5)
  • sod house (Mekiana, Justus (1) 8)
  • sod house -- 18x10, inverted vs, willow frame (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 4)
  • sod houses (Morry, Riley 1)
  • sod houses -- new residence (Mekiana, Justus (1) 8)
  • Soldotna (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 12)
  • Sommers, Johnny and Agnes (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • song (Brockman, Ross 5, 8, 9)
  • song -- bucket (Brockman, Ross 9)
  • song -- Good Old Summer Time (Brockman, Ross 2)
  • song -- Home On the Range (Brockman, Ross 6)
  • song -- learned just one (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • song -- Maggie (Brockman, Ross 9)
  • song -- miner-gold (Brockman, Ross 2)
  • song -- mountains (Brockman, Ross 9)
  • song -- Until We Meet Again (Brockman, Ross 4)
  • song -- yodeling (Brockman, Ross 8)
  • songs (Williams, Susie 9)
  • songs -- chanting(Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • songs -- hard to make now, not many singers (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • songs -- made for the person (Williams, Susie 10)
  • songs -- singing, dancing on boat (Ulen, Tishu 3)
  • songs -- stories (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • songs -- three generation past good songs (Simon, Lydia 2)
  • songs -- used to dance to (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • Sonora, CA -- trip (Brockman, Ross 1)
  • Sophie (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Sourdough Outfitters (Henderson, Joe 2), (Schmitz, Dave 4, 5)
  • Sourdough -- drive for (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • South Flank drainage (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • South Fork (English, Bill and Shirley 20), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1, 7), (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • South Fork David (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • South Fork Henry (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • South Fork Henry -- told many stories (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • South Fork people (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10), (Ned, Stanley 11), (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • South Fork River -- stayed year round (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • South Fork Trail (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • South Fork -- deep snow, lots of moose, 1937 (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • South Fork -- family life, subsistence (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • South Fork -- forty miles above Allakaket (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • South Fork -- Huslia (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • South Fork -- just returned from trapping there (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • South Fork -- little village, four houses (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • South Fork -- migration (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • South Fork -- moose hunting (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • South Fork -- old village (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • South Fork -- people there (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • South Fork -- used as last name (William, William and Effie (1) 6)
  • Southeast Forests (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Southeast -- mining (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • southwest -- this corner of Park is the preserve (Brown, William (2) 3)
  • sovereignty -- people talk of it because they need more control than they currently have (Bifelt, Fred Lee 7)
  • Spanish-American Veterans (Brockman, Ross 3)
  • Spearman, Grant (Brown, William (1) 12, 13)
  • special interests (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • species ecology (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • spectacular areas in Alaska (Swem, Ted 8)
  • speech -- use high words (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • spelling (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4)
  • spirits (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • spirits -- different between animals and inanimate objects (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • spirituality -- Natives close ties to land and animals (Bane, Ray (1) 8)
  • splitting unwise (Kauffmann, John 7)
  • sport hunting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6), (Pepper, Jim (1) 3, 4)
  • sport hunting -- accepted (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • sport racing -- changes: money, food, sponsors (Vent, Bobby 4)
  • sports -- bow and arrow shoot, foot race, driving nails, three-legged race, wheel barrow race, jumping (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • spring (Brockman, Ross 3), (Henderson, Joe 9), (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • spring camp (Bifelt, Madeline 3), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10), (Ned, Stanley 1), (William, William and Effie (1) 2)
  • spring camp -- always went when growing up (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • spring camp -- May (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • spring camp -- moved Mission lady down there when too much water (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • spring camp -- out till June 10 (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • Spring Creek (Johnson, Walter (1) 5)
  • spring poles (Bifelt, Madeline 2), (Vent, Mary 4)
  • spring pole -- description (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • spring -- leave May 25th (Bifelt, Madeline 3)
  • spring -- muskrat (Beetus, Joe and Celia 2)
  • spring -- muskrats, beaver (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 3)
  • Springer, Ken (Collins, Bruce 8)
  • springtime (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4)
  • springtime -- skis (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • spruce (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11)
  • spruce camp vs willow camp (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11)
  • spruce hen -- like the head (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • spruce hens (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 4)
  • spruce poles (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 13)
  • square dances (Sam Sr., Tony 4)
  • squash (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • squirrel hunting (Brockman, Ross 3)
  • squirrels (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • St. Francis Church (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • St. Michael (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • St. Michaels (English, Bill and Shirley 1)
  • St. Vincent College -- Western Pennsylvania (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • staff size (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • Stagner, Howard (Swem, Ted 2)
  • Stagner, Howard -- Chief Naturalist at Teton (Swem, Ted 2)
  • Stagner, Howard -- Swem worked with years later (Swem, Ted 2)
  • Staly, Walt (English, Bill and Shirley 24)
  • Standish brothers -- Sam, Obrin; Yugoslavians (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Standish, Sam & Obrin (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Standish Brothers (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • star book -- 1935 (Brockman, Ross 5)
  • stars (Brockman, Ross 5)
  • starvation -- many died (Ulen, Tishu 1)
  • State Coordinator for National Park Service (Swem, Ted (2) 2)
  • state fair -- Fairbanks (Collins, Bruce 5)
  • state involvement (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • State of Alaska (Bane, Ray (1) 6), (Schmitz, Dave 7)
  • State of Alaska -- decided to sell animals (Reakoff, Jack 4)
  • state -- 100 million acres of land (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • statehood (Bane, Ray (2) 4)
  • Statehood Act (Brown, William (1) 15)
  • Statehood Act -- impact (Brown, William (1) 15)
  • stations (William, William and Effie (2) 2)
  • statute -- hard fought compromise (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • Stealey, Syd (English, Bill and Shirley 24)
  • steamboat (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • steamboat travel (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • steamboats (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • steamer (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3), (Gray, Millie 1)
  • steamer -- from Nenana (Gray, Millie 2)
  • stepfather -- had four stores (Ulen, Tishu 6)
  • Stefansson, Viljhalmur (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • stepmother -- died, 1947 (Gray, Millie 6)
  • stepmother -- tuberculosis (Gray, Millie 5)
  • Sternack, Dick (Kauffmann, John 7)
  • sternwheelers (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 3)
  • Steve and Kathy (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Steven -- built one (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • Stevens Village (David, David and Kitty 2), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9), (Reakoff, Jack 2), (Sam Sr., Tony 3)
  • Stevens, Jeanie -- friend, best buddy (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • Stevens, Jeanne -- cousin (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • Stevens, Jeannie (Bifelt, Madeline 6)
  • Stevens, Senator Ted -- effective because he understands how it works (Pepper, Jim (1) 6)
  • Stevens, Senator Ted -- flexible system (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Stevens, Senator Ted -- got things for Alaska (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • Stevens, Senator -- wife killed (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • stickdance (Ned, Stanley 11)
  • Stickinstuck, Art (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 7)
  • Stickman, Fred (Sam Sr., Tony 4)
  • stock market (Lounsbury, George 9)
  • stock market -- portfolio (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3)
  • storage -- food for winter (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • store (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • store -- 1937-1970 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • store -- accounts (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • store -- burned (Bifelt, Madeline 7)
  • store -- father got clothes and food for children for working (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • store -- father's (Vent, Mary 3)
  • store -- first in his father's house (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • store -- hobby, at first (Henderson, Joe 5)
  • store -- lost money, but helped a lot of people (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • store -- new one at end of village (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • store -- started by O'Connell (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17)
  • store -- Steven worked in it (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • store -- supplies (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • storekeeper (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1, 2), (Bane, Ray (1) 3)
  • stores (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • stories (Bane, Ray (2) 6), (Henderson, Joe 11), (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • stories -- pulling caribou out of water after it was killed (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • stories -- told while hunting (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • stories -- wintertime hunger (Vent, Mary 1)
  • story -- 1938, wanted ax, got it next day by air (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • story -- boat capsizing (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • story -- doctor's behavior an embarrassment (Bane, Ray (1) 3)
  • story -- father saves Millie from drowning at Koyukuk Station (Gray, Millie 3)
  • story -- hearing aid (Lounsbury, George 7)
  • story -- leave in July (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • story -- mail
  • story -- rescue (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 5)
  • stove (Mekiana, Justus (1) 7) (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • stove -- sheet iron (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 3)
  • stoves -- oil (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 6)
  • strep throat (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 4)
  • stress -- getting meat (Reakoff, Jack 9)
  • string story (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 14)
  • strip -- lengthened for DC-3 (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • struggle -- "shacked up," Bishop said they should marry (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 6)
  • Stuck, Archdeacon -- good friend (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Stuck, Hudson (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 8)
  • Stuck, Hudson -- Stuck got stuck story (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • Stuck -- brought candy; traveled widely (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Stuck -- had help (Williams, Susie 6)
  • student technician (Swem, Ted 4)
  • students -- fellow villagers; helped (Ned, Stanley 7)
  • studies -- how to conduct (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • study of area (Swem, Ted 15)
  • study -- 1940's (Swem, Ted 15)
  • study -- landmark area (Swem, Ted (2) 2)
  • study -- learn from them (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • stunts (Henderson, Joe 3)
  • Stuttgaurd, Germany -- enjoyed experience (Ned, Stanley 8)
  • Stutzman, Suzie (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 2)
  • subsistence (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4), (Bane, Ray (2) 1), (Bane, Ray (2) 2), (Bifelt, Fred Lee 1), (Brown, William (2) 2), (Collins, Bruce 3, 4, 7, 11, 16, 17), (Johnson, Walter (1)9), (Morry, Riley 11), (Ned, Stanley 9), (Nelson, Richard 12), (Pepper, Jim (1) 3), (Reakoff, Jack 4), (Brown, William (2) 6), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3, 9)
  • Subsistence Advisory Commission -- Gates of the Arctic (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • subsistence advisory groups (Ned, Stanley 16)
  • subsistence culture (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 1)
  • subsistence division (Schmitz, Dave 12)
  • subsistence hunting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • subsistence hunting -- allowed (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 6)
  • subsistence life (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • subsistence lifestyle (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5)
  • subsistence lifestyle -- opportunities (Reakoff, Jack 10)
  • subsistence pattern (Morry, Riley 5)
  • subsistence program -- get information from villages (Ned, Stanley 11)
  • subsistence studies (Bane, Ray (1) 7)
  • subsistence study -- recognized need to accommodate (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • subsistence use (Reakoff, Jack 12)
  • subsistence way of life -- changed (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 3)
  • subsistence -- afraid to lose rights (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • subsistence -- alienation (Nelson, Richard 6)
  • subsistence -- allow continuance, defend against Western encroachment (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • subsistence -- as allows for future (Bane, Ray (1) 11)
  • subsistence -- awareness (Bane, Ray (2) 1)
  • subsistence -- backbone of Native life, always there for us (Bifelt, Fred Lee 10)
  • subsistence -- big impact on (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • subsistence -- changes (Collins, Bruce 4)
  • subsistence -- children as part of matrix (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • subsistence -- compromise (Bane, Ray (2) 4)
  • subsistence -- critical issue (Ned, Stanley 15)
  • subsistence -- critical to local people (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 6)
  • subsistence -- cultural difference (Nelson, Richard 5)
  • subsistence -- cultural identity (Bane, Ray (2) 3)
  • subsistence -- cultural viewpoint (Nelson, Richard 5)
  • subsistence -- current administration is anti-subsistence; pro big-guide (Bifelt, Fred Lee 6)
  • subsistence -- cycle (Bane, Ray (2) 3)
  • subsistence -- cycles (Nelson, Richard 7)
  • subsistence -- definition (Collins, Bruce 16)
  • subsistence -- definitions (Bane, Ray (2) 3)
  • subsistence -- economics (Nelson, Richard 7)
  • subsistence -- esoteric (Bane, Ray (2) 2)
  • subsistence -- fishing (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • subsistence -- fishing; berry-picking; moose hunting; trapping; timber (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • subsistence -- flexibility (Nelson, Richard 7)
  • subsistence -- fluctuation (Nelson, Richard 3)
  • subsistence -- food (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1, 4)
  • subsistence -- function (Bane, Ray (2) 2)
  • subsistence -- how we make living (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • subsistence -- hunting (English, Bill and Shirley 5)
  • subsistence -- importance (Bane, Ray (2) 3)
  • subsistence -- incentive (Nelson, Richard 7)
  • subsistence -- keep the traditions (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • subsistence -- leave it the way it is (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • subsistence -- lifestyle (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • subsistence -- living off the land; everyday activity (Bifelt, Fred Lee 5)
  • subsistence -- mapping (Nelson, Richard 3)
  • subsistence -- modification (Collins, Bruce 4)
  • subsistence -- Native mangement (Nelson, Richard 6)
  • subsistence -- need for balance (Johnson, Walter (2) 2)
  • subsistence -- need to protect corridor (Morry, Riley 7)
  • subsistence -- needs (Morry, Riley 12)
  • subsistence -- non-Native (Nelson, Richard 5, 6)
  • subsistence -- not big issue (Bifelt, Fred Lee 6)
  • subsistence -- people from Wiseman involved have been doing so for years (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • subsistence -- permits (Collins, Bruce 17)
  • subsistence -- prior to park, more people living off country (Schmitz, Dave 6)
  • subsistence -- protect (Bane, Ray (1) 9)
  • subsistence -- protecting way of life (Morry, Riley 5)
  • subsistence -- quantification (Nelson, Richard 3)
  • subsistence -- residence (Bane, Ray (2) 3)
  • subsistence -- retain its integrity and country will always support (Reakoff, Jack 10)
  • subsistence -- some people legally defined out of business (Schmitz, Dave 9)
  • subsistence -- spirtuality (Nelson, Richard 12)
  • subsistence -- still need it (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 6)
  • subsistence -- studies (Nelson, Richard 6)
  • subsistence -- study of inland environment use (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • subsistence -- takes up some slack for low income; less than half the poverty line (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • subsistence -- technical (Bane, Ray (2) 2)
  • subsistence -- traditional (Collins, Bruce 4), (Nelson, Richard 4)
  • subsistence -- traveling with Natives (Bane, Ray (1) 3)
  • subsistence -- volatile issue (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • subsistence -- wanted to protect (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • subsistence -- wise use (Reakoff, Jack 5)
  • Suckik Creek (Holly, Susan 2)
  • Suckik, Bessie -- divorced Charlie (Gray, Millie 10)
  • Suckik, Charlie (Gray, Millie 10), (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • suicide (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9), (Bifelt, Fred Lee 9)
  • Sukik, Bessie -- sister (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • Sukik, Big Charlie (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • sulphur (Johnson, Walter (1) 12)
  • Suluuppaat (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5)
  • summer (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • summer camp (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6), (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • summer school (Mekiana, Justus (1) 12)
  • summer student technician (Swem, Ted 3)
  • summer work (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • summer -- fish camp (Bifelt, Madeline 1), (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 3)
  • summer -- mining up at camp (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • summer -- move to town again (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • summer -- open nine to nine (Henderson, Joe 5)
  • summer -- spent at Crevice Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • summer -- temperatures (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • summer -- use of dog packs for hauling meat (Morry, Riley 10)
  • summer -- went back to camp; a few kids died (Williams, Susie 2)
  • summer -- work around Wiseman (Henderson, Joe 9)
  • summer -- working at mining camp (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • summers (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • summertime -- culture education (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • Summit Lake (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • Summit Lakes (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • Sumner, Lowell (Swem, Ted 11)
  • Sun, Joe (Bane, Ray (1) 6), (Bane, Ray (2) 2, 6), (Brown, William (1) 11, 12)
  • sun -- lack of (Reakoff, Jack 9)
  • super cub lake (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • superintendent -- has mellowed views (Schmitz, Dave 11)
  • supplies (Johnson, Walter (1) 6, 8)
  • supplies -- Anchorage, Fairbanks (Holly, Susan 5)
  • supplies -- boat (English, Bill and Shirley 2)
  • supplies -- flour, sugar, lard (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • supplies -- fresh foods, oranges, plums, apples (Gray, Millie 1)
  • supplies -- had to come from store (Williams, Susie 2)
  • supplies -- make good use of all (Williams, Susie 9)
  • supplies -- sternwheeler (English, Bill and Shirley 2)
  • supplies -- surface (Johnson, Walter (1) 6)
  • supplies -- too much, too little (Schmitz, Dave 2)
  • supplies -- train (English, Bill and Shirley 2)
  • supplies -- went to Hughes by dog team (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • supply route (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • surface rights -- bothers us (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3)
  • survey pass (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • surveying (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 1)
  • surveys (Brown, William (1) 3)
  • survival courses (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • survival tactics (Pepper, Jim (2) 3)
  • survival -- new technologies embraced (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 9)
  • suturing (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 14, 15) (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 15)
  • swamp buggy (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Swarberg, Jim -- chairman (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Swem, Ted (Swem, Ted 6), (Swem, Ted (2) 2, 3)
  • Swem, Ted -- "Keep your eye on the star" (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • Swem, Ted -- chairman of Alaska Planning Group (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • Swem, Ted -- trip to Alaska (Swem, Ted 7)
  • Swem, Ted -- Washington D.C. (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Swem, Theodore R. -- Assistant Director for Cooperative Activities and Planning (Kauffmann, John 5)
  • Swem -- National Park Service representative in Forest Service meetings (Swem, Ted 10)
  • Swem -- no military service (Swem, Ted 3)
  • Swem -- travel (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • Swift Creek (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • Swift, Fred (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • T and M sites (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • Taaldzaakkaakk'at -- above North Fork (Vent, Mary 3)
  • Taaldzaakkaakk'at -- wintering place (Vent, Mary 3)
  • table -- fold up (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 4)
  • taboo -- daughter will get mad for nothing (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • tagging -- worked for White, $2 per day (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Taltuk (person) -- healer (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • Tanana (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3), (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1), (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 2), (Bifelt, Madeline 8), (English, Bill and Shirley 3, 15), (Johnson, Walter (1)12, 14), (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Tanana Chiefs -- patient hostel, facilities (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 3)
  • Tanana Chiefs -- patient hostel, Fairbanks (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 3)
  • Tanana Chiefs Conference (Ned, Stanley 15)
  • Tanana Chiefs Conference -- accepted job with (Ned, Stanley 9)
  • Tanana Chiefs Conference -- job as staff researcher (Ned, Stanley 11)
  • Tanana Chiefs Conference -- talking for us (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • Tanana Chiefs Conference -- working on regulation proposals (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • Tanana Hospital (David, David and Kitty 6, 7), (Gray, Millie 4)
  • Tanana Hospital -- 1946 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • Tanana Hospital -- 1960 (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • Tanana Hospital -- 1970's (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 5)
  • Tanana Hospital -- overcrowded, 1960's (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 5)
  • Tanana River (English, Bill and Shirley 2)
  • Tanana Valley Fair (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • Tanana -- caribou crossed above (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • Tanana -- medicine (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 1)
  • Tanana -- roadhouse (English, Bill and Shirley 16)
  • Tanana -- teacher (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • Tannik World (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • tanning -- caribou, moose (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 8)
  • tanning -- don't get much help anymore; people should learn these things (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 8)
  • tanning -- learning (Henzie, Moses and Marie 5)
  • tanning -- moose (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 8)
  • tanning -- process of, taking up to one month (Bifelt, Madeline 9)
  • tanning -- soaking in soap water (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • tape recorder (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Task Force (Bane, Ray (1) 6), (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • Task Force recommendations (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • taxidermy (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • Tay, Roger (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • tea (English, Bill and Shirley 6, 17), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • teacher (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3), (Bifelt, Madeline 2), (David, David and Kitty 1), (Morry, Riley 10)
  • teacher -- flew in (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • teacher -- started, 1950 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • teachers -- against use of Native tongue (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • teachers -- Hill and Kay helped (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • teachers -- not one was helpful or sympathetic (Ned, Stanley 4)
  • teachers -- older people (Ned, Stanley 9)
  • teachers -- true; grandfathers, aunts, uncles, brothers (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • teaching -- offers from Barrow to Ketchikan (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • teaching -- teaching couple (Bane, Ray (1) 4)
  • teamwork -- essential (Holly, Susan 8)
  • teasing -- as an indoor sport (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 11)
  • techniques -- management criticism (Collins, Bruce 11)
  • technology (Collins, Bruce 9)
  • technology -- changes (Bane, Ray (1) 11)
  • technology -- compromise (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 7)
  • technology -- solar panels; mixer; computer; TV; VCR; sewing machine (Holly, Susan 3)
  • Teddy H -- Sam Dubin owned (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Teddy H -- steamboat (Johnson, Walter (1) 6), (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Teddy, H. -- ship
  • teeth (Johnson, Walter (1) 12)
  • telephone lines (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • television -- no time to learn about old stories (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • television -- not good for health (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • temporary editorial clerk (Kauffmann, John 2)
  • tension (Reakoff, Jack 9)
  • tent frames (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2)
  • tent -- caribou (Ross-Oliver Ethel 1)
  • tent -- description (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 7)
  • tent -- door, grizzly bear (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 2)
  • tents (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11)
  • tents -- description, canvas (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • tents -- round, skin (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 2)
  • Territorial Department of Agriculture (Johnson, Walter (2) 3)
  • Territorial Department of Education (Brown, William (1) 8)
  • territory pension (Johnson, Walter (1) 4)
  • test -- good memory (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 2)
  • tests -- Juneau sent to (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Teton National Park (Swem, Ted 2)
  • Texas -- west (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • Thanksgiving (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7), (Sam Sr., Tony 5)
  • Thanksgiving -- 1968 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • Thanksgiving -- best ever at age thirteen (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • the "boot" -- upper Kobuk, Selby and Narvak Lakes (Kauffmann, John 12)
  • The Island Within (Nelson, Richard 11)
  • "THE ULTIMATE MOUNTAINS" -- title subject to final publisher approval (Kauffmann, John 13)
  • theft -- not a problem (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17)
  • Thibideau, Jules (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • Thomas, Mr. -- missionary who overnighted there (Williams, Susie 7)
  • Thompson, Ben (Swem, Ted 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 14)
  • Thompson, Miss (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • thread -- unraveling towels for (Bifelt, Madeline 9)
  • threats today -- dire, pervasive (Kauffmann, John 10)
  • Three Time Mountain (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • thunder -- 1966, came close to bank, bumped the ground (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • thunder -- he prayed in Native language and said to make little noise far away (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • Tikitchuaq, Grandma (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2, 3)
  • Tikut, Daisy and Wilson -- Kobuk (Schmitz, Dave 13)
  • Till Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 6)
  • Tillman, Warren (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • Timber Creek (Holly, Susan 2)
  • time zones (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Tinuk (Gray, Millie 6)
  • Tinuk, Grandma (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1, 2)
  • Tinuk, Grandma -- gave little moose fat (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Tinuk -- grandmother became mother to children of two widowers (Gray, Millie 4)
  • Title Eight (Bane, Ray (1) 10)
  • tobacco (English, Bill and Shirley 6, 17)
  • tobacco -- stole from dad (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 6)
  • Tobin, August (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • Tobin, Mr. -- son founded Alaska magazine (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • Tobin Creek (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • toboggan (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • Tobuk (Johnson, Walter (1) 9)
  • Tobuk, Clara (Bifelt, Madeline 6), (Gray, Millie 4)
  • Tobuk, Clara -- aunt (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • Tobuk, Cora (David, David and Kitty 1), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • Tobuk, Cora -- mother (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 1)
  • Tobuk, David -- pilot (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Tobuk, David -- Wilfred's brother-in-law (Gray, Millie 4)
  • Tobuk, Dora (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • Tobuk, Dora -- mother (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 1)
  • Tobuk, Dora -- visiting her old cabin (Schmitz, Dave 12)
  • Tobuk, Frank (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Tobuk, Frank and Dora (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Tobuk, Frank -- boat pilot (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 2)
  • Tobuk, Frank -- licensed pilot and captain (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Tobuk, Frank -- weak as child; sick (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • Tobuk, Grandpa (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1, 2, 6)
  • Tobuk, Grandpa -- his cousin, her husband (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • Tobuk, James (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Tobuk, James -- learned English, became interpreter (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 7)
  • Tobuk, James -- translating Bible (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 7)
  • Tobuk, Jimmy (Gray, Millie 10), (Johnson, Walter (1) 9)
  • Tobuk, Uncle David -- married girl from Tanana (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • Tobuk, Uncle David -- two years older than father (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • Tobuk, Uncle Frank -- 1938 (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Tobuk, Uncle Jim -- made smokehouse, cut fish (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • Tobuk, Uncle Jimmy (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Todaalltonh Dinh (Bifelt, Madeline 5)
  • Todaalltonh Dinh -- translation "big lake" (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • today -- animals are dangerous; grizzly bear (Williams, Susie 5)
  • today -- don't know how to put words in songs (Williams, Susie 10)
  • today -- easier (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • today -- easy to move around; money (Williams, Susie 8)
  • today -- hard times (Williams, Susie 8)
  • today -- high powered rifles (Morry Riley 9)
  • today -- losing that culture (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • today -- more grizzly; nobody eats (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3)
  • today -- people will take tools, gas, etc. (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1)
  • today -- some elders party too much (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • today -- still ask thunder to go away (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • today -- suicide, knife, car, airplane (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • Togiak Lake (Brown, William (1) 13)
  • tough times -- near starvation (Ulen, Tishu 1)
  • tough times -- raising kids, broth instead of milk (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 2)
  • tough times -- struggle to self-teach English, run house (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 3)
  • tourism (Collins, Bruce 15), (Lounsbury, George 14), (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • tourism -- encourage for economic reasons (Morry, Riley 11)
  • tourism -- good thing if done with respect (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 4)
  • tourism -- more in future (Morry, Riley 11)
  • tourism -- positive; leave no mark (Henderson, Joe 6)
  • tourists (Holly, Susan 7)
  • tower -- 160 feet (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • town -- establishment of (Brown, William (1) 8)
  • town -- school (Bifelt, Madeline 2)
  • town -- stayed out of (Vent, Mary 4)
  • town -- supplies; mail (Holly, Susan 4)
  • tracker (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 5)
  • tracking (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • Tracks in the Wildland (Bane, Ray (1) 6), (Nelson, Richard 1, 2, 11)
  • tractor -- 1937 (Henzie, Moses and Marie 2)
  • tractor -- gas cat (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • trade (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • trader (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • trader -- had role of teaching Native people how to do things (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 2)
  • traders -- 1951 (Mekiana, Justus 17)
  • trading (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3), (Mekiana, Justus 17)
  • trading post (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1)
  • trading post -- father running (Gray, Millie 2)
  • trading post -- Tanana (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • trading -- furs (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • trading -- moose hide; rope; seal oil; fish (David, David and Kitty 4)
  • tradition (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • tradition -- passing between generations (Ned, Stanley 13)
  • traditional (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • traditional means (Holly, Susan 1), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4, 9)
  • traditional use (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • trail crewman (Kauffmann, John 2)
  • trail -- break (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2, 3)
  • trail -- old times (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • trail -- one hundred twenty mile (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • trailblazing -- night, D-8, D-9's blading north (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • trails -- don't build (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • trails -- identified before park formation (Morry, Riley 8)
  • trainers -- some of the best in the world (Henderson, Joe 4)
  • training -- had to "hit the mark"; stand; growl; lay down; etc. (Henderson, Joe 3)
  • training -- run them steady, not fast (David, David and Kitty 5)
  • tram (Swem, Ted 12)
  • Tramway Bar (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • Trans-Mississippi West (Brown, William (2) 6)
  • translate -- for mother (Williams, Susie 7)
  • transportation route (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • transportation -- all-terrain vehicles, 1960's (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 4)
  • transportation -- controversy of aircraft within Alaska for subsistence (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • transportation -- development (Nelson, Richard 6)
  • transportation -- gasoline (Morry Riley 9)
  • transportation -- very dependable (Morry, Riley 10)
  • trap -- funnel shaped; foot long, tapered (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 5)
  • trap -- just off streambed (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 5)
  • trap -- use airplanes (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • trapline (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • trapline -- found vacant area (Holly, Susan 5)
  • trapline -- short, few links (Schmitz, Dave 3)
  • trapline -- using four or five dogs (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • traplines (English, Bill and Shirley 17), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4), (Holly, Susan 4)
  • traplines -- less than past (Mekiana, Debbie 5)(Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • trapper (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2), (Mekiana, Debbie 3)
  • trapper's hats (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • trapping (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3), (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1, 8, 10), (Brown, William (1) 2, 5, 7), (Collins, Bruce 16), (David, David and Kitty 2, 8), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 1,7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4), (Holly, Susan 1), (Lounsbury, George 6), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 10), (Reakoff, Jack 3), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15), (Williams, Susie 5)
  • trapping -- all winter, not quantity, good price (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 6)
  • trapping -- at camp all winter
  • trapping -- Brooks Range, 1973 (Schmitz, Dave 2)
  • trapping -- continuing (Schmitz, Dave 3)
  • trapping -- December to February (Holly, Susan 4)
  • trapping -- father (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • trapping -- father tended line like a farmer (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1)
  • trapping -- had to break for (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 5)
  • trapping -- if managed, can be done forever (Schmitz, Dave 10)
  • trapping -- Lower 48 (Brown, William (1) 14)
  • trapping -- Lydia went before she had kids (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 8)
  • trapping -- marten, fox, wolverine, mink (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • trapping -- marten, rabbits (Vent, Mary 4)
  • trapping -- mink, marten, otter (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 4)
  • trapping -- muskrats (Williams, Susie 7)
  • trapping -- November 1; lynx; wolverine; wolf; fox; marten; beaver (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • trapping -- open top of house, cover with moss (Bifelt, Madeline 3)
  • trapping -- people should do more (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 8)
  • trapping -- rats (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6), (Sam Sr., Tony 3)
  • trapping -- until Thanksgiving; then again 'till Christmas (Beetus, Joe and Celia 2)
  • trapping -- winters (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • traps -- muskrat (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • travel (Mekiana, Justus (1) 3)
  • travel -- Advisory Board (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • travel -- after high water; night (Ulen, Tishu 3)
  • travel -- airplane (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • travel -- choosing route based on conditions (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • travel -- foot and dog pack (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6)
  • travel -- from Huslia, Hughes (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • travel -- motivations (English, Bill and Shirley 3)
  • travel -- recent (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • travel -- seventy-five miles, three days, take turns leading (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • travel -- to coast for supplies (Williams, Susie 9)
  • travelers (Brockman, Ross 7)
  • traveling -- hard work (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • treatment -- many went outside for (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • treatment -- people had to leave for (David, David and Kitty 7)
  • treatment -- scarce until 1950's (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • Treaty of Potomac (Swem, Ted 10)
  • tree -- cutting (English, Bill and Shirley 23)
  • tree -- uses (English, Bill and Shirley 23)
  • trees (Brockman, Ross 8)
  • trees -- clear cutting (Collins, Bruce 11)
  • trees -- cutting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • Trexler, Keith -- rewrote master plans (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • trial (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • tribal government (Ned, Stanley 15)
  • trip (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • trip -- 1938; uncle (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • trip -- camping in Yellowstone and Teton (Swem, Ted 2)
  • trip -- last one, nine years old (Mekiana, Debbie 3)
  • trip -- out to Kotzebue to Barrow; February to May (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • trip -- three dogs, no trail, long (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • trip -- winter dog sled, 1976 (Schmitz, Dave 5)
  • trip -- Wiseman to Gates: sixty-five mile snowshoe trail (Henderson, Joe 2)
  • triple sulphur (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 14)
  • Tritt, Abel -- taught how to hunt (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • trophy hunting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • trout (Johnson, Walter (1) 14)
  • trout -- lake (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • truck -- horses to Yukon (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • truth -- never lie to people (Williams, Susie 11)
  • Tsaalaa Kkaakk'at -- translation "mouth" (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • Tsaalaatna (Bifelt, Madeline 3, 4), (David, David and Kitty 2), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • Tsaalaatna River -- rowed down (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • Tsaalaatna -- muskrat, 1943 (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • Tsaalaatna -- Spring camp (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • Tsongass, Paul (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • Tuarak, Nita Sheldon (Nelson, Richard 3)
  • tuberculosis (David, David and Kitty 7), (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 10), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 7), (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • tuberculosis -- chest x-rays (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • tuberculosis -- Cue had it, spent 14 months outside (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • tuberculosis -- deaths (Johnson, Walter (1) 9)
  • tuberculosis -- people didn't know what it was (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • tuberculosis -- people died (David, David and Kitty 7)
  • tuberculosis -- prevalent (Gray, Millie 4)
  • tuberculosis -- sanitarium, Skagway (Johnson, Walter (1) 12)
  • tuberculosis -- story (Johnson, Walter (1) 12)
  • Tulugak (Morry, Riley 2)
  • Tulugak (person) (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • Tulugak -- the raven (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • Tulugak Lake (Mekiana, Debbie 1), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • Tulugak Lake -- summer camp (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 13)
  • Tulugak Lake -- summer gathering (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 6)
  • Tulugak Lake -- translated "raven" (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • Tulugak People (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • Tulugaq (Mekiana, Justus (1) 10, 12)
  • Tulugaq Lake (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5)
  • Tulugaq -- gathering place (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5)
  • Tulugaq -- school(Mekiana, Justus (1) 12)
  • Tundra Times (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 14)
  • Tunik hunters (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • Turnagain Arm (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • Tuvak, Grandpa (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • TV -- don't miss it (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Twelve Mile (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 8), (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • Twelve Mile Bluff (Vent, Bobby 1)
  • Twelve Mile -- camp below (Bifelt, Madeline 9)
  • twenty-two mile (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • twine (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • Tyson, Frank (Gray, Millie 10), (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • U.S. Army -- Combat Engineering Unit (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • U.S. Census -- 1950 (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 1)
  • U.S. Census -- area covered (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 1)
  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Swem, Ted 3)
  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service -- nine years employment (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • Udall, Congressman (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • Udall, Secretary Stewart (Kauffmann, John 3)
  • Udall, Stewart (Swem, Ted 5, 7, 14), (Swem, Ted (2) 1, 4)
  • Udall, Stewart -- presentation (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Udall, Steward -- Secretary of the Interior (Brown, William (1) 15)
  • ugruk -- large bearded seal (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 4)
  • ugruk -- skin rope (Williams, Susie 9)
  • Uguvaluk, Raymond -- joking partner (Bane, Ray (1) 3)
  • Ulen, Benny (Johnson, Walter (1) 2, 4), (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • Ulen, Florence (Johnson, Walter (1) 2)
  • Ulen, Joe (Lounsbury, George 6), (Johnson, Walter (1) 8, 10)
  • Ulen, Tishu (Brown, William (1) 14), (English, Bill and Shirley 1, 19), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2), (Johnson, Walter (1) 2, 8, 9, 14), (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Ulen, Tishu -- owner (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Ulen -- children (Johnson, Walter (1) 4)
  • ultimate park experience (Kauffmann, John 8)
  • ultimate wilderness (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • ulu's (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 7)
  • Ulumiut (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Umiaq, Grandma (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • Umiaq, Grandma -- gave it to me (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Umiat (Bane, Ray (1) 4), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Umiat -- Caterpillar (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • Umiat -- oil problem (Gray, Millie 10)
  • Umiat -- talk in 60's of moving village to (Morry, Riley 2)
  • unamiut
  • uncle (Mekiana, Debbie 3)
  • uncle -- Leo, first house (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • uncle -- Richard (Gray, Millie 2)
  • uncle -- stories from hunting (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • uncle -- Susie's dad (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • uncle -- William, William (Ned, Stanley 2)
  • uncles -- Charlie and Richard, teachers (Gray, Millie 1)
  • UNESCO -- Noatak or "world ecological resource" (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • uniforms (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • Union Creek (Johnson, Walter (1) 3, 5)
  • Union Gulch (Lounsbury, George 12)
  • United States Fish and Wildlife Service (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • United States Geological Survey (Johnson, Walter (1) 5)
  • universal view -- old ideas among Natives and non-Natives hurt us all (Bifelt, Fred Lee 10)
  • University of Alaska (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • University of Alaska Fairbanks (Johnson, Walter (1) 3)
  • University of Alaska Fairbanks Agricultural Farm (English, Bill and Shirley 15)
  • University of Alaska Fairbanks -- sought a graduate degree in ecology (Schmitz, Dave 1)
  • University of Alaska Fairbanks -- study science and history (Mekiana, Debbie 4)
  • University of Alaska Fairbanks -- two semesters; 1973 (Ned, Stanley 9)
  • University of Alaska Fairbanks -- two years (Ned, Stanley 9)
  • University of Alaska -- Alaska & Polar Regions (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • University of Alaska -- Arctic and Environmental Information and Data Center (Brown, William (1) 2)
  • University of Alaska -- campus (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • University of Alaska -- Fairbanks (English, Bill and Shirley 13, 14)
  • University of Alaska -- Fairbanks, one year (Bifelt, Fred Lee 1)
  • University of California, Berkeley -- BA Anthropology (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • University of California, Santa Barbara (Nelson, Richard 1)
  • University of Hawaii (Nelson, Richard 2)
  • University of Illinois (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 2)
  • University of Nebraska -- School of Correspondence (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • University of Rhode Island (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • University of Southern California (Lounsbury, George 6)
  • University of Wisconsin -- anthropology major (Nelson, Richard 1)
  • University of Wisconsin -- two years; Dick Nelson (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • Unokuks -- Shamans (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • upbringing -- poor, still poor (Henzie, Moses and Marie 5)
  • upper camp (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11)
  • Upper Koyukuk
  • Upper Koyukuk River (Johnson, Walter (1) 15), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • Upper Koyukuk -- Middle Fork (Brown, William (1) 3)
  • Uqquumalaat -- traveled here before schoolhouse (Mekiana, Justus (1) 10)
  • US Geological Survey (Brown, William (1) 4, 5, 7, 10)
  • US Geological Survey -- explorers & mappers (Brown, William (1) 14)
  • use areas (Morry, Riley 5)
  • use -- Native or non-Native (Brown, William (2) 7)
  • Utopia (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6), (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • Utopia -- mining (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 12)
  • uvlupak -- translated "today" (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 9)
  • vacation -- Hawaii (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • Vail Agenda -- self critical NPS document (Bane, Ray (1) 15)
  • Valdez (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • values (Morry, Riley 12), (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • values -- adventure; seeking; changing land; escape (Bane, Ray (1) 8)
  • values -- Allakaket (Ned, Stanley 18)
  • values -- goal of studies (Bane, Ray (1) 9)
  • values -- have to think of everybody in this world (Williams, Susie 13)
  • values -- land part of culture; group expression; place names; meaning is in land (Bane, Ray (1) 8)
  • values -- managers should learn from Native ethics regarding animals and hunting (Bifelt, Fred Lee 7)
  • values -- preserve integrity; self reliance (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • values -- respect; leave others belongings (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1)
  • values -- share what you know, nobody is better or worse than others (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 8)
  • values -- we're all one people, need to get along (Bifelt, Fred Lee 10)
  • values -- young people party, drink; don't go to camp (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • Vanass, Howard and Barbie -- Ronald's parents (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 2)
  • Vanass, Ronald Eddie -- babysat during 1970 and 1971 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 2)
  • vastness -- eight million acres (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • VCR (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Veach, Norman (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • vegetables (Johnson, Walter (1) 10)
  • Venetie (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 3)
  • Vent, Delbert -- church leader today (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • Vent, Freda (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 4)
  • Vent, Gilbert (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • Vent, Laura (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 4)
  • Vent, Mary (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 8)
  • Vent, Mary -- Tanana (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • Vent, Warner (Sam Sr., Tony 6)
  • Vent, Warner -- married to Alberta (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Vermont Creek (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • Vernetti, Dominic -- Koyukuk (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • Vernetti, Dominic -- stocked Sackett to start (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 2)
  • Vernetti, Dominick -- storekeeper (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • Veterans Administration Hospital (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 1)
  • Victrola (English, Bill and Shirley 20)
  • victrola record (Brockman, Ross 1)
  • Vietnam (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • Vietnam -- left March 18, 1972 (Ned, Stanley 8)
  • Vietnam -- nobody liked it there (Ned, Stanley 8)
  • village corporation (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3), (Morry, Riley 6, 11)
  • village life -- involved (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • village -- by 1950's living in Allakaket (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • village -- go out to trap, fish, hunt, need that (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • village -- moved (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • village -- moved, 1949-50 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • village -- Point Barrow, 1961 (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • village -- recent, 1950's (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 9)
  • villages -- fourteen; people helped (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • villages -- not listened to by bureaucracy (Ned, Stanley 15)
  • villages -- on road, people move in (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • villages -- relation of planning effort to (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • villages -- use the land to live (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • villages -- went to eleven to teach (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3)
  • violence (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 4)
  • violence -- rocks; threats; refused service (Bane, Ray (1) 14)
  • violin -- first learning (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • violin -- Marie bought it for Moses (Henzie, Moses and Marie 9)
  • vision -- culture to be accommodated (Bane, Ray (1) 10)
  • vision -- partly realized (Bane, Ray (1) 15)
  • visionaries -- John Kauffmann and Bob Belous (Bane, Ray (1) 15)
  • visiting (Johnson, Walter (1) 13), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 4, 7, 10)
  • visitor contact -- access points only (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 6)
  • visitor use (Reakoff, Jack 12)
  • visitor use -- on increase (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • visitor -- usage (Collins, Bruce 14)
  • visitors (Bane, Ray (1) 7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • visitors -- assumptions made by (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • visitors -- can fly in (Holly, Susan 1)
  • visitors -- contact nice (Holly, Susan 6)
  • visitors -- drive game away (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • visitors -- encouraged to gather information on Park (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • visitors -- give them something, give them tea (Williams, Susie 11)
  • visitors -- Hughes, Huslia (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • visitors -- many return; personal contact (Holly, Susan 7)
  • visitors -- not many to park (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • visitors -- occasionally come up on way to park (Henderson, Joe 8)
  • visitors -- see country but don't develop or disturb (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • visitors -- should recognize why we're here (Morry, Riley 12)
  • VISTA Volunteer -- excitement (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • Vista volunteers (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • volunteer help (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 4)
  • volunteer -- church money bought food, gas (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • Voyageurs National Park (Swem, Ted 4)
  • wage increase (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 2)
  • wage -- work (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • wages -- 1964; before that a little; 1953 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 12)
  • wages -- shoveling two dollars an hour (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • Wainwright (Bane, Ray (1) 5), (Johnson, Walter (1) 9), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 5)
  • Wainwright -- primitive then; three year stay deeply affected Banes (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • Wainwright -- subsistence (Nelson, Richard 1)
  • Waldruff, Bob -- trip down Kobuk (Kauffmann, John 12)
  • Walker Lake (Brown, William (1) 5), (Brown, William (2) 1), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2), (Pepper, Jim (1) 3), (Schmitz, Dave 9)
  • Walker, June (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • Walker, June -- seining (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • walking -- at twelve, walking from Dulbi to Koyukuk (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • wall tent -- lived in for four years, built cabin around (Holly, Susan 2)
  • Wall, Hal (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5, 6)
  • wall -- pockets in hide (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 9)
  • Wallace -- first hunt (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 2)
  • Walrus area (Swem, Ted 7)
  • waltz -- "Nobody's Darlin' But Mine" (Sam Sr., Tony 7)
  • Ward, Jonas -- father's half-brother (David, David and Kitty 4)
  • Ward, Mr. -- coal mines (Brockman, Ross 3)
  • Warner, Sam -- races (Vent, Bobby 3)
  • Warner -- 1950 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 7)
  • Warren, Neil (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • Wartes, Bill -- missionary, pilot, teacher (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • washeteria (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • washing clothes (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Washington (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • Washington D.C. (Bane, Ray (1) 13), (Kauffmann, John 1), (Pepper, Jim (1) 1), (Swem, Ted 11)
  • Washington D.C. -- assembled (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Washington D.C. -- lobbying (Morry, Riley 6)
  • Washington D.C. -- writer (Kauffmann, John 2)
  • Washington, D.C.
  • Washington -- learning to fly (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • Washington -- left for July 22 (Ned, Stanley 8)
  • Washington -- National Park Service deputy director of (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • Washington -- try to run our life (Ned, Stanley 15)
  • waste -- lack of; eat or dog food (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • water development -- Missouri River Basin (Swem, Ted 3)
  • water rights -- state claims (Collins, Bruce 11)
  • water -- almost drown, he pull out, teach me (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • water -- packing (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • water -- processes for making (Mekiana, Justus (1) 11)
  • water -- scarce, Hoagland made dam of moss (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1)
  • waterfowl (Johnson, Walter (1) 14), (Nelson, Richard 3)
  • waterfowl -- not thought of as major food source (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • Watts, Vern (Johnson, Walter (1) 8, 11), (Lounsbury, George 3, 4)
  • Wayburn, Ed (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • weather (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3)
  • weather -- fifty below; windy (Henderson, Joe 2)
  • weather -- sometimes no delivery for a month (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Webb, Melody (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • Webster, Don -- bible translator (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • weddings (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • Weeks Field -- Fairbanks (English, Bill and Shirley 15)
  • Weinstock, June (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 7)
  • welfare (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 3)
  • welfare -- $210 per month (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • Wells, Ken (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • West, Al (Gray, Millie 10)
  • Western Arctic (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • western herd -- come from North (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • western herd -- small (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • Western Pennsylvania Partnership (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 2)
  • Westerners (Ned, Stanley 18)
  • Westerners -- accumulate things (Ned, Stanley 18)
  • Westerners -- goal to educate about Native life (Ned, Stanley 11)
  • wheat (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 5)
  • wheat -- cut once a year (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 5)
  • wheat -- not imported (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 5)
  • Wheeling (Bane, Ray (1) 1)
  • whip saw -- need to build platform; two people (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • whipsawing lumber (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • white owl (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 6)
  • White Pass (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • white people (Mekiana, Debbie 6), (Williams, Susie 4)
  • white people -- have their God (Ned, Stanley 6)
  • white people -- meant jobs cutting wood, etc. (William, William and Effie (2) 2)
  • white people -- they have helped a lot (Williams, Susie 12)
  • white people -- tried to chase Indians off their trapline (William, William and Effie (1) 10)
  • White, Dora -- maiden name (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 1)
  • White, Jack (English, Bill and Shirley 9), (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • White, Sam -- Fish and Wildlife (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • White, Sam -- snuck into their camp, cuffed them, killed their dogs (William, William and Effie (1) 10)
  • White, Sam -- told lots of stories about childhood (William, William and Effie (1) 10)
  • whitefish (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1), (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 3)
  • Whitey (Gray, Millie 10)
  • Whitey -- good worker, good racer (David, David and Kitty 5)
  • Wien Airlines (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3), (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7), (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • Wien Airlines -- made living working for (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • Wien Alaska Airline (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1), (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Wien Alaska Airlines -- worked for (William, William and Effie (1) 10)
  • Wien, Noel (English, Bill and Shirley 13, 15)
  • Wien, Sig (Mekiana, Justus (1) 4), (Morry, Riley 2), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 1, 6, 8)
  • Wien, Sig -- nine children are named after him
  • wife -- better at adjusting; part of social fabric; sister (Bane, Ray (1) 3)
  • wife -- Betty Jo (Schmitz, Dave 11)
  • wife -- buys him a $900 violin (Sam Sr., Tony 2)
  • wife -- looking at from air, tears (Bane, Ray (1) 4)
  • wife -- Roma; met in 1976; Bristol Bay (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • Wilcox, Ace (Johnson, Walter (1) 10), (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Wilcox, Mrs. Ace (Johnson, Walter (1) 9)
  • Wild and Scenic Rivers (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • Wild Lake (Brown, William (1) 9), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2), (Holly, Susan 2), (Lounsbury, George 5, 11), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3), (Schmitz, Dave 9)
  • Wild Lake -- area of (Brown, William (2) 2)
  • Wild Lake -- summers (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Wild River (Brown, William (1) 11), (Schmitz, Dave 9)
  • Wild River Lake (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Wild River Valley (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • Wild River -- area of (Brown, William (2) 2)
  • wilderness (Brockman, Ross 7), (Collins, Bruce 15), (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • Wilderness Act -- passed only in previous decade, not surprising most is in Alaska (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • wilderness protection -- desire was present in Alaska (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • Wilderness Society (Swem, Ted 12), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • Wilderness Society Meeting (Swem, Ted 12)
  • wilderness -- can defeat the purpose if humans are kept out (Schmitz, Dave 10)
  • wilderness -- defacto (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • wilderness -- defining as non-exclusive of man (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • wilderness -- fight for (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • wilderness -- land not void of man; ten thousand year occupation (Schmitz, Dave 14)
  • wilderness -- value to humans (Kauffmann, John 9)
  • wildland -- defined (Nelson, Richard 5)
  • wildlife (Johnson, Walter (1) 14)
  • wildlife management (Ned, Stanley 9)
  • Wildlife Refuges -- allow oil development, timber, etc. (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • Wildlife Technician (Swem, Ted 3)
  • wildlife -- learned how to care for, what, when to take (Ned, Stanley 2)
  • Wilfred (Gray, Millie 4)
  • William, Art -- family there (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • William, Arthur (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 6)
  • William, Bessie (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • William, Henry (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • William, Janie (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • William, Joe Jr. (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • William, Joe -- brother (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • William, Lavine -- friendly with dogs (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • William, Little -- Huslia (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • William, Robert (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • William, Uncle (Williams, Susie 4)
  • William, Uncle Joe (Bifelt, Madeline 5)
  • William, Uncle Joe -- close to him, good singer, speech maker; bawl us out to make us understand (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • William, Uncle Joe -- he talked too; everything he said was true; made some mad (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • William, William (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • William, William -- grew up with; cousin (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • William, William -- was at Bettles (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • William -- quit too (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • William -- worked for White (William, William and Effie (1) 10)
  • Williams, Effie (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 7)
  • Williams, Jeanie -- adopted one out to David's sister (David, David and Kitty 3)
  • Williams, Jenny (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • Williams, Jenny -- cousin (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • Williams, Jenny -- near her house (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • Williams, Jenny -- parents there (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • Williams, Joe Sr. -- father (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 12)
  • Williams, Joe Uncle -- big help (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • Williams, Joe -- died three years prior to interview (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 12)
  • Williams, Joe -- grandfather (Ned, Stanley 2)
  • Williams, Joe -- priest for 16 years (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 12)
  • Williams, Lavine (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 7)
  • Williams, Lavine -- adopted by old people (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Williams, Shirley (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 7)
  • Williams, Susie and Lavine -- 1933 (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Williams, Susie -- adopted one of her children (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • Williamson, Dr. Frank -- Smithsonian (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • Willingski, Chris (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • Willis, Frank (Brown, William (2) 8), (Swem, Ted 8, 14, 15), (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • willow poles-20, 8ft, rawhide arches (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 3)
  • willow ring -- hit hole with spear (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • willow tree -- resurgence in (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • willow -- gathering takes a lot of human, dog energy (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 6)
  • willows (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 2), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 7)
  • willows -- as fuel (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 11), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 6)
  • willows -- collecting (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 11)
  • willows -- put between poles to form fence (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 5)
  • willows -- trees sought out for camp (Mekiana, Justus (1) 7)
  • Wilson, Sam -- a leader (Sam Sr., Tony 6)
  • Wilson, Sam -- brother, violin (Sam Sr., Tony 6)
  • Wilsons Creek, MI (Swem, Ted 4)
  • winching -- buckets (Brown, William (1) 8)
  • wind (Schmitt, Dennis(1) 11), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 10)
  • Wind, Biner (English, Bill and Shirley 8)
  • Windmills (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • Winfield, Ernie -- hunting; trapping (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • Wingfield, Ernie (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • winter access -- snow machines, dog teams (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 9)
  • winter supplies (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 8)
  • winter- time -- use to haul wood, hunt, trap (Morry, Riley 10)
  • winter -- freeze-up (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 4)
  • winter -- hauling meat (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • winter -- hunting, trapping, cutting wood (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 3)
  • winter -- kids work on fish traps (Williams, Susie 3)
  • winter -- move out thirty miles toward Tanana (Bifelt, Madeline 2)
  • winter -- stay home (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • winter -- Stuck traveled (Williams, Susie 6)
  • winter -- too hard on customers (Henderson, Joe 9)
  • winter -- trap beaver, lynx, fox, marten (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • winter -- trapping, hunting, visiting town for Christmas (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • winter -- went out trapping and never came back; lost (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • winter -- working for NPS one week per month (Holly, Susan 3)
  • winters -- logging season closed (Henderson, Joe 1)
  • wintertime -- activities (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • Wirth, Connie (Swem, Ted 5, 6, 12, 15)
  • Wirth, Connie -- memo to (Swem, Ted 14)
  • Wirth, Connie -- took slides (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • Wisebroad, Dr. Richard -- ecologist (Kauffmann, John 5)
  • Wiseman (Brockman, Ross 7), (Brown, William (1) 8, 13), (Collins, Bruce 7, 15), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2, 3), (English, Bill and Shirley 1, 2, 12, 17, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2, 3), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2) (Henzie, Moses and Marie 2), (Holly, Susan 7), (Johnson, Walter (1) 2, 3, 8, 9, 14, 15), (Lounsbury, George 2, 3,4, 5, 7, 10, 11, 12), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 1), (Reakoff, Jack 1, 7), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3), (Schmitz, Dave 12), (Ulen, Tishu 1, 4, 5), (William, William and Effie (1) 5), (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Wiseman Road (Henderson, Joe 5)
  • Wiseman -- "Nobody wants to leave once you've been there awhile" (Ulen, Tishu 6)
  • Wiseman -- 1978, moved back (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • Wiseman -- airport (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • Wiseman -- airstrip (English, Bill and Shirley 13)
  • Wiseman -- beauty; moonlight; shadows; mountains (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • Wiseman -- change(Lounsbury, George 9)
  • Wiseman -- climbing mountains in 1972, 1982 (Johnson, Walter (2) 4)
  • Wiseman -- don't want to grow into big tourist trap (Henderson, Joe 11)
  • Wiseman -- early factions (Lounsbury, George 6)
  • Wiseman -- first trip (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • Wiseman -- four or five teams (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Wiseman -- freight; low water (Henzie, Moses and Marie 2)
  • Wiseman -- full time for two years (Henderson, Joe 1)
  • Wiseman -- future (Johnson, Walter (2) 2), (Lounsbury, George 14)
  • Wiseman -- gold discovery (English, Bill and Shirley 4)
  • Wiseman -- hard trail (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Wiseman -- history (Johnson, Walter (1) 3, 4, 5 ), (Lounsbury, George 2, 9)
  • Wiseman -- history of town is the attraction (Henderson, Joe 8)
  • Wiseman -- intimacy (Johnson, Walter (1) 10)
  • Wiseman -- Japanese (Brown, William (1) 8)
  • Wiseman -- Leonard's reactions to change (Lounsbury, George 9)
  • Wiseman -- lifestyle (Johnson, Walter (1) 3)
  • Wiseman -- mapping (Brown, William (1) 4)
  • Wiseman -- mining (English, Bill and Shirley 21), (Johnson, Walter (1) 3, 4, 11 )
  • Wiseman -- mining district (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • Wiseman -- mining gold (Johnson, Walter (1) 2)
  • Wiseman -- Mr. Webster (Brown, William (1) 8)
  • Wiseman -- Native population (Lounsbury, George 7)
  • Wiseman -- new residents (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • Wiseman -- pilots (English, Bill and Shirley 13)
  • Wiseman -- Pioneer Hall (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • Wiseman -- population (Johnson, Walter (1) 2, 4, 10 11), (Johnson, Walter (2) 1)
  • Wiseman -- population composition (English, Bill and Shirley 4)
  • Wiseman -- population decline (English, Bill and Shirley 22)
  • Wiseman -- post office (Lounsbury, George 14)
  • Wiseman -- rich history (Reakoff, Jack 12)
  • Wiseman -- roadhouse (English, Bill and Shirley 16), (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • Wiseman -- size (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • Wiseman -- store (English, Bill and Shirley 1), (Lounsbury, George 14)
  • Wiseman -- supplies (Johnson, Walter (1) 6)
  • Wiseman -- tent (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Wiseman -- tourism (Johnson, Walter (2) 2)
  • Wiseman -- trading post (Johnson, Walter (1) 2)
  • Withrow, Al (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7), (Gray, Millie 10), (Holly, Susan 4)
  • Withrow, Al and Bessie (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • wolf bounty (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5)
  • wolf hide -- $75-$100 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4)
  • wolf hunting -- illegal (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4)
  • wolf trap (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • wolf -- Arctic John; hunting (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • wolf -- challenge to get (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • wolf -- kills (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 8)
  • wolf -- radio collaring (Collins, Bruce 11)
  • wolf -- skinning (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4)
  • wolverine (Reakoff, Jack 6)
  • wolves (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3)
  • wolves -- being circled by (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • wolves -- breeding with dogs (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 4)
  • wolves -- entering village (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 4)
  • wolves -- have human feelings (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • wolves -- hunting (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17)
  • wolves -- inua, only animal with one (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • wolves -- pups (Mekiana, Justus (1) 6)
  • wolves -- search for (Brockman, Ross 7)
  • woman -- not supposed to talk about bear; say name (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • women roles -- winter (English, Bill and Shirley 14)
  • women's auxiliary -- quilting (Gray, Millie 6)
  • women -- learn to sew, make mukluks (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • women -- make more songs now (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • women -- mothers, sewing, preparing meat (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 10)
  • women -- not supposed to talk about bears (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 7)
  • women -- roles (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 10)
  • wood cutting (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3), (Bifelt, Madeline 1), (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1), (Holly, Susan 4), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 5), (Vent, Mary 4), (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • wood cutting -- April (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • wood cutting -- ax, sledgehammer, hand saw (Gray, Millie 3)
  • wood cutting -- families cut up to one hundred cords to sell, no chainsaw (William, William and Effie (2) 2)
  • wood cutting -- September and October (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • wood -- carrying (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4)
  • wood -- collecting (English, Bill and Shirley 7)
  • wood -- cut in summer, get later (Morry, Riley 1)
  • wood -- cutting (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4)
  • wood -- cutting contract (Vent, Bobby 1)
  • wood -- cutting for Koyukuk store (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • wood -- cutting twenty-one cords for school (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • wood -- dogs in harness, never used sleigh (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • wood -- saw (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • Wood-Tikchik (Swem, Ted 8, 14), (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • Wood-Tikchik area (Swem, Ted 7, 12)
  • Wood-Tikchik Lake (Swem, Ted 7)
  • woodcutting (Johnson, Walter (1) 10)
  • woodcutting -- technology (Johnson, Walter (1) 10)
  • words -- high words lost (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • words -- sing old words, high words (Simon, Lydia 2)
  • work hours (Swem, Ted 7)
  • work opportunities (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 5)
  • work -- 16 years old (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 3)
  • work -- full time from April end through September (Holly, Susan 4)
  • work -- hard, long hours (Gray, Millie 3)
  • work -- hard; self-employment (Holly, Susan 8)
  • work -- long and hard (Henderson, Joe 3)
  • World War II (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 1, 3)
  • World War II -- dad wounded (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 1)
  • worldview -- learned multiplicity of (Bane, Ray (1) 3)
  • wound loss (Reakoff, Jack 4, 5)
  • Wrangell (Collins, Bruce 12, 17), (Morry, Riley 2)
  • Wrangell Institute (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 15)
  • Wrangell Park (Collins, Bruce 5)
  • Wrangell-St. Elias (Pepper, Jim (1) 2, 4), (Swem, Ted 12, 14)
  • Wrangell-St. Elias National Park (Reakoff, Jack 10)
  • Wright, Al (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • Wright, Tommy (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 7)
  • writing -- learning in town (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 4)
  • WWI -- was in that war (William, William and Effie (1) 10)
  • WWII (English, Bill and Shirley 10, 22), (Swem, Ted 3)
  • WWII -- 1941 (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • WWII -- army (Johnson, Walter (1) 3)
  • WWII -- reserve (Johnson, Walter (1) 2)
  • Wyoming -- bow hunt ratios (Reakoff, Jack 5)
  • x-rays -- each year (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • Yakutat (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Yale cabin (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • Yaska, Butch -- son of (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • Yaska, Joe (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • Yaska, Minnie (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • Yaska, Patrick (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • year book -- correspondence kids (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Yellowstone (Swem, Ted 14)
  • Yellowstone National Park (Bane, Ray (2) 4), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 2)
  • YMCA (Schmitz, Dave 4)
  • Yosemite (Collins, Bruce 10), (Swem, Ted 14)
  • Young, Don (Pepper, Jim (1) 4)
  • Young, Steven B. -- Center for Northern Studies (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • younger brother -- learned to fly (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • youth -- don't listen (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • Yugoslavia (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • Yukon (William, William and Effie (1) 10)
  • Yukon-Charley Rivers National Park (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • Yukon-Charley Rivers National Park and Preserve (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • Yukon Flats -- canoe; muskrat hunting; trapping (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • Yukon Frontiers (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • Yukon River (Brown, William (1) 5, 9), (English, Bill and Shirley 2, 4), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6)
  • Yukon River -- lots of white people (Williams, Susie 1)
  • Yukon River -- open water (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • Yukon Sled (Bifelt, Madeline 3)
  • Yukon sled -- hard to haul (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Yukon stove -- replaced (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • Yukon -- horses (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9)
  • Yukon -- late spring (Sam Sr., Tony 5)
  • Yukon -- summers (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3)
  • Yukon -- Tanana (Brown, William (1) 14)
  • Yukon-Charley Rivers (Brown, William (1) 2), (Pepper, Jim (1) 4, 6)
  • Yukon-Charley Rivers National Park and Preserve (Brown, William (2) 6)
  • Yukon-Koyukuk (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • Yutana barge (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 3)
  • zones -- subsistent resident zone (Brown, William (2) 7)
  • "Arkansas Traveler" (Sam Sr., Tony 7)
  • "Born on Snowshoes" (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • "CEMAL" Industry Group -- unsupportable claims (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • "communal family"
  • "community existence" (English, Bill and Shirley 17)
  • "community of interest" (English, Bill and Shirley 6)
  • "cookie people" -- accepting the ways of others (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • "cooking people" -- defined, lost ability to live off land (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • "custodians" (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • "Deep Hole Tobin" (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • "End of the Frontier" (Bane, Ray (2) 4)
  • "fringe of the fringe" (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • "generosity of spirit" (English, Bill and Shirley 24)
  • "honey bucket" (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 9), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • "Hunters of the Northern Ice" (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • "hyperadaptability" (Brown, William (1) 12)
  • "Keep it Tough" (Kauffmann, John 9)
  • "lock up" (Collins, Bruce 3, 5)
  • "lost gold" (Lounsbury, George 4)
  • "molder" of American character (Kauffmann, John 9)
  • "Mountain Animal" -- translated name of Koyukon substitute for bear (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • "Norseman" -- plane, refueled in Hughes (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • "paper construct" (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 8)
  • "paper people" (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 8)
  • "sense of community" (English, Bill and Shirley 25)
  • "sporting girls" (English, Bill and Shirley 7)
  • "Still a Homeland" (Brown, William (1) 6)
  • "stringers" (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • "The Great Mother Load" (Brockman, Ross 1)
  • "The Last Frontier" (Collins, Bruce 4)
  • "the right thing" (Collins, Bruce 17)
  • "wilderness" (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • "wilderness" -- defined (Johnson, Walter (2) 1), (Nelson, Richard 5)
  • "Windy Bill" (English, Bill and Shirley 8)
  • "You're darking me" (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • 12.5 Mile (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • 10 ft. diameter (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 3)
  • 1930 -- book published (Swem, Ted 11)
  • 1930 -- moved to Anchorage (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • 1939 (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • 1940 -- graduated (Swem, Ted 3)
  • 1960 -- arrived in Alaska, all plans to leave out the window (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • 1961 -- move to Washington D.C. (Swem, Ted 5)
  • 1964 -- Swem promotion (Swem, Ted 14)
  • 1970's -- caribou crash (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • 1971 -- worried about it (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3)
  • 1972 (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • 2 unit area (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • 40 miles (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • 5 mile camp -- gravel (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • 7 council members needed (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)
  • Aattuuq -- Grandfather according to Kobuk people (Mekiana, Justus (1) 1)
  • Abby -- Big William's wife, died two months later (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 2)
  • Abraham and Martha (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Abraham, Old Man (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • Abraham -- adopted out (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • Abrams, Elliot (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • access (Bane, Ray (1) 11), (Morry, Riley 6)
  • access to park -- boat or walk (Reakoff, Jack 6)
  • access -- closed; tourists vs. residents (Holly, Susan 1)
  • access -- cut off (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • access -- National Parks (Collins, Bruce 3)
  • access -- populations center and other agencies (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • access -- rights of (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • access -- to exposed petroleum sites (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 6)
  • accident -- chainsaw (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 1)
  • accommodations (Morry, Riley 11)
  • accommodations -- wall tents; wood stoves (Henderson, Joe 2)
  • account -- credit (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • activities -- hunting, fishing, camping (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • adaptations -- sewing machine, phonograph, pots & pans (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 7)
  • Adirondacks (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • administration -- treatment and selection of rangers (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • administrators -- Kauffmann is distraught (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • Admiralty Island (Swem, Ted 11)
  • Adnee, Red (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • Adnee, Red -- outfit for sale (Reakoff, Jack 1, 3)
  • adopted mother -- died when eight or nine (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • adoption -- by Big William (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • adoption -- Effie to Tilly (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • adoption -- freely, flexible (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 10 )
  • adults -- went across (Williams, Susie 2)
  • advanced infantry training -- two more months (Ned, Stanley 8)
  • advertising -- magazines (Henderson, Joe 2)
  • advice -- Alaska as different as you ever imagined (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • advice -- don't make people an endangered species (Schmitz, Dave 11)
  • advice -- lots of work to do if you want to (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • advice -- try to listen to what Native people have to say (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • advisory board meeting (Swem, Ted 13)
  • Advisory Board -- Alaska trip (Swem, Ted 14)
  • Advisory Board -- trip (Swem, Ted (2) 2)
  • aerial wolf hunter (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • aerial wolf hunting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3)
  • afterborns -- want those born after 1971 to get stock (Williams, Susie 12)
  • age -- recorded (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 5)
  • agencies -- learning other perspectives (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • agencies -- need to do more local hiring (Bifelt, Fred Lee 9)
  • agencies -- proliferation (Schmitz, Dave 7)
  • agencies -- state; listening (Ned, Stanley 15)
  • agencies -- wildlife people fool with mink, will go away (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Agnew, Spiro (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • Aguk, Bob (Mekiana, Justus (1) 9)
  • Aguk, Jack (Mekiana, Justus (1) 9, 17)
  • Aguk, Jesse -- grandfather (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5)
  • Agulukpak River (Swem, Ted 7)
  • Ahgook (Aguk), Ben (Mekiana, Justus (1) 8)
  • Ahgook (Aguk), Bob (Mekiana, Justus (1) 9)
  • Ahgook (Aguk), Jack (Mekiana, Justus (1) 9)
  • Ahgook, Jesse (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 9, 11) , (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6, 8, 13)
  • Ahgook, Jesse -- as a cultural resource (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • Ahgook, Noah (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • Ahgook, Noah -- served as translator (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • Ahlook, Charlie (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 9)
  • air access (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • air access -- alternative is 2-3 planes allowed entrance (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • air access -- designated flight routes (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • air transport (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • air travel -- increased dramatically with park formation (Schmitz, Dave 6)
  • aircraft (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • aircraft -- basic transportation for difficult terrain (Reakoff, Jack 6)
  • airlines -- Kotzebue, Pt. Barrow, Nome, Galena (William, William and Effie (2) 2)
  • airplane (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4), (Williams, Susie 8)
  • airplane -- 1950 or so (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • airplane -- Aeronca K (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • airplane -- commanchee (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • airplane -- D-3 (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • airplane -- flew around (William, William and Effie (1) 10)
  • airplane -- hunting (Brockman, Ross 7)
  • airplane -- impact (English, Bill and Shirley 12)
  • airplane -- loading caribou onto (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • airplane -- mechanical failure (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3)
  • airplane -- rearwind sportster (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • airplane -- remains (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3)
  • airplane -- surprised by first (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • airplane -- took over (Henzie, Moses and Marie 2)
  • airplane -- took over mail 1930, twice monthly (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • airplane -- traditional (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • airplane -- traplines (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • airplanes (Holly, Susan 1), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • airplanes -- effect (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • airplanes -- paid cash (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1)
  • airplanes -- regular after 1926 (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • airport -- plowing the runway for Public Health Services, 1974 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 1)
  • airshow -- Fairbanks (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 12)
  • airstrip (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • airstrip -- 1960 (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • airstrip -- rocks (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Akpik, Grandma -- not related (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • Alaatna -- Indians
  • Alaska (Swem, Ted 5)
  • Alaska Airlines (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • Alaska Boogey (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 8)
  • Alaska Coalition (Collins, Bruce 2, 5)
  • Alaska Department of Fish and Game (Bifelt, Fred Lee 6), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9), (Pepper, Jim (1) 12), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4, 7)
  • Alaska Department of Fish and Game Advisory Committee -- local management proposals not given fair hearing (Bifelt, Fred Lee 6)
  • Alaska Department of Fish and Game -- teaching them things they don't know due to lack of field experience (Reakoff, Jack 9)
  • Alaska Department of Fish and Game -- too much coffee in Fairbanks (Reakoff, Jack 9)
  • Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission (Bane, Ray (2) 5)
  • Alaska field office -- Anchorage (Swem, Ted (2) 2)
  • Alaska Land Bank (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • Alaska Land Use Council (ALUC) (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • Alaska Lands Act (Pepper, Jim (2) 1, 3)
  • Alaska Lands Council (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (Bane, Ray (2) 4), (Brown, William (1) 15), (Brown, William (2) 3), (English, Bill and Shirley 22), (Pepper, Jim (1) 4, 7, 11), (Schmitz, Dave 7), (Brown, William (2) 6), (Brown, William (2) 7), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act -- 1980 (Brown, William (1) 2)
  • Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act -- after the fact (Bane, Ray (1) 14)
  • Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act -- allows special uses for Alaskans (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act -- ALUC opposition to (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act -- concessions to past users (Schmitz, Dave 8)
  • Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act -- local hire practices (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act -- saddening, concerned -- activities undermine, rot wilderness values (Kauffmann, John 10)
  • Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act -- sincere effort to reflect cultural and environmental preservation (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • Alaska National Interests Lands Conservation Act -- uniqueness of Alaska is reflected in it (Pepper, Jim (1) 4)
  • Alaska National Wildlife Refuge (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (Bane, Ray (2) 4), (English, Bill and Shirley 22), (Pepper, Jim (1) 7), (Brown, William (2) 6), (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (1971) (Brown, William (1) 15)
  • Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act -- 7(I) revenue (Bifelt, Fred Lee 4)
  • Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act -- context of urgency (Bane, Ray (1) 6)
  • Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act -- development (Brown, William (1) 15)
  • Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act -- eventually realized it was the best thing (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3)
  • Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act -- negotiations (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act -- studies done to recommend sites (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • Alaska Native Walrus Commission (Bane, Ray (2) 5)
  • Alaska office -- established (Swem, Ted (2) 2)
  • Alaska residents -- cooperative management goal, but ineffective because of lack of basis; position poorly articulated (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • Alaska Road Commission (Johnson, Walter (1) 11)
  • Alaska Road Commission -- Wiseman (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • Alaska State Fish and Game -- opposed use of caribou for dogs (Morry Riley 9)
  • Alaska Statehood Act (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • Alaska Steamship (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • Alaska Task Force (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • Alaska Territory (Brown, William (1) 15)
  • Alaska -- became easy living with wages (William, William and Effie (2) 2)
  • Alaska -- compared to other states (Pepper, Jim (2) 3)
  • Alaska -- cooperative management (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • Alaska -- enormously effective in what it has gotten (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Alaska -- first trip (Swem, Ted 7)
  • Alaska -- great opportunity (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Alaska -- growth (Collins, Bruce 10)
  • Alaska -- impact on Swem (Swem, Ted 8)
  • Alaska -- interest in (Swem, Ted (2) 5)
  • Alaska -- it is our land, it's where our grandma and grandpa come from (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • Alaska -- keep the flavor (Henderson, Joe 5)
  • Alaska -- life is stretched thin (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • Alaska -- like the West in the 1840's (Schmitz, Dave 2)
  • Alaska -- many visions were realized (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • Alaska -- move to (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • Alaska -- move to 1956 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 1)
  • Alaska -- often lost by basing arguments on false evidence (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • Alaska -- people avoid government (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • Alaska -- return (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • Alaska -- returned, missed the wild food
  • Alaska -- state of; thirty to forty percent in private or state uses (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • Alaska -- state opposed giving citizens management authority, and still does (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Alaska -- talk about (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2)
  • Alaska -- vast (Swem, Ted 8)
  • Alaska -- wilderness (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • Alaskan Highway (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • Alaskans -- diverse perspectives (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • Alatna (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3), (Bifelt, Madeline 7), (David, David and Kitty 1), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3, 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 1, 2), (Ned, Stanley 3, 11), (Nelson, Richard 8), (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 2), (Ulen, Tishu 1, 3)
  • Alatna area (Swem, Ted 8)
  • Alatna River (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1, 2), (Gray, Millie 4), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 1), (Schmitz, Dave 2), (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • Alatna River -- off the land (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • Alatna River -- upper part (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 1)
  • Alatna -- growing up (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 1)
  • Alatna -- had four kids (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • Alatna -- Indians (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Alatna -- more lush (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 6)
  • Alatna -- started when they came down for Christmas; started living on this side (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • Alatna -- store (Johnson, Walter (1) 6)
  • Alatna -- trip up (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 2)
  • Alberta -- school in Fairbanks (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Albright -- learned ranger skills (Bane, Ray (1) 12)
  • Albuquerque (Gray, Millie 8)
  • alcohol (Bifelt, Fred Lee 9)
  • alcohol prevention (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • alcohol -- past history (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • alcohol -- quit drinking in 1974 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • alcohol -- recovery prompted by desire to do "the Lord's work" (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • alder bark -- dye (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11)
  • Alfred, Uncle (Williams, Susie 7)
  • Alice -- daughter was born and husband went over (Williams, Susie 2)
  • All Terrain Vehicles (Bane, Ray (1) 11), (Kauffmann, John 10)
  • All Terrain Vehicles -- description of (Morry, Riley 8)
  • All Terrain Vehicles -- hunting (Morry, Riley 6)
  • All Terrain Vehicles -- immediate conflict between Natives and federal government (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 9)
  • All Terrain Vehicles -- result (Morry Riley 9)
  • Allakaket (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9), (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3), (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3), (Bifelt, Madeline 1, 6, 7), (David, David and Kitty 6), (English, Bill and Shirley 2,3, 16, 17), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4), 3), (Gray, Millie 2, 4, 10), (Holly, Susan 7), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 2, 7), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 6), (Ned, Stanley 1, 11), (Nelson, Richard 8), (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4), (Sam Sr., Tony 3), (William, William and Effie (1) 1), (Williams, Susie 5)
  • Allakaket trail (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 7)
  • Allakaket -- 1958-83 (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 2)
  • Allakaket -- April 1st, gather to get boats (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • Allakaket -- biggest gathering point on Koyukuk River (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • Allakaket -- brought dry meat to, no fish (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • Allakaket -- camp four miles above (Ned, Stanley 1)
  • Allakaket -- father (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 1)
  • Allakaket -- Fourth of July (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • Allakaket -- grew fast (Williams, Susie 1)
  • Allakaket -- hearing (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • Allakaket -- holidays; since 1938 (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Allakaket -- much sickness, mother gave away to save life (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 2)
  • Allakaket -- no sheefish above (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • Allakaket -- parents moved to (Williams, Susie 1)
  • Allakaket -- school (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • Allakaket -- six miles below, big village (Williams, Susie 1)
  • Allakaket -- started trapping (Ned, Stanley 9)
  • Allakaket -- stayed from 1973-1989 (Ned, Stanley 9)
  • Allakaket -- summer trip (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • Allakaket -- two weeks to say goodbye (Ned, Stanley 8)
  • Allakaket -- won 3 races from here (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 2)
  • Allen (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • Allen River (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Allen, Henry (Johnson, Walter (1) 14)
  • Allen, Jess (English, Bill and Shirley 5), (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Allin, Roger (Swem, Ted 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12), (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • Allin, Roger -- very knowledgeable (Swem, Ted 8)
  • Almond, Steve (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Almonds Family (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • Almonson, Harriet -- teacher (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 5)
  • Almonson, Miss -- teacher (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 4)
  • Altna
  • Alyeska (Lounsbury, George 7, 14)
  • Ambler (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9), (Nelson, Richard 8), (Sam Sr., Tony 6), (Williams, Susie 9)
  • Ambler River (Schmitz, Dave 9)
  • Ambler -- subsistence studies (Nelson, Richard 3)
  • Amelia (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • amendments (Williams, Susie 12)
  • Amendments -- young Congressmen often had great impact (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • American Heritage -- more than just the land; people (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Amiliak, Susie (Paneak) (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 10)
  • ammunition (English, Bill and Shirley 6, 17)
  • Anaktiktok River (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3, 6), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • Anaktiktok Valley (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • Anaktuvuk (Brown, William (1) 11), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2), (Johnson, Walter (1) 9, 11, 12), (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • Anaktuvuk -- landchief (Morry, Riley 5)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass (Bane, Ray (1) 6, 11), (Bane, Ray (2) 4), (Brown, William (1) 6, 7), (Collins, Bruce 6, 13, 15, 16, 17), (English, Bill and Shirley 16), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10, 11), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2), (Johnson, Walter (1) 11, 14), (Lounsbury, George 11), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17), (Nelson, Richard 8,9), (Pepper, Jim (1) 3), (Reakoff, Jack 1), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 2, 15), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2, 6), (Schmitz, Dave 9), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4, 6, 9)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass Village (Brown, William (1) 13)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- 1965, late summer (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- come by snowmachine (Holly, Susan 7)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- founded 1950's (Gray, Millie 10)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- independence through isolation (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 7)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- lawsuit against State of Alaska (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 7)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- lodgings, tent (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- moved there in 1948 (Morry, Riley 1)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- Native land within (Brown, William (2) 2)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- one year or two (Morry, Riley 2)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- reception in (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- residents (Morry, Riley 11)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- school attempts, 1950's (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 15)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- Simon Paneak Museum (Collins, Bruce 15)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- some walked to (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- Stutzman and a crew visited town to see what impact ATV's have on land & people (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 1)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- teachers, 1956 (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 15)
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- two white men come in
  • Anaktuvuk Pass -- willows (Morry, Riley 1)
  • Anaktuvuk River (Brown, William (2) 1), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 7)
  • Anaktuvuk -- Anaqtuuvik (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2, 8, 17, 18)
  • Anaktuvuk -- early memories (Morry, Riley 1)
  • Anaktuvuk -- families stay because children must attend school (Mekiana, Justus (1) 10)
  • Anaktuvuk -- land chief
  • Anangula Island -- in Aleutian Chain (Nelson, Richard 1)
  • Ananuliak Island (Nelson, Richard 1)
  • Anaqtiqtuaq (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5)
  • Anaqtuuppaat -- place after freeze-up (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Anaqtuuvagmiut (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Anchorage (Bifelt, Madeline 8), (Brockman, Ross 7), (Collins, Bruce 7), (David, David and Kitty 5), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6), (Swem, Ted 7), (Swem, Ted (2) 2)
  • Anchorage Basin (Collins, Bruce 10)
  • Anchorage -- 1976; no place for me (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • Anchorage -- Martin Victor's Fur Shop (Gray, Millie 8)
  • Anchorage -- medical training, 1969 (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 14)
  • Anchorage -- nurse's aide (Gray, Millie 8)
  • Anchorage -- until 1984 (Holly, Susan 1)
  • Anderson (Johnson, Walter (2) 3)
  • Anderson brothers (Johnson, Walter (1) 11)
  • Anderson, Andy (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • Anderson, Doug (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • Anderson, Douglas (Nelson, Richard 1, 3)
  • Anderson, Gladys and Lloyd (Mekiana, Debbie 4)
  • Anderson, Hanna and Jim (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • Anderson, J.P. (Johnson, Walter (2) 3)
  • Anderson, Jim -- pilot (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • Anderson, Jim -- Wien pilot (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5)
  • Anderson, Terry
  • Anderson, Wanni (Nelson, Richard 3)
  • Andrew -- genius, died of tuberculosis, age 19 (Gray, Millie 5)
  • Andrus, Cecil Secretary (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Andrus, Cecil Secretary -- story about Andrus plus some background (Pepper, Jim (2) 1)
  • Andrus, Secretary -- hoped president wouldn't use (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • Angeline -- Sitka (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • anger (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • ANILCA (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • animal signs (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 4)
  • animal -- population (Nelson, Richard 7)
  • animals (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • animals -- bear, wolf, afraid of that dog (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 4)
  • animals -- caribou, bear (Mekiana, Debbie 2)
  • animals -- caribou, moose, fox, squirrel, rabbits, birds (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • animals -- changed, used to stay away from villages (Bifelt, Madeline 3)
  • animals -- fish, caribou, sheep (Morry, Riley 5)
  • animals -- if we handle live animal, it won't come back (Williams, Susie 4)
  • animals -- lack of moose, caribou (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • animals -- living with them (Reakoff, Jack 9)
  • animals -- marten, fox, beaver
  • animals -- marten, mink, rabbits, ptarmigan (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 8)
  • animals -- rabbit, lynx, beaver, fox (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • animals -- respect for (Reakoff, Jack 9)
  • animals -- taking care of (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • Annie (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10), (Williams, Susie 4)
  • antecedents (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • anthropologists (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • anthropology (Brown, William (1) 6)
  • antiques (Henderson, Joe 11)
  • Antiquities Act (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • Antiquities Act -- created by legal action of Alaska; no choice, brought it on (Pepper, Jim (1) 6, 12)
  • Antiquities Act -- prepared study for presidential proclamation (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • Anvik (Vent, Bobby 1, 2)
  • apartment living (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • application to Gates of the Arctic National Park (Brown, William (1) 14)
  • April -- returned (Beetus, Joe and Celia 2)
  • April -- visit family (Holly, Susan 4)
  • archeology -- historical (Brown, William (1) 4)
  • Archibald Gulch (Lounsbury, George 4, 9)
  • Arctic caribou herd (Pepper, Jim (2) 3)
  • Arctic caribou herd -- crash of; turn of century, 1970's; theories (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Arctic Cat -- metal track (Morry, Riley 10)
  • Arctic Charlie (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • Arctic City (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3), (Johnson, Walter (1) 3), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 1, 7), (Williams, Susie 1)
  • Arctic Environmental Information and Data Center -- Anchorage (Morry, Riley 5)
  • Arctic Health Research Lab (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 15)
  • Arctic John (Brockman, Ross 4), (English, Bill and Shirley 19), (Johnson, Walter (2) 3), (Lounsbury, George 2, 8), (Reakoff, Jack 1, 2)
  • Arctic John -- buried dog in cemetery, cut trail from tombstone to cabin (Henderson, Joe 10)
  • Arctic John -- Harry got dogs from, 1/2 wolf (Henderson, Joe 10)
  • Arctic National Wildlife Refuge -- press coverage (Collins, Bruce 14)
  • Arctic Ocean (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 2)
  • Arctic Refuge (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • Arctic Refuge -- visitation (Collins, Bruce 14)
  • Arctic Slope (Morry, Riley 5)
  • Arctic Slope Regional Corporation land -- suggest federal government claims only land not used by Natives with All Terrain Vehicles (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 1)
  • Arctic Slope Regional Corporation -- selected important lands (Morry, Riley 5)
  • Arctic Village (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5), (Johnson, Walter (1) 14), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1), (Lounsbury, George 6), (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Arctic Village -- mom from (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5)
  • Arctic Village -- study of Wiseman (Brown, William (1) 4)
  • Arctic Village -- Wiseman (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • Arctic Wildlife Refuge (Swem, Ted 11)
  • area close to village (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • areas that warrant protection or study (Swem, Ted 5)
  • areas -- possible additions to National Park Service (Swem, Ted 7)
  • Argo (Mekiana, Justus (2) 1)
  • army tents -- (3) used for school house (Mekiana, Justus (1) 12)
  • Army -- drafted July 7, 1970 (Ned, Stanley 8)
  • Armystad Recreation Area (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • Arnick (Sam Sr., Tony 5)
  • arrangement -- uncles and grandfathers (William, William and Effie (1) 2)
  • Arrigetch Peaks (Brown, William (2) 1), (Holly, Susan 7), (Kauffmann, John 4), (Swem, Ted 7), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 6)
  • Arrigetch Peaks -- 1974 (Schmitz, Dave 5), (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • arsenic (Johnson, Walter (1) 14)
  • articles -- Living Wilderness (pub. of Wilderness Society) (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • artists -- local art (Henderson, Joe 6)
  • Arundale, Wendy -- technical support (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • Aspinal, Wayne (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • assessment -- people are learning (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3)
  • assistance -- people formed line to point way (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Athabascan (Bane, Ray (2) 4)
  • Athabaskan Indians (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Athabaskans (English, Bill and Shirley 4, 17), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • Athabaskans -- kindled interest (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • Atigun Pass (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • atka -- guardian soul, called to protect newborn (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 8)
  • attitudes -- change since 1973; more interest now in understanding Native ways (Ned, Stanley 10)
  • attitudes -- officials don't like people to go up there (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • attitudes -- Park Service and residents (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • Attla, "Old Man" (Sam Sr., Tony 3)
  • Attla, Alfred -- married to Helen (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Attla, Catherine (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • Attla, Eliza (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • Attla, George (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 5), (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3), (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Attla, George and Liza (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Attla, George Sr. (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • Attla, George Sr. -- became chief in Huslia, 1950 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 4)
  • Attla, George Sr. -- brought Sammy home (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • Attla, George -- father from Hughes (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1)
  • Attla, George -- got kids through school (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • Attla, Steven (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 5)
  • attractions -- culture; language; kids; people (Bane, Ray (1) 4)
  • August -- back to nothing again (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • Aunt Christine (English, Bill and Shirley 10)
  • aunt -- Williams, Effie, stayed at camp with (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • Auntie Celia (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • Auntie Effie (William) (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Auntie Lydia (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • Aurora (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 15)
  • Austrians -- walk to Bettles (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • authority -- more local control; not simple advisory role (Bifelt, Fred Lee 7)
  • authority -- tripartite; state; federal; citizen (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • aviation (Collins, Bruce 2, 7), (English, Bill and Shirley 11), (Johnson, Walter (1) 2), (Lounsbury, George 2)
  • aviation -- access (Collins, Bruce 7)
  • aviation -- accident (English, Bill and Shirley 15)
  • aviation -- accidents (English, Bill and Shirley 13)
  • aviation -- commercial (English, Bill and Shirley 15)
  • aviation -- history (English, Bill and Shirley 14, 15)
  • aviation -- impact (Brown, William (1) 14), (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • aviation -- interior routes (English, Bill and Shirley 15)
  • aviation -- license (English, Bill and Shirley 15)
  • aviation -- people transport (Collins, Bruce 13)
  • aviation -- pilot (Collins, Bruce 13)
  • aviation -- training (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • aviation -- transport (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • B
  • babies (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 5)
  • baby -- 1953 (Mekiana, Justus (1) 8)
  • baby -- 1st born late October, 1953 (Mekiana, Justus (1) 10)
  • babysitting (William, William and Effie (1) 2)
  • babysitting -- when people went seining; only seven at time (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • backcountry permits -- only in selected areas (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 6)
  • background -- lack of (Collins, Bruce 4)
  • backpackers -- have little interest in Wiseman (Henderson, Joe 8)
  • Baker, Howard (Swem, Ted 3, 4)
  • baker -- Millie sent as at age seventeen (Gray, Millie 6)
  • band -- $8000-$9000 outfit (Sam Sr., Tony 6)
  • Bane, Barbara (Collins, Bruce 7), (Nelson, Richard 8)
  • Bane, Ray (Collins, Bruce 6, 7, 8), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7), (Nelson, Richard 1, 3, 8, 9, 11)
  • Bane, Ray -- anthropologist (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • Bane, Ray -- early subsistence studies (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • Bane, Ray -- many years of experience; circumnavigation of Arctic (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • Bane, Ray -- never disclosed why interviewing (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7)
  • Bane, Ray -- on-site assistant for Park; designation as "ultimate wilderness"
  • baptism -- first name in the book (Williams, Susie 1)
  • baptized -- Hughes (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • Bar Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • barabara -- Aleut dwelling (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 3)
  • Barber, Matilda (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • barge -- taken apart to build cabin (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • Barkly, Emily (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 13), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 1)
  • Barkly, Pat (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 13), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 1)
  • Barkly, Pat and Emily (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • Barkly, Pat -- heart attack (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 1)
  • Barkly, Pat -- Merchant Marine (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • barley (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 5)
  • Barrow (English, Bill and Shirley 3, 22), (Johnson, Walter (1) 9, 12), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 13), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 5)
  • Barrow people (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Barrow -- missionary from (Mekiana, Justus (1) 10)
  • Barrow -- seven teachers (Bane, Ray (1) 4)
  • Barrow -- teacher came from to teach Tulugaq people before 1948 (Mekiana, Justus (1) 12)
  • Barter Island (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 13), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 5)
  • Bartlett, Bob (Johnson, Walter (1) 15)
  • Barve, Lavon (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • baseball -- men vs. women (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • Battle Mountain, Nevada (Brockman, Ross 6)
  • beading (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • beads (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • beadwork -- mustn't waste (Bifelt, Madeline 9)
  • bear (Brockman, Ross 4), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 7)
  • bear populations -- increased (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • bear -- encounter (Mekiana, Debbie 2)
  • bear -- grizzly (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 8)
  • bear -- polar, as man killers (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • bear -- run over Arctic John (Brockman, Ross 4)
  • bear -- sightings, used to be bad omen (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3)
  • bear -- took four or five shots (Mekiana, Debbie 2)
  • bear -- women ate meat (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • bears (Collins, Bruce 4), (English, Bill and Shirley 21), (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • bears -- grizzlies have large territorial boundaries (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • bears -- inua controversy (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • bears -- only man hunt, he say (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • bears -- rocks thrown at (Fickus, Bill and Fickus (5) 1)
  • bears -- run into on horseback (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • Beaver (David, David and Kitty 2), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3), (English, Bill and Shirley 12, 15, 17), (William, William and Effie (1) 5, 9)
  • beaver dam (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • Beaver People -- friendly (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • beaver -- hardest to catch (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 4)
  • beaver -- overpopulated today, good meat and fur (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 8)
  • beaver -- 'till March (Bifelt, Madeline 2)
  • beaver -- trapped, used heads at fox den (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1)
  • Beaver -- village (Lounsbury, George 4)
  • beaver -- work horse of bush (Holly, Susan 3)
  • Beck, Charlie -- Wiseman
  • bed -- caribou skin (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • bed -- length of cabin, heads toward center (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 9)
  • bed -- one takes up side of room (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • bedrock (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2)
  • Beetus, Henry -- many lived in crowded house (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • Beetus, Joe (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • Beetus, Joe and Celia (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Beetus, Joe -- hunting, came upon, didn't know what it was (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1)
  • Beetus, Little -- trapped; hard living (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Beetus, Little; stepdad from South Fork (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Beetus, Norman (Williams, Susie 12)
  • Beetus, Sophie (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Beetus, Uncle Old Man (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • Beetus -- Henry and Annie (Williams, Susie 4)
  • beliefs -- Indian way (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • Belous, Bob (Bane, Ray (1) 13), (Nelson, Richard 4), (Pepper, Jim (1) 3), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • Beltz, Senator William -- territorial legislature (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 15)
  • beluga -- people never landed them where they live (Ulen, Tishu 3)
  • benchmark park -- premier wilderness park (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • Bentley, Bishop (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 7)
  • Bentley, Bishop -- group marriage (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • Bentley, Bishop -- married them (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • Bentley, Bishop -- pressured people, saying that anybody together had to get married or break up (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • Bereman -- cultural anthropology professor (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • Berger, Roger and Molly (Ned, Stanley 7)
  • Bergman (Johnson, Walter (1) 3)
  • Bergman, Caroline
  • Bergman, Albert (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • Bergman, Auntie Elizabeth -- at her house (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • Bergman, Auntie Elizabeth -- call her mom; nice, quiet, stories (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • Bergman, Billy (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 7), (William, William and Effie (2) 1), (Williams, Susie 1)
  • Bergman, Billy and Ceza -- grandparents (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • Bergman, Billy -- caught 300 in several days (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 6)
  • Bergman, Billy -- father (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1, 2)
  • Bergman, Billy -- next cabin (Beetus, Joe and Celia 2)
  • Bergman, Caroline (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 14)
  • Bergman, Ceza -- mother (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 2)
  • Bergman, Edward -- oldest brother (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Bergman, Edward -- sent by Mission to warn (Williams, Susie 2)
  • Bergman, Elizabeth (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 13)
  • Bergman, Evelyn (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • Bergman, Lubuck -- brother (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Bergman, Lydia (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • Bergman, Steven -- died (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Bergman, Uncle Steven (Bifelt, Madeline 7)
  • Bergman, Warner -- son, cut logs (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • Bering Land Bridge (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • Bering Sea (Swem, Ted 7)
  • berries -- blueberries, cranberries, wild currents; jam (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • berry areas (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • berry picking (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3), (David, David and Kitty 8), (English, Bill and Shirley 5)
  • Bertha's mom -- death (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 10)
  • Bertha -- one year older (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • Bertha -- sister (David, David and Kitty 6)
  • Bertha -- stayed with them a lot (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Bertha -- taught me language (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Bessie (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Bettles (Bane, Ray (2) 4), (Brown, William (1) 8, 11, 14), (Collins, Bruce 2, 6), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2, 4), (English, Bill and Shirley 2, 3, 12, 16, 24),(Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8, 9,10), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 1, 4, 7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2, 3, 4, 7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2, 7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2, 4), (Holly, Susan 7), (Johnson, Walter (1) 3, 9, 14), (Lounsbury, George 5), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 4, 16), (Morry, Riley 7), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1, 9), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 1), (Nelson, Richard 8), (Pepper, Jim (2) 2), (Reakoff, Jack 1), (Schmitz, Dave 4), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 6), (William, William and Effie (1) 4, 5), (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Bettles Field (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7)
  • Bettles Field -- first big airport (Gray, Millie 7)
  • Bettles Lodge (Schmitz, Dave 2), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • Bettles Lodge -- father built it for Weins (Gray, Millie 9)
  • Bettles Lodge -- personal threats (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • Bettles River (Johnson, Walter (1) 14)
  • Bettles Village (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 2)
  • Bettles -- access road proposed (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • Bettles -- black and white breed (Henderson, Joe 10)
  • Bettles -- distance (Henzie, Moses and Marie 2)
  • Bettles -- environmental planner; liaison; six years (Bane, Ray (1) 6)
  • Bettles -- father moved there for work (Gray, Millie 9)
  • Bettles -- hauling freight (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • Bettles -- hostility (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • Bettles -- husband had lived there (Holly, Susan 1)
  • Bettles -- launch point (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • Bettles -- men's school (Mekiana, Justus (1) 3)
  • Bettles -- miners (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Bettles -- Natives and non-Natives (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • Bettles -- no Indians (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • Bettles -- Portage Trail (Henzie, Moses and Marie 2)
  • Bettles -- radio (William, William and Effie (2) 2)
  • Bettles -- repaired boats in winter (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Bettles -- store (Bifelt, Madeline 7), (English, Bill and Shirley 1), (Ulen, Tishu 6)
  • Bettles -- subsistence (Collins, Bruce 16)
  • Bettles -- summer headquarters (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • Bettles -- supply warehouse (English, Bill and Shirley 3)
  • Bettles -- trading post (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5)
  • Bettles -- visitors (Collins, Bruce 15)
  • Bettles -- warehouse (Johnson, Walter (1) 6)
  • Bettles -- white people (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • Bettles -- winter, shuts down (Holly, Susan 3)
  • Bettles -- with white people (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • Bettles-Wiseman run -- kicker travel (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • bias -- racial (Johnson, Walter (1) 10)
  • Bible (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 5)
  • Bible -- always somebody watching over (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 7)
  • Bible -- translation (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 8), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • bicycle (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • Bifelt, Cue -- husband (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • Bifelt, Edith (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 4)
  • Bifelt, Fred (William, William and Effie (1) 6)
  • Bifelt, Fred and Edith (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 6), (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • Bifelt, Fred and Helen (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Bifelt, Fred -- ceremony at his house (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • Bifelt, Madeline and Edith (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • Bifelt, Ralph (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • Big Dipper (Brockman, Ross 5)
  • Big Jim (Johnson, Walter (1) 9)
  • Big Lake (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5, 8), (English, Bill and Shirley 5), (Johnson, Walter (1) 3, 9, 14)
  • Big Squaw Lake (Ulen, Tishu 5)
  • Big William (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • Big William -- grandfather (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 2)
  • Big William -- had friend there; doctor-healer (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3)
  • Big William -- went to live with at twelve (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 2)
  • Bill, Spud (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Bill -- house there, nice place (Williams, Susie 5)
  • Bills, Jim (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • Billy Bergman's Spring Camp (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • biologist (Brockman, Ross 7)
  • biologists -- caribou studies (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • birchbark (Vent, Mary 1)
  • birds -- naming (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 15)
  • birds -- scientific study (Morry, Riley 4)
  • birth certificates (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 5)
  • Bishop Bentley -- married them (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 6)
  • Bishop, Frank (Gray, Millie 10)
  • black bear (Brockman, Ross 4), (Reakoff, Jack 6)
  • black belt park (Kauffmann, John 8, 9)
  • Black Creek -- 22 years (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • Black Creek -- mining claim (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1)
  • Black Jack (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha 9)
  • Black Jack Camp -- nine miles up (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • Black Jack -- lived there year-round (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • Black Mesa Defense (Brown, William (1) 1)
  • blackfish (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • blackfish -- trap (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • blizzard (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 10)
  • blueberries -- east side of village (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • board of directors (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3)
  • board -- Alaska Department of Fish and Game (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • boat freight (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • boat -- brought home meat; dried (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • boat -- caulking (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • boat -- first built at twenty; copy others (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • boat -- have to build right -- otherwise leaks (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • boat -- IMP (Bifelt, Madeline 6)
  • boat -- one week, twenty four feet (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • boat -- sixteen foot wooden (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • boatbuilding -- inboards (Gray, Millie 3)
  • boating -- fun for kids, big trip at end of summer (Gray, Millie 3)
  • boats (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • boats -- 24 feet or larger (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 11)
  • boats -- first one not right shape; made some for sale (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • boats -- haul out (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1)10)
  • boats -- IMP, IMP II, Mud Hen (Gray, Millie 3)
  • boats -- pilot (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • boats -- three (Holly, Susan 3)
  • Bob and Jack -- interpreted for white men (Mekiana, Justus (1) 9)
  • Bob Marshall Country (Kauffmann, John 5)
  • Bolan, Buff (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • Bolyan family (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • Bonanza Creek -- trapping (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Bonyer, David -- Junior Congressman (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • book -- grizzly bears in Alaska (Swem, Ted 11)
  • booklet (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • books -- dictionary, Bible, magazines (Mekiana, Justus (1) 14)
  • books -- how get (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Boones -- Eagle (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • boot seal -- canvas; give pieces to people (Williams, Susie 9)
  • boreal forest (Nelson, Richard 11)
  • born 1947 -- Patterson, N.J. (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • born -- 1916 (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • born -- 1927 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 3)
  • born -- 1930 (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • born -- 1933 (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • born -- 1938, Allakaket (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 12)
  • born -- 1958, Huslia (Bifelt, Fred Lee 1)
  • born -- Alatna, in tent (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • born -- Allakaket (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • born -- Allakaket, 1922 (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • born -- Allakaket, August 27, 1926 (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • born -- Allakaket, October 25, 1905 (Williams, Susie 1)
  • born -- Annapolis, Maryland (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • born -- April 8, 1944 (Lounsbury, George 1)
  • born -- Big Lake (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • born -- California (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • born -- four years younger than Elma (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • born -- Illinois (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 2)
  • born -- January 12, 1931 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • born -- January 1923 (English, Bill and Shirley 1)
  • born -- January 28, 1929 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1)
  • born -- July 20, 1922 (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • born -- July 5, 1924 (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 2)
  • born -- June 15, 1919 (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • born -- Killik Bend (Morry, Riley 1)
  • born -- March 2, 1950 (Ned, Stanley 1)
  • born -- March 28, 1929 (Vent, Bobby 4)
  • born -- May 2, 1930, Alatna (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 1)
  • born -- Oct. 5, 1923 (Kauffmann, John 1)
  • born -- October 12, 1913 (Sam Sr., Tony 1)
  • born -- October 28, 1928 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2)
  • born -- Pennsylvania (Holly, Susan 1)
  • born -- September, 1933 (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • born -- Steven 1924 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1)
  • born -- Wellsburg, West Virginia (Bane, Ray (1) 1)
  • borough houses (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • Bosei, Mamie (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1, 3)
  • Bosey, Mammie
  • botany (Johnson, Walter (2) 3)
  • Boulder Creek (Lounsbury, George 2)
  • Boulding, Charlie (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • boundaries (Mekiana, Justus (1) 18)
  • boundaries -- hunting areas changes (Mekiana, Justus (2) 1)
  • boundaries -- set to accommodate speculative mining interests (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • boundaries -- were established for political reasons (Pepper, Jim (1) 4)
  • boundary issues (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • boundary studies (Swem, Ted 4)
  • boundary -- told not to cross (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • bounty (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4, 5)
  • bounty -- $50 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4)
  • bounty -- bone (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4)
  • Bowen, Bill (Swem, Ted 5, 7)
  • Bowen, Bill -- trip to Hawaii (Swem, Ted 7)
  • bowhunt -- inefficient (Reakoff, Jack 4)
  • bowhunters -- high wound loss; primitive means (Reakoff, Jack 5)
  • boy scout (Swem, Ted 1)
  • boy scout camp -- director of nature study (Swem, Ted 1)
  • Boyce, Miss (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • Bradley, Zorro (Bane, Ray (1) 7), (Collins, Bruce 6), (Nelson, Richard 3, 4, 8)
  • Bradley, Zorro -- ideas for studying Native life (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • breaking trail -- person ahead of dogs (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Breck, Charlie (Lounsbury, George 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11), (Reakoff, Jack 1, 3)
  • Breck, Charlie -- Wiseman (Brown, William (1) 11)
  • breed -- freighting line; lots of different lines (Henderson, Joe 10)
  • breeding (Vent, Bobby 4)
  • Brewster, Kingman (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • Brice, Al (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Bristol Bay (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • Bristol Bay -- June (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • Brockman, Ross (Johnson, Walter (2) 4) (Lounsbury, George 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11), (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Brockman, Ross -- self description (Brockman, Ross 2)
  • Brockman, Ross -- Wiseman (Schmitz, Dave 13)
  • broken faith -- breach was that those we spoke with in the field didn't support the Act; hence they lost (Pepper, Jim (1) 6)
  • Brooks (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • Brooks Camp (Swem, Ted 14)
  • Brooks Range (Bane, Ray (1) 6), (Bane, Ray (2) 6) , (Brown, William (1) 13), (English, Bill and Shirley 16), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3, 7), (Lounsbury, George 1), (Nelson, Richard 8), (Reakoff, Jack 1), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 1), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • Brooks Range Wilderness Trips -- sold operation two years ago (Schmitz, Dave 6)
  • Brooks Range -- camped, hiked, boated with Nelson (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • Brooks Range -- central, epitome of wilderness (Bane, Ray (1) 10)
  • Brooks Range -- geographically northernmost, ultimate U.S. mountains, ultimate wilderness (Kauffmann, John 13)
  • Brooks Range -- quit school after one semester to go there (Schmitz, Dave 1)
  • Brooks Range -- western (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • brother (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1), (Swem, Ted 1)
  • brother -- died next day (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • brother -- Edward (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • brother -- Edward suggested Lydia (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 7)
  • brother -- flew for Wien (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • brother -- got sick (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • brother -- Hudson (Sam Sr., Tony 6)
  • brother -- move to Alaska (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2)
  • brother -- Ross gets burned (Sam Sr., Tony 2)
  • brother -- William Koyukuk (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • brothers and sisters (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5)
  • brothers and sisters -- half (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • brothers and sisters -- half; Andrew, Josephine, Marianne, Gerald, Ralph, Wilfred Jr. (Gray, Millie 5)
  • brothers -- Bergman and Billy quit playing (Sam Sr., Tony 2)
  • brothers -- Billy and Ross (Sam Sr., Tony 1)
  • brothers -- off hunting (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • brothers -- played music (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • brown bear (Swem, Ted 11)
  • Brown University (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • Brown, Bill (Brown, William (1) 1), (Nelson, Richard 11), (Pepper, Jim (1) 2, 4, 6)
  • Brown, Bill -- area in charge of (Brown, William (2) 4)
  • Brown, Bill -- played important role in feasibility study; "key man" (Brown, William (2) 4)
  • Brown, Bill -- retired, but still involved (Brown, William (2) 7)
  • Brown, Chet (Swem, Ted 4)
  • Brown, Gertie (Sam Sr., Tony 6)
  • Brown, Randy (Brown, William (1) 2)
  • buildings -- historic (Henderson, Joe 11)
  • Bull Run (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • Bullock, Jack (Lounsbury, George 7)
  • bunk houses (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • bunkhouse
  • Bunnell, Bill (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • Bureau of Education (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • Bureau of Indian Affairs (Bane, Ray (1) 2), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 3), (Morry, Riley 1), (Swem, Ted 7)
  • Bureau of Land Management (Brown, William (1) 15), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 7), (Lounsbury, George 13), (Morry, Riley 11), (Schmitz, Dave 7), (Swem, Ted 7), (Swem, Ted (2) 4), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • Bureau of Land Management -- bomber fire retardant site (Schmitz, Dave 4)
  • Bureau of Land Management -- development plans unwise (Reakoff, Jack 10)
  • Bureau of Land Management -- didn't believe in giving away large chunks of land (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • Bureau of Land Management -- job (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 5)
  • Bureau of Land Management -- opposition (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Bureau of Land Management -- pavements and parking lots (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • Bureau of Land Management -- rules most lenient anywhere in nation (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • Bureau of Land Management -- would lose acre for every park acre gained (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Brown, William (1) 15), (Swem, Ted 9, 10)
  • Bureau of Outdoor Recreation -- established (Swem, Ted 9)
  • Bureau of Reclamation (Swem, Ted 3)
  • Bureau of Reclamation -- regional office in Denver (Swem, Ted 4)
  • bureaucracy (Ned, Stanley 16)
  • Burke, Dr -- fell in love with woman there (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Burke, Dr. (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6), (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Burkevich, John -- sponsor (Vent, Bobby 3)
  • burnout -- by 1978, people running out of energy (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • Burton, Phil (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • Busby, Bob -- dogs (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • bush pilot (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • bush -- money is out on the land (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 6)
  • bush -- travel route (Brockman, Ross 4)
  • Butcher, Susan (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • Butler, George (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Button Mountain (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3), (Holly, Susan 2)
  • C
  • C-46 -- coming from Fairbanks (Bane, Ray (1) 4)
  • C-47's (Gray, Millie 7)
  • CAA -- moved all their buildings from Old Bettles (Gray, Millie 7)
  • cabbage (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • cabin (Bane, Ray (2) 4)
  • cabin fever (Reakoff, Jack 9)
  • cabin -- "lumber cabin" built out of barge (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • cabin -- $430, firm , (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • cabin -- 1927 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1)
  • cabin -- description (Brockman, Ross 7)
  • cabin -- dug out (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • cabin -- few visitors (Holly, Susan 7)
  • cabin -- mid-September to mid-March (Holly, Susan 2)
  • cabin -- purchased, 1971
  • cabin -- schoolteacher's, purchased in 1967 (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • cabin -- ten miles out of Bettles (Holly, Susan 2)
  • cabin -- twenty by twenty-five feet (Holly, Susan 2)
  • cabins (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2), (Henderson, Joe 7), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • cabins -- inside Park (English, Bill and Shirley 23)
  • cabins -- log (Johnson, Walter (1) 2)
  • cabins -- mail trail (Henzie, Moses and Marie 2)
  • cabins -- prohibited (English, Bill and Shirley 24)
  • cabins -- started building new ones (Henderson, Joe 5)
  • cabins -- trespass (Collins, Bruce 5)
  • Cache Lake (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3, 6)
  • caches (Reakoff, Jack 6)
  • Cain, Stan (Swem, Ted (2) 2)
  • California (Collins, Bruce 9)
  • callers (Sam Sr., Tony 4)
  • Cambell, Dr. (Brown, William (1) 13)
  • camp (David, David and Kitty 2), (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • Camp Denali -- Mt. McKinley National Park (Swem, Ted 12)
  • camp -- all kids born in (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • camp -- cut wood (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 12)
  • camp -- dog ran bear off (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 4)
  • camp -- first time; three days, make fire, leave wood for the next person (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1)
  • camp -- good food (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • camp -- had violin there (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • camp -- he would babysit and tell stories (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • camp -- living out from village (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • camp -- set up and waited (Williams, Susie 2)
  • camp -- set up for holidays (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • camp -- ten miles below Allakaket (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • camp -- work, got wood (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • camping (Collins, Bruce 15), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2), (Swem, Ted 7)
  • camping -- can't seem to get taken out even for one night (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 8)
  • camping -- peaceful, fun (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • camping -- tent (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • camping -- winter needs (Mekiana, Justus (1) 7)
  • camps -- other families (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • camps -- winter, summer, spring (Ned, Stanley 1)
  • campsite -- during tuberculosis outbreak (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 10)
  • Canada (Bane, Ray (2) 5)
  • Canadian government (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • Canadian-U.S. international park (Swem, Ted 15)
  • canned meat (Reakoff, Jack 6)
  • canning (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • canoe (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1)
  • canoe -- Joe made it from Hughes to Allakaket in one and a half days (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • canoe -- traveled up (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • canvas -- making dresses (Vent, Mary 2)
  • canyon floor (Brockman, Ross 8)
  • canyons (Brockman, Ross 8)
  • career -- goals (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • career -- school teacher (Bane, Ray (1) 1)
  • caribou (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3), (Brown, William (1) 7), (David, David and Kitty 2), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3, 4), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 6), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 1), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1), (Ulen, Tishu 1)
  • caribou hunting (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 4), (Mekiana, Justus (2) 1), (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 2), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5, 6)
  • caribou hunting -- don't make noise; learn by hunting rabbits (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1)
  • caribou legging boots (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • Caribou Mountain (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9)
  • caribou skin (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 3)
  • caribou skin boots (Vent, Mary 4)
  • caribou spring bull -- tame (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • caribou -- also scarce in past (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • caribou -- blond, supposed to be magical (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • caribou -- bones used in broth; source of fat (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 6)
  • caribou -- bulls, rutting (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • caribou -- cow skins (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • caribou -- died (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • caribou -- extreme decline 1970s; emergency closure; not predicted, poorly handled (Reakoff, Jack 9)
  • caribou -- fall migration (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • caribou -- February kill (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 9)
  • caribou -- following in winter (Mekiana, Justus (1) 3)
  • caribou -- frozen (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • caribou -- killed by dogs (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 9)
  • caribou -- lack of (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • caribou -- lead to people (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 2)
  • caribou -- meat (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 7), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • caribou -- migration (Morry, Riley 7), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 8)
  • caribou -- mini famine, 1960's (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 6)
  • caribou -- no more from south in 1940's (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • caribou -- Porcupine Herd (Johnson, Walter (1) 14)
  • caribou -- quantity used as dog meat (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 4)
  • caribou -- range (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • caribou -- selection, fat, healthy (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 8)
  • caribou -- shooting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • caribou -- sittings (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • caribou -- skinning (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • caribou -- started to come back from South (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • caribou -- thrashing (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • caribou -- too weak to carry (Mekiana, Debbie 3)
  • caribou -- tuttu (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • caribou -- use of (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • caribou -- Western Herd (Collins, Bruce 10), (Johnson, Walter (1) 14), (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • caribou -- women roles(Schmitt, Dennis (1) 9)
  • Carlson, Bert -- wood cutting (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • carpenter saw -- accompaniment (Brockman, Ross 4)
  • Carpenter, Clara -- teacher (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • Carpenter, Louie (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • Carter, Clara -- missionary (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 9)
  • Carter, Jimmy (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Carter, President -- declared (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • Carter, President (Collins, Bruce 2)
  • Cascade Lake (Kauffmann, John 12)
  • Cascade Mountains (Swem, Ted 10)
  • Casey (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • cash economy -- got to earn a living (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • caste system (Brown, William (1) 14)
  • cat (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • cat trail (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9)
  • cat trains (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • cat -- $28,000 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • cat -- train, 1964 (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 7)
  • Catch 22 -- park worries over too high a kill, then says we don't use resource enough to justify a resident zone (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • Caterpillar (Johnson, Walter (1) 6), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16), (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Caterpillar -- tractor (English, Bill and Shirley 2)
  • Catholic Bishop -- baptized with Native names (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • Catholics (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • cave (Brockman, Ross 7, 8)
  • cave -- description (Brockman, Ross 8)
  • Cavers' Club (Brockman, Ross 7)
  • Cavick Creek
  • Cedar Rapids (Swem, Ted 2, 3)
  • Cedar Rapids, IO -- born (Swem, Ted 1)
  • celebrations -- Christmas (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 5)
  • celebrations -- Fourth of July (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • celebrations -- holidays (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • celery (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • Celia -- 6th grade (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • census -- Elijah Kikinia family (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 7)
  • census -- Frank Rolland family (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 5)
  • census -- Homer Mekiana family (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 12)
  • census -- Simon Paneak family (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 8)
  • census -- while visiting (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 10)
  • Center for Northern Environment (Bane, Ray (1) 6)
  • centerdome (Brown, William (2) 2)
  • Central Brooks Range (Brown, William (1) 8), (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • Central Brooks Range Region (Brown, William (1) 4)
  • Central Brooks Region (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • ceremony -- got married, August 8; repeated words they didn't understand (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • certificates -- appreciation (Gray, Millie 8)
  • Cessna 180 (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5)
  • Ceza -- mother; live long time, ninety-five (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • chain saw (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • chainsaw (Johnson, Walter (1) 10)
  • Chalkyitsik (Nelson, Richard 10)
  • Chalkyitsik -- dissertation (Nelson, Richard 1)
  • Champagne, IL (Kauffmann, John 1)
  • Chandalar (Brown, William (1) 6, 14), (Johnson, Walter (1) 11, 14)
  • Chandalar Lake (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5), (Reakoff, Jack 1), (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • Chandalar River (Lounsbury, George 4), (Reakoff, Jack 3)
  • Chandler (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Chandler East Fork (Place) (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • Chandler Lake (English, Bill and Shirley 16), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 8), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • Chandler Lake -- 1st airplane landing in 1944 or 1945 (Mekiana, Justus (1) 4)
  • Chandler Lake -- caribou (Mekiana, Justus (1) 8)
  • Chandler Lake -- last trip with father (Mekiana, Debbie 3)
  • Chandler Lake-miut (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • change (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 7)
  • change -- acceptance (Collins, Bruce 5)
  • change -- after war, all different (William, William and Effie (2) 2)
  • change -- anticipated much later (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 6)
  • change -- cultural (Bane, Ray (2) 4), (Brown, William (1) 12)
  • change -- development like malignant cancer; can't be stopped (Ned, Stanley 13)
  • change -- fewer living out on land, more flying over it (Schmitz, Dave 6)
  • change -- first noticed when about seven or eight; 1957 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • change -- happening too close together now (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • change -- lack of in hunting (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 6)
  • change -- lifestyle (Bane, Ray (2) 4)
  • change -- more power came from settlement (Bifelt, Fred Lee 2)
  • change -- most apparent since 1960's (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • change -- philosophical; fewer likely to go out these days (Schmitz, Dave 9)
  • change -- political nightmare (Bane, Ray (1) 10)
  • change -- sent in personnel to talk, listen, learn (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • change -- too fast (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • change -- village (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 6)
  • changes -- food stamps; energy assistance; Aid For Dependent Children (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 6)
  • changes -- the occurrence of (Mekiana, Justus (2) 1)
  • chap -- getting it out (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 5)
  • Chapell, Oliver (Johnson, Walter (1) 11)
  • Chapman, Sydney (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 15)
  • Charlie, Larson (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 8), (Sam Sr., Tony 4)
  • Charlie, Mary -- now (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 8)
  • Chase, Don (Collins, Bruce 8)
  • check points (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • Cheechako -- was one, liked to ride along (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • Chena Hot Springs (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • Chena Hot Springs Road (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9)
  • Chena River -- barge test (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 2)
  • Chena River -- trapline (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • Chichagof Island (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • chicken (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • Chief Henry (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Chief Henry and Grandma Bessie (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • Chief John and Mary (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Chief Moses -- Ceza's father (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • Chief Moses -- many stories about, good trapper, fishing (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • chief -- looked to the future (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • childhood neighbors (Brockman, Ross 3)
  • children (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • children -- "extra eyes" (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • children -- 1940-1960; eleven kids (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • children -- Abel; Freddy; Beverly; Stanley (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • children -- accidents (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 15)
  • children -- after going out for high school, don't look normal anymore; look mean (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • children -- born (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • children -- caribou hunting (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • children -- curiosity (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 9)
  • children -- didn't grow up with TV (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • children -- eight, all moved away (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 1)
  • children -- eight, had to fly to cabin (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • children -- eight; six boys, two girls (David, David and Kitty 3)
  • children -- first one in 1948 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 7)
  • children -- five (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 1)
  • children -- four (Ulen, Tishu 1)
  • children -- free reign (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • children -- future leaders (Morry, Riley 12)
  • children -- grown up in bush (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • children -- had eleven, lost four (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 7)
  • children -- John, Millie, Myrtle (died 1948), Jean (Gray, Millie 4)
  • children -- last child born 1964 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • children -- mother had three (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • children -- mother's; eight, six sisters, two brothers (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • children -- need to learn from elders, get back skills (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • children -- new generation doesn't know about spring camp (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • children -- no boredom (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • children -- reading (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • children -- responsibility (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • children -- roles (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 1)
  • children -- Ronnie, Harding, Jerry (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • children -- sent to school (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • children -- seven (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • children -- should value culture ( Mekiana, Debbie 6)
  • children -- spread around (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • children -- stay in yard (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • children -- stayed with other families when parent got sick (David, David and Kitty 7)
  • children -- still live upriver (Bifelt, Madeline 6)
  • children -- teaching them to learn from everybody (Bifelt, Fred Lee 10)
  • children -- they have to make a living after we are gone (Beetus, Joe and Celia 9)
  • children -- three (Bifelt, Fred Lee 1)
  • children -- three from first husband (Williams, Susie 3)
  • children -- today bored, life is too easy (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • children -- traplines (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • children -- visits (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • Childs, Frank (Swem, Ted 3)
  • Chilkoot (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • Chilkoot Pass (Swem, Ted 12, 13)
  • chores -- saw wood, pack water (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4)
  • Christian Village (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6)
  • Christianity (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • Christianity -- Elijah Kakinya (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • Christiansen, Hans (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • Christmas (English, Bill and Shirley 20), (Johnson, Walter (1) 13), (Sam Sr., Tony 5)
  • Christmas break (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6)
  • Christmas -- had fiddle to himself (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Chugiak (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • Chukchi-Immaruk -- Bering Land Bridge (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • chum salmon (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • church (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13), (Williams, Susie 1)
  • church -- Allakaket (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • church -- degraded Native ways, restricted people and language (Ned, Stanley 4)
  • church -- finished in one spring (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • church -- gathered in tent to listen to sermon (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • Church -- plans for building begin; finished 1991(Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • church -- Russian name for (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • church -- wanted to build church from tree (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • churches -- lack of (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • Civil Aviation Administration -- built all in one summer, 1941 (William, William and Effie (2) 2)
  • Civil Aviation Administration -- built residence (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • civil engineer work (Swem, Ted 3)
  • civil war -- stories (Brockman, Ross 3)
  • claims (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2)
  • claims -- state versus government (Collins, Bruce 11)
  • Claus -- doubled for (Henderson, Joe 3)
  • cleaning (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4)
  • Cleanmiller, Lotta -- Australian (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • Clear River Headwaters (Kauffmann, John 5)
  • clients -- enjoyed experience (Henderson, Joe 2)
  • clients -- teach them before going; slow pace (Henderson, Joe 10)
  • Clifford, Clark -- opposed (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • cliffs (Brockman, Ross 8)
  • clinic -- start without training, 1978 (David, David and Kitty 6)
  • clock -- thinking the ticking was woodworms (Vent, Mary 2)
  • cloth dance -- make circle with cloth; pass it around; bolts wound together (Williams, Susie 9)
  • cloth diapers (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • clothes (English, Bill and Shirley 21), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4)
  • clothes -- caribou skin (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • clothes -- sewing
  • clothes -- two pair: school and home (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • clothing -- today traditional little used, mostly sold (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • co-management -- decisions (Bane, Ray (1) 11)
  • co-op store (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • cod liver oil (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 9)
  • Coe College -- Cedar Rapids (Swem, Ted 3)
  • coffee (English, Bill and Shirley 17)
  • Coffman, John (Swem, Ted 15)
  • Coghill (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 3)
  • Cold Creek
  • Coldfoot (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5), (Johnson, Walter (1) 2, 6, 10), (Lounsbury, George 2, 3, 4, 7), (Pepper, Jim (2) 2), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 6)
  • Coldfoot Classic Race (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • Coldfoot landing strip (Johnson, Walter (1) 3)
  • Coldfoot -- landing strip (English, Bill and Shirley 3, 4, 20)
  • Coldfoot -- storekeeper (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • college (Mekiana, Debbie 5)
  • Collins, George (Swem, Ted 5, 7, 15), (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • Colorado Game and Fish Department (Swem, Ted 3)
  • Colorado State University (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • Colorado -- 1943 move to (Swem, Ted 3)
  • Colville River (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2), (Johnson, Walter (1) 9), (Lounsbury, George 4), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2), (Morry, Riley 1)
  • co-management -- help with regulation (Ned, Stanley 16)
  • commercial fish (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • commercial fishing (Reakoff, Jack 7, 8)
  • commercial license -- 1956 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • commercial use licenses (Schmitz, Dave 7)
  • common interest -- Natives and National Park Service (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • communal family (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 10)
  • communication (Bane, Ray (1) 12), (Bane, Ray (2) 2), (English, Bill and Shirley 12, 16)
  • communication -- Fairbanks (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • communication -- links (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • communication -- need to break down barriers (Bifelt, Fred Lee 8)
  • communication -- networks (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • communication -- some want to talk, others don't (Williams, Susie 12)
  • communication -- Tanana (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • communications -- equipment and coverage (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 6)
  • communities -- today, share school (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • community (Mekiana, Debbie 5)
  • community -- helps economy (Henderson, Joe 6)
  • community -- ideal (English, Bill and Shirley 25)
  • community -- importance of (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • compromises -- found in no other land law in America (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • compromises -- reasons for (Pepper, Jim (2) 1)
  • concerns -- influx of hunters up the Koyukuk River (Bifelt, Fred Lee 6)
  • concerns -- people feared they might be forced off the land (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3)
  • conflict -- authority (Ned, Stanley 7)
  • conflict -- biological vs. cultural needs (Bane, Ray (1) 10)
  • conflict -- interagency (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • conflict -- intergovernmental (Collins, Bruce 17)
  • conflict -- Iñupiaq and Indians (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • conflict -- Natives of Anaktuvuk Pass and National Park Service (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 1)
  • conflict -- no escape; little 'til one is on way to town (Holly, Susan 8)
  • conflict -- no scientific proof of either, yet whites don't see it that way (Ned, Stanley 6)
  • conflict -- preservation versus loss of freedom (Schmitz, Dave 7)
  • conflicts -- over land (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • conflicts -- will increase (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • Congress (Bane, Ray (1) 7), (Pepper, Jim (2) 3), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 1)
  • Congress -- deadline, Dec 21, 1973 (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Congress -- far thinking (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • Congress -- intent within parks (Brown, William (2) 7)
  • Congress -- protect over time (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • Congress -- unofficial rule, don't accept concessions if other party will vote against the result (Pepper, Jim (1) 4)
  • Congressional deadline -- January 1, 1984 (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 2)
  • Congressional intent -- accommodate Anaktuvuk Pass (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 9)
  • congressional limits (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • conservation (Pepper, Jim (1) 7, 12), (Brown, William (2) 6)
  • conservation agencies (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • conservation groups (Brown, William (1) 1)
  • conservation movement (Brown, William (1) 15)
  • conservationists (Collins, Bruce 14)
  • conservationists -- saw urgency in protections amidst development (Bane, Ray (1) 6)
  • consolidation (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3)
  • construction (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3), (Bifelt, Madeline 7)
  • construction materials -- transportation (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • construction work -- repairs, digging (Gray, Millie 9)
  • construction -- road (Henderson, Joe 9)
  • construction -- spring, 1970 (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • construction -- workers stayed there (Henderson, Joe 5)
  • consultants -- never before in business, Natives had to rely upon outside advice (Bifelt, Fred Lee 4)
  • consumption -- personal (Bifelt, Fred Lee 5)
  • Contact Creek (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 6, 13)
  • contact -- formation (Collins, Bruce 7)
  • contact -- western (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • contact -- with outsiders, stress on identity (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 6)
  • contract hauling (Henzie, Moses and Marie 2)
  • control -- emanated from higher up and often at odds with planning (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • controlled use -- renewable resources (Schmitz, Dave 10)
  • controversy (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • convoys (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • Cook Inlet (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • cook stove -- accidentally making fire in oven (Vent, Mary 2)
  • Cook, John (Collins, Bruce 2), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • Cook, John -- Regional Director (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • Cook, Julia (Vent, Mary 1, 5)
  • Cook, Mrs. Tom (Vent, Mary 5)
  • cooking (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5), (Vent, Mary 1)
  • cooperative activities -- Washington D.C. (Swem, Ted 5)
  • Cooperative Management (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • cooperative management -- favored allowing subsistence for newcomers (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Cooperative Park Studies Unit (CPSU) -- University of Alaska Fairbanks (Collins, Bruce 6)
  • Coordinator for Federal Aid to Wildlife Restoration (Swem, Ted 3)
  • copper companies (Schmitz, Dave 9)
  • copper mine (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1, 6)
  • Copper River Delta (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Cora -- Hannah's sister (Gray, Millie 6)
  • corporations -- relationship between village and regional (Bifelt, Fred Lee 4)
  • correspondence school (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • corridor easements (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 1)
  • corridor -- management regime should be more like the park (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • corridor -- subsistence hunt only (Reakoff, Jack 10)
  • Cosmos Hills -- mountain (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • Cosser, Jerry -- Frontier Flying (Schmitz, Dave 2)
  • cost (Schmitz, Dave 6)
  • Costello, Ron (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • cotton tree -- split, formed perimeter around trap (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 5)
  • cottonwood trees (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 5)
  • council (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)
  • council -- current members (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)
  • council -- meeting in house (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)
  • council -- needed before post office could be built (Mekiana, Justus (1) 14)
  • council -- talk about getting post office (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)
  • country school (Brockman, Ross 6)
  • country -- cut up (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • country -- good, many moose; rabbits; marten; dogs (Williams, Susie 5)
  • countryside -- description (Brockman, Ross 8)
  • couple -- April 1947 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 7)
  • couples -- three got married at once (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • Courtney, Tom (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • cousins -- Evansville (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • CPSU (Bane, Ray (1) 7)
  • crackers -- first experience eating (Vent, Mary 2)
  • crafts for sale (Henderson, Joe 6)
  • Crafts, Ed (Swem, Ted 9, 10)
  • crafts -- beading; carving (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • crafts -- bowl carving (Schmitz, Dave 13)
  • Craggy Peak (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • craters (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • credibility -- with local people (Schmitz, Dave 11)
  • credit (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • credit -- gave villagers $200.00 credit (Mekiana, Justus 17)
  • Creech, Jim (Brown, William (1) 3)
  • Cressy -- black miner (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • Crevice Creek (Collins, Bruce 7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2, 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 5), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3), (Schmitz, Dave 4)
  • Crevice Creek -- 1963 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 13),
  • Crevice Creek -- like it there (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • Crevice Creek -- not a winter mining creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 3)
  • crippled -- six years old (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 1)
  • Croshack, Louis (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 13)
  • Cross, John (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 14)
  • Crosson, Joe (English, Bill and Shirley 13)
  • Crowder, Jim (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • Crowl, Bill (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 2, 4)
  • cruiseship (Swem, Ted 2)
  • Cub -- crashed out on Noatak (Holly, Susan 1)
  • Cue -- Madeline's husband, met him (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • cultural anthropologist -- definition: one who doesn't have a culture anymore (Bane, Ray (1) 8)
  • cultural anthropology (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • cultural heterogeneity (Pepper, Jim (2) 3)
  • cultural translator (Ned, Stanley 11)
  • culture change -- devastating (Bifelt, Fred Lee 9)
  • culture loss -- missionaries, teachers, miners (Ned, Stanley 6)
  • culture shock (Bane, Ray (1) 4), (Bifelt, Fred Lee 9)
  • culture -- borrowing (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • culture -- didn't know Allakaket and Alatna were different people when growing up (David, David and Kitty 4)
  • culture -- difference (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 7)
  • culture -- different perspectives (Bane, Ray (1) 8)
  • culture -- don't want to lose (Mekiana, Debbie 5)
  • culture -- got it from old culture (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • culture -- many things won't be taped because they will be misunderstood (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • culture -- no record of traditional use of All Terrain Vehicles (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 1)
  • culture -- once conscious, is it culture anymore?; playacting (Bane, Ray (1) 8)
  • culture -- pride; competence; strong identity; self-esteem (Bane, Ray (1) 3)
  • culture -- strong, can get back ( Mekiana, Debbie 6)
  • culture -- trading, sharing ideas (Morry, Riley 12)
  • Cunningham, Bob -- Denali (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • current -- needs to be straight, catch fish all winter (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 5)
  • Curtis Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2)
  • Cusack, Joe (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 13)
  • customers -- warm, dry, well-fed, easy (Henderson, Joe 8)
  • Cutoff (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 3, 4, 9, 10), (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1), (Williams, Susie 1)
  • Cutoff -- Christmas (Vent, Mary 4)
  • Cutoff -- isolated (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • Cutoff -- Labovski too stingy (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • Cutoff -- lots of meat (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Cutoff -- village (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1)
  • cutting fish (Vent, Mary 4)
  • cutting logs (Brown, William (1) 8)
  • cutting wood (Bane, Ray (2) 4)
  • cutting wood -- hand saws (Schmitz, Dave 3)
  • D
  • D-1, D-2 withdrawals -- assessment and recommendation (Kauffmann, John 5)
  • D-2 (Brown, William (1) 2, 3)
  • D-2 Bill (Bane, Ray (1) 7)
  • D-2 withdrawls (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • D-2 -- compromise (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • D-2 -- to expire in 1979 (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • D-4 Cat (Gray, Millie 9)
  • D-7 Cat (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • dad -- fireman (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 1)
  • dad -- flying (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • dad -- good hunter (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6)
  • dad -- hunter (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 1)
  • dad -- navy (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2)
  • dad -- part time carpenter (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 3)
  • dad -- raised animals (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 1)
  • dad -- trap (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • dad -- work (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6)
  • Dakli Pass (Nelson, Richard 8)
  • Dall Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • Dalton (Henderson, Joe 5)
  • Dalton Highway (Reakoff, Jack 10)
  • dam -- Natives hauled logs; automatic trap door; formed big lake (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1)
  • damage -- scar on land (Morry, Riley 7)
  • dance halls (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • dance tunes -- 1941 (Brockman, Ross 5)
  • dance -- every night for week (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • dance -- kids danced (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • dance -- nightly (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • dances (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • dances -- first performs at eleven (Sam Sr., Tony 2)
  • dancing (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • dancing -- men, stretch hands, stomp feet (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • dancing -- music (Vent, Mary 4)
  • dancing -- sex roles (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • dancing -- women, wave hands (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • Dapkis, David -- Bureau of Outdoor Recreation in charge of wild river studies (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • Darlin, Don (Sam Sr., Tony 6)
  • Darling, Mary (English, Bill and Shirley 16)
  • dart guns (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • data -- critical to know your facts (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • daughter (Williams, Susie 4)
  • daughter -- Christy (Schmitz, Dave 11)
  • daughter -- Helen, born in tent, 50 below, Hog River (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • daughter -- her death makes him quit again for three months (Sam Sr., Tony 2)
  • daughter -- June ate tail, wasn't supposed to (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • daughter -- Patty (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • David, Eva (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • David, Kitty -- recommendations (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • David, Kitty -- sledding (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • David, Kitty -- values (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • David -- values (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • daytime -- singing (Williams, Susie 9)
  • DC-3 -- lands with blade for cat (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • dead fall trap (Vent, Mary 4)
  • deals -- fewer sleazy deals, more factual requirements (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • death -- "weight of mistakes", keep offending spirits (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • death -- people gather to help spiritually (Ned, Stanley 12)
  • deceased -- Ralph, Philip, Junior (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • December -- fox; lynx; wolverine; wolf; hauling water; trail to town (Holly, Susan 4)
  • December -- marten; alternate lines (Holly, Susan 4)
  • decision -- too fast; forty-nine years ago (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • definitions -- domicile vs residence (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • Delaware River (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • Delaware Watergap National Recreational Area (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 2)
  • delivering babies (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 15)
  • delivery -- babies; first one 1965 (David, David and Kitty 6)
  • Delta (Johnson, Walter (1) 14)
  • demography -- most urbanized state in America (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Demoski, Leo (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • Denali (Collins, Bruce 2, 12, 17), (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • Dennerline, Chip -- staff chief for Tony Knowles (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • dental floss (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • Denver (Swem, Ted 4)
  • Denver Service Center (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 2)
  • Denver Service Center -- National Park Service (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 2)
  • Denver, CO -- regional office (Swem, Ted 3)
  • Department of Agriculture (Swem, Ted 10)
  • Department of Fish and Game Advisory Committee
  • Department of Fish and Game -- caribou to feed dogs became illegal (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 5)
  • Department of Interior (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • Department of Natural Resources (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • Department of the Interior (Swem, Ted 3, 10)
  • dependence -- we lose people all the time; too much (Williams, Susie 13)
  • depression -- acute case (Johnson, Walter (1) 12)
  • Derenfurth, Norm D. -- former leader of American Everest Expedition (Kauffmann, John 3)
  • Detritus (Brown, William (1) 4)
  • development (Bane, Ray (2) 4), (Brown, William (1) 8), (Collins, Bruce 14)
  • development -- no provisions for minor impacts (Schmitz, Dave 10)
  • development -- price, conservation areas established (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • deviations -- from normal National Park policies (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • Dewild, Allen (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • Dewilder, Ricco (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • diaries (Brown, William (1) 11)
  • diarrhea (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • died -- 1944 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • died -- asked to be buried in Hughes; Fairbanks; wrong (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • diesel -- fuel made possible to stay (Morry, Riley 2)
  • diet -- Eskimo food (Mekiana, Justus (2) 1)
  • Dietrich River (Reakoff, Jack 2, 3)
  • differences -- Schmitz favors consumptive use with control (Schmitz, Dave 8)
  • difficulties -- personal; resident and ranger (Schmitz, Dave 12)
  • Dillion, John (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • dinner date (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • Dinook -- same as Tinuk (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • diptheria (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 13)
  • Derendoff, Angeline and Richard (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • Derendoff, Richard (Sam Sr., Tony 4)
  • Derendoff, Richard and Angeline (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 6)
  • Derendoff, Richard -- willing to marry (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • discipline (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 4)
  • Discovery Channel (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • disease -- spread (David, David and Kitty 7)
  • dispute -- Vernetti failed to pay Sackett for working store; court, Sackett got store (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 2)
  • distant time -- everything was human, birds, fish, animals, wolverine (Simon, Lydia 1)
  • distemper -- from two girls playing with dog (Williams, Susie 2)
  • dividend (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3)
  • divisions -- conservation vs. development (Brown, William (2) 7)
  • doctor -- his mistakes a cultural mirror; intrusive; crude (Bane, Ray (1) 3)
  • doctors -- misunderstood also (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • dog mushing (Bane, Ray (1) 2), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 10)
  • dog mushing tours -- custom trips (Henderson, Joe 2)
  • dog pack -- stiff skin, doesn't poke into dog (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3)
  • dog salmon (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1), (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • dog sled (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 6), (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • dog sled -- hauled boat over (Bifelt, Madeline 3)
  • dog sledding (Henzie, Moses and Marie 8), (Schmitz, Dave 4)
  • dog sleds (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • dog sleds -- spruce (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 9)
  • dog team (Bane, Ray (1) 3), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 7), (Nelson, Richard 8, 10), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 1), (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • dog team trip -- 1973; one year leave of absence (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • dog team -- affordability (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 4)
  • dog team -- grew (David, David and Kitty 5)
  • dog team -- mail run (English, Bill and Shirley 3)
  • dog team -- October (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • dog team -- restrictions (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 5)
  • dog team -- 'till 1957 (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • dog trail (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • dog -- big, like bear (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 4)
  • dog -- burial (Lounsbury, George 10)
  • dog -- packing (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • dog -- temperament (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • dog -- wolf hybrids (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 9)
  • dogfood (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • dogs (Lounsbury, George 10), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 11)
  • dogs -- breaking trail (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • dogs -- breeding with wolves (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3, 9)
  • dogs -- care of (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 4)
  • dogs -- care of and winning races (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 2)
  • dogs -- goal to have them pay for themselves (Henderson, Joe 10)
  • dogs -- good, watchdogs too (Henzie, Moses and Marie 8)
  • dogs -- hard on, bleeding paws (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • dogs -- he used two, while Ceza worked ahead (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • dogs -- justification, resource to hunt (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 4)
  • dogs -- last person to use (Henzie, Moses and Marie 8)
  • dogs -- learn to handle packs (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • dogs -- learned how to use; reliable; first time, tipped (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 4)
  • dogs -- Marie rode in sled (Henzie, Moses and Marie 8)
  • dogs -- must listen even if tired (Vent, Bobby 4)
  • dogs -- one and a half tons of food; straw; tallow (Holly, Susan 5)
  • dogs -- operated in pairs (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 9)
  • dogs -- packing (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5), (Morry, Riley 10), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • dogs -- sharing to line up river (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • dogs -- sickness (Henzie, Moses and Marie 8)
  • dogs -- signals (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • dogs -- sizes (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • dogs -- three or four; one person leading (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 11)
  • dogs -- used for hauling wood (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • dogteam -- Catherine took over (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 3)
  • dogteam -- eight dogs (Morry, Riley 10)
  • dogteam -- seven dogs (Bifelt, Madeline 2)
  • dogteams (Morry, Riley 10)
  • dogteams -- caribou migration (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 8)
  • Dooley -- gas boat (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Dooley -- hauling freight too (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • door -- grizzly bear, fur side in (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 3)
  • Doors, Herbert (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • Dorothy (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • Dorothy and Jim (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • Dorothy -- eats a lot, good worker (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • Doyon (Schmitz, Dave 7)
  • Doyon Native Corporation (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • Doyon -- big (Simon, Lydia 1)
  • draft registration -- required (William, William and Effie (2) 2)
  • draft -- no one local (William, William and Effie (2) 2)
  • dredging (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2)
  • drinking (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • drinking -- Johnny Oldman told me all I'll get is trouble (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • drinking -- quit, 1975 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • driving dogs (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 4, 8)
  • driving dogs -- David's first experience at nine; two dogs (David, David and Kitty 5)
  • drug abuse -- symptoms of deeper problem (Bifelt, Fred Lee 9)
  • dry crackers (Vent, Mary 2)
  • dual residence -- Bettles and bush (Holly, Susan 2)
  • Dubin, Corby -- wife (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • Dubin, Sam (Bifelt, Madeline 7), (English, Bill and Shirley 1), (Johnson, Walter (1) 6), (Lounsbury, George 4), (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • Dubin, Sam, Mrs. (Johnson, Walter (1) 6)
  • Dubin, Sam -- badly burned, flown out (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • Dubin, Sam -- Bettles store (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Dubin, Sam -- store (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • Dubin, Sam -- storekeeper (Vent, Mary 3)
  • Dubin -- owned stores, boats, mail-run (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Dubin -- returned to run store (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • ducks -- gutting (Ned, Stanley 2)
  • ducks -- old squaw (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • ducks -- proper treatment (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • Dulbi (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3), (Sam Sr., Tony 1)
  • Dulbi River (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 8)
  • Dulbi Slough (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1, 10), (Vent, Mary 3)
  • Dulbi -- 1927; store (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • Dulbi -- gave too much away; went broke (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • Dulbi -- mother (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 1)
  • Dulbi -- store (Vent, Mary 3)
  • Dyea (Swem, Ted 12)
  • E
  • Eagle (Collins, Bruce 6), (Lounsbury, George 14)
  • Eagle Island (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • Eagle Island Blues (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 8)
  • Eagle, Henry (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • Eagle, John (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • Eagle -- vandalism (Collins, Bruce 8)
  • earrings (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • early residents (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • Earthquake -- 1964 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • easement (Morry, Riley 8)
  • easements (Morry, Riley 6, 12)
  • easements -- tradeoffs (Morry, Riley 6)
  • Easter Creek (Collins, Bruce 13)
  • ecological integrity (Kauffmann, John 7)
  • economic -- purpose of in SW corner (Brown, William (2) 3)
  • economics (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15), (Johnson, Walter (1) 10)
  • economy -- few options (Henderson, Joe 6)
  • economy -- mixed is best (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • ecosystem -- plan for management to include culture (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • ecosystems -- enormously large in Alaska (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • Eddie (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • education (Bane, Ray (1) 1), (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • education -- adult, evening courses (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 5)
  • education -- by watching, experience (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 8)
  • education -- high school (English, Bill and Shirley 10)
  • education -- Holy Cross Mission, then outside (Gray, Millie 2)
  • education -- importance of learning white man's world (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • education -- jobs take people away to cities (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • education -- junior college (English, Bill and Shirley 10)
  • education -- learn from each other (Bifelt, Fred Lee 8)
  • education -- legislative process convinced people of the need for it (Bifelt, Fred Lee 2)
  • education -- length of (Mekiana, Justus (1) 14)
  • education -- like the Native way better (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • education -- Native involvement (Ned, Stanley 16)
  • education -- second or third grade (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • education -- territorial school replaced Mission school, 1952 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • education -- vs. other commitments (Mekiana, Justus (1) 12)
  • Edward (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • Edward, Hazel -- death (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 10)
  • Edward, Jimmy (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • Edward, John (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • Edward, Johnny (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Edward -- oldest; traveled with him (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • Edward -- quit playing (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Edwards, Bessie (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 9)
  • Edwards, Bessie -- death in fire (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 10)
  • Edwards, Hazel (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 9)
  • Edwards, Helen (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 9)
  • effect -- people keep quiet; self-conscious (Ned, Stanley 10)
  • effects -- culture loss (Mekiana, Debbie 5)
  • Effie's dad -- Ned (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • Effie -- sister (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • eggs (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • Eielson Air Force Base (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 3)
  • Eielson, Ben -- got lost, dropped note; where is Fairbanks (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Eisenhower, Dwight (Swem, Ted 6, 9)
  • Ekok, Wesley -- teacher, companion for study (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • elders (Ned, Stanley 18)
  • elders -- as teachers; professors (Ned, Stanley 2)
  • elders -- educators (Nelson, Richard 4)
  • elders -- enjoy work with (Ned, Stanley 13)
  • elders -- most died in old days (David, David and Kitty 7)
  • elders -- staying and working with (Mekiana, Debbie 5)
  • elders -- taught us to go to church (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • elders -- working with young ( Mekiana, Debbie 6)
  • electronics (Gray, Millie 7)
  • elementary school -- correspondence (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • eligibility of subsistence (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7)
  • Elijas (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Eliza -- mother born in Hughes (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1)
  • elk meat (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 12)
  • Ellingson, Knut (Lounsbury, George 4), (Johnson, Walter (1) 3, 11)
  • Ellington, Newt
  • Elliott, Tim (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2)
  • Elsner, Bob (Mekiana, Justus 9)
  • ELT (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3)
  • emergency gear (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • emergency landings (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Emma Creek (Johnson, Walter (1) 3)
  • emotions -- be joyful about it, not sad (Williams, Susie 10)
  • emotions -- release from mourning (Williams, Susie 9)
  • employees -- National Park Service, should be trained by architects of agreement (Morry, Riley 12)
  • employment (Bifelt, Fred Lee 9)
  • encampment (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • endurance ski/hike race (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • enforcement -- "I hardly go in anymore" (Henderson, Joe 7)
  • English degree (Kauffmann, John 1)
  • English language (Mekiana, Justus (1) 14)
  • English, Bill (Johnson, Walter (1) 2, 3, 6, 8, 12), (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • English, Mary (English, Bill and Shirley 1), (Johnson, Walter (1) 9), (Johnson, Walter (2) 3)
  • English, Mary -- bread (Johnson, Walter (1) 10)
  • English, Mr. (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • English, R.
  • English, Shirley (English, Bill and Shirley 8, 14)
  • English, William (English, Bill and Shirley 1)
  • English -- few spoke it (Vent, Mary 2)
  • English -- speaking a little (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4)
  • enlistment (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • entry points (Henderson, Joe 8)
  • environment -- unique, transition for interior to Arctic (Reakoff, Jack 12)
  • Environmental Impact Statement -- team put in final form (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Environmental Impact Statment -- difficult (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • environmental planner (Bane, Ray (1) 12)
  • environmentalist (Reakoff, Jack 2), (Swem, Ted (2) 5)
  • environmentalist -- first one in Bureau of Reclamation (Swem, Ted 4)
  • environmentalists (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • environmentalists -- felt too much development (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • epidemic -- 1925; half the people died (Williams, Susie 2)
  • Episcopal Archdeacon (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • Episcopal missionary (Williams, Susie 7)
  • Episcopal Native priest (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • Episcopal school -- Allakaket; never went (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Episcopalians (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • equipment (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • equipment -- amplifier (Henzie, Moses and Marie 9)
  • equipment -- walked in (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9)
  • Ernie Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 6)
  • Ernie Lake -- haven't been west of (Holly, Susan 7)
  • Ernie Pass (Mekiana, Justus (1) 18), (Mekiana, Justus (2) 1)
  • Ernie Pass -- where Daniel "got stuck" (Mekiana, Justus (1) 11)
  • Eskimo (Bane, Ray (2) 4), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • Eskimo dances ( Mekiana, Debbie 6)
  • Eskimo man (Brockman, Ross 7)
  • Eskimo -- Alatna side (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Eskimo -- culture, marine mammal intensive (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • Eskimo -- cultures of (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • Eskimo -- mixing with Indians (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Eskimo -- taught language (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • Eskimos (Brockman, Ross 4), (English, Bill and Shirley 4), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • Eskimos -- live on Alatna side (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • Ester Dome (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • Ester, Auntie -- made rice pudding (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Etherington, Wes (Lounsbury, George 4), (Johnson, Walter (1) 14)
  • ethics -- guiding ethic deteriorated in 1970's (Reakoff, Jack 3)
  • ethnography (Brown, William (1) 6), (Nelson, Richard 2)
  • Eva (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • Eva -- Indian from Tanana (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • Eva -- learned to talk Eskimo; treated as one of Eskimos (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • Eva -- nurse (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • Evans, Charlie (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • Evans, Gerald -- Fairbanks (Bifelt, Madeline 6)
  • Evans, John William -- grandfather (Gray, Millie 1)
  • Evans, John -- barging supplies (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3)
  • Evans, Nelson (Bifelt, Madeline 6)
  • Evans, Richard (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • Evans, Wilfred (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4, 5)
  • Evans, Wilfred Jr. (Bifelt, Madeline 6)
  • Evans, Wilfred -- brought food, bought furs (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • Evans, Wilfred -- dad worked for (Bifelt, Madeline 6)
  • Evans, Wilfred -- father (Gray, Millie 2)
  • Evans, Wilfred -- kind man (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • Evans, Wilfred -- married Clara Tobuk (Bifelt, Madeline 6)
  • Evans, Wilfred -- married to our aunt; mother's sister, became our uncle (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • Evans, Wilfred -- store (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • Evans, Wilfred -- worked for him (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • Evansville (Brown, William (1) 11), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4, 5), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7)
  • Evansville Inc. (Schmitz, Dave 7)
  • Evansville -- April, 1956 (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • Evansville -- moved to in 1956 to school children (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 1)
  • Evansville -- retirement (Gray, Millie 8)
  • Everhart, Bill (Swem, Ted (2) 3, 4)
  • exclusions -- parts of Kobuk, John, Koyukuk Rivers; entire north side of Brooks Range (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • exclusive guiding areas -- took away (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1)
  • exercise (Vent, Bobby 4)
  • existing trail (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • existing use (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • expenses -- dogs, $2500-3000 per year (Holly, Susan 5)
  • experience -- "green" (Schmitz, Dave 2)
  • experience -- lack of (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3)
  • exploration (Bane, Ray (2) 6) , (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • Explorer's Journal -- publication of Explorer's Club (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • explorers -- Navy, Coast Guard (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • F
  •  F-27 (Schmitz, Dave 2)
  • facilities -- upgrade (Morry, Riley 11)
  • factors -- relevant to formation of the park (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Fairbanks (Brown, William (1) 7, 9), (Collins, Bruce 6), (English, Bill and Shirley 4, 11, 12, 19, 22), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 1, 5, 8), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 1), (Gray, Millie 8), (Johnson, Walter (1) 8, 11, 12, 13), (Lounsbury, George 1, 2, 7), (Mekiana, Debbie 5), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17), (Morry, Riley 2), (Ned, Stanley 1), (Nelson, Richard 1, 8), (Reakoff, Jack2), (Swem, Ted 7), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • Fairbanks --1940's (English, Bill and Shirley 14)
  • Fairbanks -- 1960; fourth place (David, David and Kitty 5)
  • Fairbanks -- accident, Joe died (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1)
  • Fairbanks -- boats came all the way (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Fairbanks -- brought back dogs (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • Fairbanks -- Catherine taught at elementary school (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 8)
  • Fairbanks -- church (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • Fairbanks -- dance halls (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • Fairbanks -- Dubin died there (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • Fairbanks -- flew to (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Fairbanks -- go once a year (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • Fairbanks -- high school (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Fairbanks -- Intensive care (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 7)
  • Fairbanks -- kids went to high school (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6)
  • Fairbanks -- no work (Gray, Millie 8)
  • Fairbanks -- ordered from (Morry, Riley 10)
  • Fairbanks -- pig farm (Schmitz, Dave 4)
  • Fairbanks -- Pioneer Igloo #8 (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • Fairbanks -- Stuck came from (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Fairbanks -- teachers (Mekiana, Justus (1) 12)
  • Fairbanks -- three weeks training; twelve people (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3)
  • Fairbanks -- University of Alaska (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • Fairbanks -- will miss scenery, people, food, Inupiaq atmosphere ( Mekiana, Debbie 6)
  • Fairbanks Daily News Miner (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • Fairbanks Environmental Center --co-founder (Bane, Ray (1) 6)
  • Fairbanks Exploration company (Lounsbury, George 9)
  • Fairbanks Hotel (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • fall (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • fall -- cut wood (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • fall -- go trapping 'til Christmas, then back out (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • fall -- hunting access (Reakoff, Jack 6)
  • fall -- moose hunt (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • fall -- moving (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • fall -- village visitors (Holly, Susan 7)
  • fall -- woodcutting near Bettles (Bifelt, Madeline 7)
  • falltime -- 1938 (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • fall hunt -- bear, rabbits, spruce hens (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 3)
  • fall hunt -- precluded in park by access regulations (Reakoff, Jack 6)
  • fall hunt -- park affect on (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • families -- not many (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • family -- one big one (Ned, Stanley 12)
  • family -- practiced delivering babies (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 14)
  • family -- six girls, four boys (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • family -- Washington Evening Star (Kauffmann, John 1)
  • family -- working class (Bane, Ray (1) 1)
  • Fanning, Ken (Collins, Bruce 2)
  • farm work (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 3)
  • Farm -- early experiences (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2)
  • farming (English, Bill and Shirley 10)
  • farthest wilderness event (Kauffmann, John 8)
  • father (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1, 10), (David, David and Kitty 1, 2), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1), (Williams, Susie 1)
  • Father Ross -- spoke Native language (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • father's brother (Williams, Susie 1)
  • father's father -- forgot (Ulen, Tishu 4)
  • father's mother (Williams, Susie 1)
  • father's mother -- what she said goes; six boys (Ulen, Tishu 4)
  • father -- active, worked up to age seventy (Gray, Millie 9)
  • father -- asked if I was going to break promise (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • father -- came and took his son away (Vent, Bobby 1)
  • father -- civil engineer (Swem, Ted 1)
  • father -- died (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • father -- died 1969 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1)
  • father -- died early; at nine, had to help out so not much school (Williams, Susie 1)
  • father -- died when child (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • father -- died when I was still too small to travel (Williams, Susie 8)
  • father -- died when three (David, David and Kitty 2), (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • father -- died young (Williams, Susie 4)
  • father -- Dora's (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 2)
  • father -- engineering school (Gray, Millie 1)
  • father -- Fairbanks hospital, died at home (Mekiana, Debbie 3)
  • father -- family settled in Iowa 1840's (Swem, Ted 1)
  • father -- flying from Galena to Chandalar Lake (Reakoff, Jack 2), (Ulen, Tishu 5)
  • father -- from Kobuk but moved to Alatna (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 1)
  • father -- Galena (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 8)
  • father -- gave tobacco, said don't steal (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 6)
  • father -- gave William away (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • father -- getting supplies from grandfather for his store at Koyukuk Station (Gray, Millie 1)
  • father -- going out with (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • father -- good hunter (Sam Sr., Tony 1)
  • father -- got cancer (Mekiana, Debbie 3)
  • father -- he stayed in Hughes every summer, we stayed in camp (Bifelt, Madeline 7)
  • father -- heavy; strong; generous (Ulen, Tishu 4)
  • father -- hunted bear in summer (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • father -- Huslia (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1)
  • father -- Justus' father read and wrote English (Mekiana, Justus (1) 14)
  • father -- Kitty's, traveled over by dog team (David, David and Kitty 4)
  • father -- Kobuk (Ulen, Tishu 1)
  • father -- learned to read from church in Barrow (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • father -- Leon; died year born (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • father -- market hunter (Ulen, Tishu 1)
  • father -- mining camp, two years (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • father -- navy officer; dentist (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • father -- Ned (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • father -- nice guy, good hunter (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1)
  • father -- ninety (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • father -- only time he worked for wages; one month (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1)
  • father -- pursued bear (Mekiana, Debbie 2)
  • father -- read magazines to teach (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • father -- said would be good experience (Ned, Stanley 7)
  • father -- snowshoes (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • father -- teased all the time (William, William and Effie (1) 2)
  • father -- Titus Henzie (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • father -- trapping (Sam Sr., Tony 1)
  • father -- trapping, hunting, fishing (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • father -- urges him to continue (Sam Sr., Tony 2)
  • father -- used to be good storytellers (Simon, Lydia 2)
  • father -- worked all the time (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 4)
  • father -- worked on boats (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 2)
  • favorites -- Old Keiser, Queenie (Vent, Bobby 4)
  • feast -- last trip (Mekiana, Debbie 3)
  • feasts ( Mekiana, Debbie 6)
  • February -- beaver trapping (Holly, Susan 4)
  • February -- moving out (Beetus, Joe and Celia 2)
  • Federal Aviation Administration (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • Federal Aviation Administration -- CAA became (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Federal Aviation Administration -- job (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • federal estate percentage (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • federal government -- intervening (Brown, William (2) 7)
  • federal government -- took input (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • federal government -- took over (Ned, Stanley 15)
  • feeding (Henderson, Joe 4)
  • fence -- make with it (Williams, Susie 9)
  • Ferguson, Jack (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Fickus' -- help out the Barkly's (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 1)
  • Fickus' -- take turn teaching (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Fickus, Bill (Collins, Bruce 7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 3), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • Fickus, Bill and Matt -- getting supplies (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Fickus, Bill -- 1957
  • Fickus, Bill -- accident (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • Fickus, Bill -- airport maintenance (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Fickus, Bill -- attitudes toward park (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • Fickus, Bill -- competition for Lill (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • Fickus, Bill -- doesn't have a drivers license anymore (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Fickus, Bill -- fall over (Fickus, Bill and Fickus (5) 1)
  • Fickus, Bill -- guiding 1967 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • Fickus, Bill -- marked trail (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • Fickus, Bill -- never aerial hunt (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4)
  • Fickus, Bill -- never been in hospital (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Fickus, Bill -- not a production hunter (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 6)
  • Fickus, Bill -- opposed to mining operations (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1)
  • Fickus, Bill -- pack dogs on sheep hunts (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • Fickus, Bill -- quit guiding (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1)
  • Fickus, Bill -- won't leave (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • Fickus, Debbie (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 3)
  • Fickus, Debbie -- 8th grade graduation (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Fickus, Debbie -- Fairbanks Police (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Fickus, Debbie -- help out younger kids (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Fickus, Debbie -- law school (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Fickus, Debbie -- Miss Alaska (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Fickus, Debbie -- Miss USA contest (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • Fickus, Debbie -- move to Anchorage (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • Fickus, Debbie -- move to Fairbanks (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • Fickus, Debbie -- paralegal secretary (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Fickus, Debbie -- read a lot (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • Fickus, Frank (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2)
  • Fickus, Frank -- murder (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • Fickus, Lill -- attitudes toward park (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • Fickus, Lill -- beadwork (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Fickus, Lill -- brother (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 3), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • Fickus, Lill -- didn't finish school (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5)
  • Fickus, Lill -- friends in Fairbanks (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • Fickus, Lill -- giving birth (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Fickus, Lill -- like to visit Lower 48 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • Fickus, Lill -- no washing machine (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Fickus, Lill -- proud of kids (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Fickus, Lill -- quit trapping (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • Fickus, Lill -- wanted to be nurse (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5)
  • Fickus, Linda (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • Fickus, Linda -- Miss Teen Alaska (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Fickus, Matt (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Fickus, Matt -- flying (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Fickus, Matt -- pilot (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Fickus, Mike (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • Fickus, Nick (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2)
  • Fickus, Tim (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 5)
  • Fickus, Tim and Linda -- went to Pennsylvania (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • Fickus, Tim -- not a pilot (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Fickus, Tim -- recovery (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Fickus, Tim -- shot (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Fickus -- tip wings hello (Holly, Susan 7)
  • fiddle -- mail order (Brockman, Ross 9)
  • fighting for space (Kauffmann, John 7)
  • film project -- Alaska's Park Resources (Kauffmann, John 3)
  • filming -- three months, much was cut (Henderson, Joe 3)
  • finances (Bifelt, Fred Lee 4)
  • Finck, Chip (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • findings (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 1)
  • fire season (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • fire -- they burned, boy died (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • fire -- uncle dies, Sam Dubin badly injured (Bifelt, Madeline 7)
  • firecracker -- blew his fingers off as child (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • firefighting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 3)
  • firefighting, 1969 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 1)
  • firewood -- willows (Morry, Riley 1)
  • first aid (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • first aid -- training in community (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 13)
  • first date -- church (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • First National Bank -- Fairbanks (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • first -- as small girl (Gray, Millie 11)
  • fish (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 6), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • Fish & Wildlife Service (Brown, William (1) 15)
  • Fish & Wildlife Service -- wolf bounty (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 9)
  • Fish and Game (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1), (Reakoff, Jack 2, 5)
  • Fish and Wildlife Service (Pepper, Jim (1) 2), (Pepper, Jim (2) 3), (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Fish and Wildlife Service -- advocates of sport hunting (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • fish camp (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1, 3), (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) (1) 8), (David, David and Kitty 8), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2), (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • fish camp -- 1952, last year out (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 6)
  • fish camp -- getting winter food (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • fish camp -- mouth of Kanuti River (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) (1) 3)
  • fish camp -- seining (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • fish camp -- twelve mile (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4), (Henzie, Moses and Marie 8)
  • fish camps -- can't glorify the life; missed things too (Bifelt, Fred Lee 5)
  • fish camps -- nobody goes out today (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • Fish Creek (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • fish fences (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • fish net (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 8), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 8)
  • fish net -- different ways of setting nets (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 8)
  • fish nets -- catch a few whitefish (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • fish nets -- description (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • fish nets -- through ice; October (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • fish trap (Bane, Ray (2) 6)
  • fish trap -- description (Williams, Susie 3)
  • fish trap -- lush (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 4)
  • fish trap -- setting, taking care (Williams, Susie 3)
  • fish traps (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1), (Bifelt, Madeline 1), (English, Bill and Shirley 5), (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • fish traps -- dead fall -- kills wolverine (Simon, Lydia 1)
  • fish -- cutting (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • fish -- didn't come right away; hard (Williams, Susie 2)
  • fish -- freeze them (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 6)
  • fish -- frozen (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • fish -- lived mostly from; late August (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • fish -- many kinds (Williams, Susie 3)
  • fish -- Marie cut and dried (Henzie, Moses and Marie 8)
  • fish -- net, cutting (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • fish -- not many those days (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 8)
  • fish -- salmon, whitefish (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • fish -- second important source of food (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • fish -- thick in stream (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • fish -- whitefish, sheefish, dog salmon, suckers, loche (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • fishcamp (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • fishing (Bifelt, Fred Lee 5), (David, David and Kitty 8), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 7, 8), (English, Bill and Shirley 5), (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 2), (Ulen, Tishu 2), (Vent, Bobby 2), (Swem, Ted 7)
  • fishing site (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • fishing -- good (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • fishing -- ice (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • fishing -- pike (Vent, Mary 4)
  • fishing -- seining (Gray, Millie 4)
  • fishing -- sheefish, whitefish, salmon, grayling, pike, suckers, lush (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 3)
  • fishing -- trout (Ulen, Tishu 5)
  • fishing -- with stones (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • fishing -- Yukon (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1)
  • fishnets -- making with shuttle and gage (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • fishtraps -- blackfish (Vent, Mary 1)
  • float trip (English, Bill and Shirley 24)
  • float trips (Holly, Susan 7)
  • floaters -- going through prime hunting land (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • floating -- raft (Ulen, Tishu 3)
  • floor -- plywood (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • floor -- willow branches and caribou skin (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • flour -- accidentally boiling it (Vent, Mary 2)
  • flowers (Brockman, Ross 8), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • flu -- age fourteen (Bifelt, Madeline 5)
  • flu -- Anvik, many died, loose dogs (Vent, Bobby 1)
  • fly-way -- multinational agreements (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • flying lessons -- cost (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • flying machine -- thought they layed on board (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • flying -- learning (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • food (English, Bill and Shirley 21)
  • food storage -- cellar (Vent, Mary 4)
  • food -- caribou (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3, 4, 6)
  • food -- fish (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • food -- garden, bread (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • food -- grow a lot (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • food -- plenty; fish; berries; roots; rabbits (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • food -- sharing (English, Bill and Shirley 5), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • food -- sheep (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • food -- staples are minimal (Mekiana, Justus (2) 1)
  • foods -- berries; flour; sugar (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • foodstamps (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • foot race (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • football -- caribou skin stuffed with hair (Vent, Mary 5)
  • foreigners -- use park (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • Forest Service area (Swem, Ted 11)
  • forestry and wildlife management degrees (Swem, Ted 3)
  • Fort Bent, CO (Swem, Ted 4)
  • Fort Braggs, North Carolina (Brockman, Ross 9)
  • Fort Carson -- Colorado (Ned, Stanley 8)
  • Fort Dick -- New Jersey; two and half months (Ned, Stanley 8)
  • Fort Hughes -- stayed two months, boot camp (Ned, Stanley 8)
  • Fort Larned (Swem, Ted 4)
  • Fort Wainwright (Mekiana, Justus (1) 9)
  • Fort Yukon (English, Bill and Shirley 12, 15), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5, 7), (Gray, Millie 6), (Sam Sr., Tony 4)
  • Fort Yukon -- hospital closure (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6)
  • Fort Yukon -- learning about fur work (Gray, Millie 7)
  • Fort Yukon -- sister Bertha and Johnson went to (David, David and Kitty 7)
  • Forty -- cook (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • Forty -- neighbor (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4)
  • Fortymile (Lounsbury, George 2)
  • foster couple -- stayed with; Fairbanks (Ned, Stanley 7)
  • Fourth of July (English, Bill and Shirley 20), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1), (Williams, Susie 2)
  • Fourth of July -- potlatch (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • Fox Furs (Gray, Millie 8)
  • fox hat (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • fox skins (Mekiana, Justus (1) 4)
  • fox trot (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • fox -- goes hunting (Simon, Lydia 1)
  • fox -- made song (Simon, Lydia 2)
  • fox -- says "big shot died" (Simon, Lydia 1)
  • fox -- smart (Simon, Lydia 1)
  • fragile resource (Kauffmann, John 8)
  • frame -- basketlike, semi rigid (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 3)
  • Frank (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Frank, George Sr. (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 5)
  • Frank -- all the girls across river wanted him (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • Franklin Jr. (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • Franklin, Madeline (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • freedom -- to go where you want, camp where you want (Henderson, Joe 8)
  • freeze-up (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 6)
  • freeze-up -- fish nets under ice (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 3)
  • freeze-up -- travel obstacle (Holly, Susan 3)
  • freight (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3), (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • freight -- air (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • freight -- essentials (Holly, Susan 3)
  • freight -- hauled it up in June (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • freight -- hauling, age 14-15 (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • freight -- once a year (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • freight -- once per month (Henzie, Moses and Marie 2)
  • freight -- wood (Henzie, Moses and Marie 8)
  • freighting (Gray, Millie 2)
  • freighting -- boat and air (Holly, Susan 3)
  • freighting -- ends with air travel (Gray, Millie 7)
  • freighting -- no longer happening (Gray, Millie 9)
  • friend -- support (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • Frontier Flying Service (Collins, Bruce 15)
  • frostbite -- story (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 7)
  • fruit (English, Bill and Shirley 20)
  • fuel caches (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • fuel -- $165 for 55 gallon gasoline (Henzie, Moses and Marie 8)
  • fun -- very important (Williams, Susie 4)
  • fundraising -- offerings; raffle (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • funeral -- lot of work; cleaning the body, cooking, sewing (Williams, Susie 9)
  • funeral -- preparation; coffin, clothes (Bifelt, Madeline 5)
  • funerals (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • Fur Rendezvous (Vent, Bobby 4)
  • fur -- parkies, pants, boots, rope (Williams, Susie 9)
  • fur -- same as money (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • fur -- scarcity (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • fur -- traded for goods (Williams, Susie 9)
  • fur -- used to be good business (Williams, Susie 8)
  • future -- generation to generation (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • future -- go back to college (Bifelt, Fred Lee 1)
  • future -- requires rethinking, new direction (Bane, Ray (1) 15)
  • future -- wild (Schmitz, Dave 10)
  • G
  • Gaffney, General -- Arctic wear jacket (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 6)
  • Galena (Bifelt, Fred Lee 9), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2), (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Galena -- Air Force (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Galena -- high school (Bifelt, Fred Lee 1)
  • Galena -- more Western influence (Ned, Stanley 11)
  • Game Board -- ignoring recommendations (Bifelt, Fred Lee 6)
  • game warden -- learned himself, sent to Alaska, one of the best (William, William and Effie (1) 10)
  • game -- decline (Lounsbury, George 9)
  • game -- dropped off in 1940's, old game (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • game -- marten, lynx, wolf, mink, fox (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • game -- mink; fox; caribou-came every year (Beetus, Joe and Celia 2)
  • game -- thicker now (Reakoff, Jack 6)
  • games (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2) (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 11)
  • games -- sledding; baseball game; volleyball; football -- old timers used to play (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • garden (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • garden -- he taught others how to (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • gardening (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • gardening -- May (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • gas lamp -- filled up (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • gas station (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3)
  • gas -- doesn't take much for small one (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Gasser, George (Johnson, Walter (2) 3)
  • Gatahee, Burn (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • Gates (Swem, Ted 12), (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Gates of the Arctic (Bane, Ray (1) 12), (Bifelt, Fred Lee 9), (Brown, William (1) 6), (Collins, Bruce 10, 17), (English, Bill and Shirley 23), (Morry, Riley 5, 8), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 6), (Nelson, Richard 1, 8, 9), (Pepper, Jim (1) 2, 3, 7), (Pepper, Jim (2) 2), (Swem, Ted 7), (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • Gates of the Arctic as "premier wilderness park" (Kauffmann, John 8)
  • Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve (Brown, William (2) 6)
  • Gates of the Arctic Planning -- extreme ideal of National Park Service (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 2)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- chief ranger (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- described as "ultimate wilderness" (Brown, William (2) 2)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- human impact (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- issues (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- job offer (Bane, Ray (1) 6)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- land marks; named by Marshall (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- local attitudes toward (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- local use (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- long used as resource in reserve (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- lost idea of being total ecosystem to development interests (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- name attracts business, but can't advertise (Henderson, Joe 7)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- only park I'd work for (Holly, Susan 6)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- past time to leave; baggage; turmoil (Bane, Ray (1) 12)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- regional historian, project historian (Brown, William (1) 3)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- spiritual importance (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- subsistence (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- trips (Henderson, Joe 2)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- usage restrictions (Collins, Bruce 14)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- vastness (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- visitors (Collins, Bruce 15)
  • Gates of the Arctic -- wanted to protect against roads, development (Bane, Ray (1) 10)
  • Gates study (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Gates -- first study of (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • gathering -- begin about June 20 (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • Gaunt Beauty, Tenuous Life (Brown, William (1) 4)
  • Gayle, Rick (Collins, Bruce 2)
  • gear -- recovery (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • Geist, Otto (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • genepool (Pepper, Jim (2) 3)
  • generations -- they come after us (Williams, Susie 12)
  • geography (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4)
  • geological crews (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • geology class trip (Swem, Ted 2)
  • geology trip (Swem, Ted 3)
  • George (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • George the Greek (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • George Washington Memorial Parkway (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • George Washington University (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • Georgetown University -- Law School (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • Gerald -- electronics technician (Gray, Millie 7)
  • Germany (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 3)
  • GI Bill (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • gift shop (Morry, Riley 11)
  • gift wrapping -- techniques (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 5)
  • gifts (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 5)
  • gifts -- parkies, boots, mitts, jackets (Williams, Susie 9)
  • gifts -- slippers, boots, vests, mooseskin gloves, mittens, marten hats, blankets, socks (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • girls -- ate it; no other meat (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • girls -- honor their state (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Glacier (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • Glacier Bay (Collins, Bruce 8), (Swem, Ted 11, 14), (Swem, Ted (2) 2)
  • Glacier Bay National Monument (Kauffmann, John 3)
  • glaciers -- melting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • Gladys -- sister (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • Glennallen (Collins, Bruce 6)
  • global shrinking (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • goal -- helping others, working for the Lord (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • goal -- one year adventure in Alaska (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • gold (Johnson, Walter (1) 8), (Lounsbury, George 4),
  • Gold Creek (Johnson, Walter (1) 5), (Lounsbury, George 3, 9, 10)
  • gold dredges (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • gold mining (Sam Sr., Tony 1)
  • Gold Rush (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • Gold Rush history (Swem, Ted 12)
  • gold rush -- 1898; moose population crashed (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • gold rush -- good for trading post (Gray, Millie 1)
  • gold rush -- over one hundred cabins in Hughes (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • gold -- price (Johnson, Walter (1) 5)
  • gold -- scales (Lounsbury, George 10)
  • gold -- search for (Brockman, Ross 8)
  • gold -- sunburn (Johnson, Walter (1) 5)
  • Golden North Hotel (Swem, Ted 12)
  • Golden Towers -- Fairbanks (Lounsbury, George 8)
  • good lady -- made snow-shoes, sled (Ulen, Tishu 4)
  • Good, Jack (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • Gordon, Bishop -- offered deal on school (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • gospel music -- 1970's (Sam Sr., Tony 6)
  • government agencies (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 5)
  • government presence -- designed for future (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • government -- anti sentiment (Collins, Bruce 6)
  • government -- just one (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • government -- state and federal (Ned, Stanley 15)
  • governor (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)
  • governor -- schoolhouse (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • grade school principal -- trip to Alaska (Swem, Ted 2)
  • Grand Canyon of Noatak (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • Grand Teton National Park (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • grandchildren (Beetus, Joe and Celia 9), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • grandchildren -- today they get mad, talk back (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • grandfather (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11), (Mekiana, Debbie 4), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1), (Williams, Susie 3)
  • grandfather -- attended meeting (Morry, Riley 2)
  • grandfather -- Bergman, Billy (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • grandfather -- brought in muskrats early in morning, cooked hotcakes (Ned, Stanley 2)
  • grandfather -- Chief Moses; Alfred Isaac's uncle (William, William and Effie (1) 6)
  • grandfather -- coming to town with (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • grandfather -- didn't want to give me back (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 2)
  • grandfather -- good to kids, sent them stateside for education (Gray, Millie 1)
  • grandfather -- mom's dad (Morry, Riley 4)
  • grandfather -- offered to walk to Allakaket for holiday (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • grandfather -- Old Chief Moses (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • grandfather -- Old Henzie (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • grandfather -- respected, helpful man (Morry, Riley 4)
  • grandfather -- running trading post (Gray, Millie 1)
  • grandfather -- stories of early day games (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • grandfather -- taught skills (Ned, Stanley 2)
  • grandfather -- trader; lost money (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • grandfather -- travel (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • Grandma Cathleen -- nearly died, measles (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • Grandma Christine -- sister (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • grandma -- had stroke, crippled hands (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • grandma -- Madeline (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 8)
  • Grandmother Louise -- grandfather's sister from Huslia (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • grandmother -- died when Effie was seven or eight (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • grandmother -- died, 1940 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 3)
  • grandmother -- divided fish (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • grandmother -- don't know her name (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • grandmother -- father's side; served the girls first (Ulen, Tishu 1)
  • grandmother -- Henzie, Julia (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • grandmother -- mother's mother (Ulen, Tishu 4)
  • grandmother -- sewing for sale; candlelight (Henzie, Moses and Marie 5)
  • grandmother -- sewing with salmon skin (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • grandmother -- treatment; had to keep in dark tent (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • Grandpa Joe -- first hunt with at eleven (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • Grandpa Sammy (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • Grandpa Sammy -- lost two stores (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • grandpa -- had house on other side; before the Indians came (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • grandparents (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • grandparents -- growing up with Neds (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • grandparents -- living with; fishing; play; happiness (Gray, Millie 4)
  • grandparents -- mother's parents raised her (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 3)
  • grandparents -- mother's side (Mekiana, Debbie 4)
  • grandparents -- raised by (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • grandparents -- showed us how to live (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 4)
  • grandparents -- Tobuk, Tinuk (Gray, Millie 4)
  • grandson -- Brown, Mark (Sam Sr., Tony 6)
  • grandson -- started own band playing bars at seventeen (Sam Sr., Tony 6)
  • Gravel -- shot his mouth off (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • gravel bars -- landing (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • gravel berms (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • Gravel, Mike Senator (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • Gravel, Mike -- threatened to kill legislation (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • Gray, Millie -- cousin (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • grayling (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 8), (English, Bill and Shirley 5), (Johnson, Walter (1) 14), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3), (Vent, Bobby 1)
  • grayling -- first catch, good trap (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 5)
  • grease (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • Great Depression (English, Bill and Shirley 10)
  • great grandpa -- rich (Vent, Mary 2)
  • great spirit -- created Nunamiut (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • Griffits, Dick (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 7)
  • Griffits, Dick -- finished trip (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 7)
  • Grizzly Adams (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • grizzly bear (Lounsbury, George 8)
  • grizzly bear -- story (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • grizzly bears (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • grizzly skin -- used for houses, door, dog pack (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3)
  • grizzly -- aklaq (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • grizzly -- Angatkuq (river) (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • grizzly -- as a threat (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • grizzly -- impaling (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • groceries (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 4)
  • groceries -- coffee, sugar, tea (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17)
  • grocery (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17)
  • grocery store (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3)
  • grooming (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • ground sluicing (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 3)
  • ground squirrel -- trap (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5)
  • ground truthing -- Arrigetch (Kauffmann, John 5)
  • grounding -- always made it through (Gray, Millie 3)
  • group size -- limits (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 6)
  • growth -- impact (Collins, Bruce 10)
  • GS 3 -- seasonal ranger (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • Gubser, Nicholas (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • Guide Board (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1)
  • guide experience -- early (Schmitz, Dave 4)
  • guides (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • guides -- contracts (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3)
  • guides -- increase pressure (Reakoff, Jack 4)
  • guides -- most angered (Bane, Ray (1) 14)
  • guides -- opposed park (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • guides -- permanent (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • guides -- recreational (Collins, Bruce 6)
  • guides -- regulation (Collins, Bruce 14)
  • guiding (Collins, Bruce 16), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • guiding areas -- were a good thing (Reakoff, Jack 3)
  • guiding income -- chief source (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1)
  • guiding licenses -- proposal to issue (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 4)
  • guiding -- aerial hunting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4)
  • guiding -- early, had specific areas for each guide (Reakoff, Jack 3)
  • guiding -- he wanted somebody to do that from Huslia; people were against it (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 4)
  • guiding -- often wrongly conjured; small supplement to income, taking out three to four hunters per year (Reakoff, Jack 3)
  • guitar (Henzie, Moses and Marie 9)
  • guitar -- boys play (Sam Sr., Tony 6)
  • gun -- bought .22 single shot for a no good mink skin (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • guns (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • guns -- for sale (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • guns -- personal protection (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • guns -- responsibility (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • Gustavus (Brown, William (1) 2)
  • Gwich'in -- Athabascan (Brown, William (1) 6)
  • H
  • Hagen, Mr. and Mrs -- teachers (Mekiana, Justus (1) 12)
  • Hagget, Jack -- big, husky; lazy (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • Haines, Mr. (Brockman, Ross 3)
  • Haines -- took twenty-four dogs on location (Henderson, Joe 3)
  • Hamlin River (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • Hammond River (Brown, William (1) 7), (English, Bill and Shirley 7, 18, 20), (Johnson, Walter (1) 3, 5, 8, 11, 12), (Lounsbury, George 3, 5, 12), (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Hammond River -- upper (Lounsbury, George 7)
  • Hammond, Jay (Swem, Ted 7)
  • Hankie, John (Holly, Susan 4)
  • Hanky, John (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • Hannah, Jim (Collins, Bruce 8)
  • Hannah -- her daughter, Health Aide in Evansville; Rhoda (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • Hanson, Senator (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Hanzel and Gretel (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • happy house -- at summer camp (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 14)
  • Happy, Celia -- mother (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 1)
  • hard times (Sam Sr., Tony 3), (Vent, Mary 1)
  • hard times -- crippled, yet started a family (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • hard times -- crutches until thirty years old (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 1)
  • hard times -- no money; good life, but times of want (Bifelt, Fred Lee 5)
  • hard times -- not much time for school (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • harnesses -- binary lines (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 9)
  • Harry, Ross (Lounsbury, George 2, 14)
  • Hartel, Paul (Collins, Bruce 8)
  • Hartzog, George (Swem, Ted 10, 14), (Swem, Ted (2) 2, 3)
  • Harvard University -- graduate school (Swem, Ted 3)
  • harvest (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 5)
  • Harvey (English, Bill and Shirley 18)
  • Harvey, Ken (English, Bill and Shirley 5, 8)
  • hats (Gray, Millie 7)
  • hats -- fur (English, Bill and Shirley 6)
  • Haul Road (Brown, William (1) 7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 6), (Lounsbury, George 7, 9, 14)
  • Haul Road -- 1974 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10), (Johnson, Walter (1) 7, 15), (Johnson, Walter (2) 4), (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • Haul Road -- better route (Morry, Riley 7)
  • Haul Road -- construction "like burying one of your relatives" (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • hauling freight (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • hauling wood (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • hauling wood -- with dogs (David, David and Kitty 5)
  • hauling -- boat (Beetus, Joe and Celia 2)
  • hauling -- dogs, dried meat, family, tent, Yukon stove (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • hauling -- ice (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • hauling -- meat for sale (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • hauling -- pulled seven foot basket sleigh; loaded, one dog (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 4)
  • Hawaii (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • Hawaii -- trip (Swem, Ted 7)
  • hay (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 5)
  • hay -- 30 acres (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 5)
  • hay -- grower (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • hay -- mow (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 5)
  • headquarters -- placement of in Gates Park (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • headwater lakes (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • health (Johnson, Walter (1) 12)
  • Health Aide (David, David and Kitty 6)
  • Health Aide volunteer -- only one, 1958-69 (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 14)
  • health -- alcohol related (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 4)
  • health -- drug problems (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 4)
  • health -- mental (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 4)
  • health -- nurses aide, wages (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 2)
  • health -- patient hostel (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 2)
  • health -- patients feel better with local aids; more open (David, David and Kitty 6)
  • health -- public health nurses (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 13)
  • health -- use of sulpher (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 9)
  • hearings -- almost done just to have record of dealing with Natives (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • Heflinger, Fred (Lounsbury, George 2)
  • heft -- not a problem
  • Heidelberg (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 6)
  • helicopter (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • helicopter pilot -- day pack spotted (Fickus, Bill and Fickus (5) 1)
  • Helmerick, Bud -- guiding area (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • Helmericks, Bud (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Hemingway, Ernest (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • Henderson, Joe (Collins, Bruce 15)
  • Henderson, Sherry -- wife, storekeeper (Henderson, Joe 5)
  • Henry, Alda -- beadwork; changed name to Alda Frank (Bifelt, Madeline 9)
  • Henry, Matthew -- married Lavine's adopted sister (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Henry, Matthew -- Huslia (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Henry, Samson -- council member, wanted new church (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • Henry, South Fork (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Henshaw (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1, 4, 7)
  • Henshaw Creek -- south fork (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • Henshaw -- mother checked trap (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 6)
  • Henshaw -- trail to Allakaket (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Henson, Al (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • Henzie, Moses -- get along nice; trap together, good cook (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 6)
  • Henzie, Moses -- got started on fiddle (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Henzie, Moses -- grandfather was Old Henzie (William, William and Effie (1) 6)
  • heritage (Henderson, Joe 11)
  • Herrmann, Sepp (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • hernia (Lounsbury, George 7)
  • Herschel Island (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Hess Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9)
  • Hickel Highway (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8, 10), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2), (Holly, Susan 2, 4), (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • Hickel Highway -- before (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • Hickel Highway -- cat train (Morry, Riley 7)
  • Hickel Highway -- remains (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • Hickel, Walter -- 1974 Governor (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 7)
  • Hickel, Walter -- trip (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • hides (Bifelt, Madeline 9)
  • hides -- moose, wolverine (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • Hieb, Dave (Swem, Ted 4)
  • high school (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2), (Ned, Stanley 1)
  • high school -- Fairbanks
  • high water (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 5)
  • highbush berries (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • hiking (Bane, Ray (2) 5), (Holly, Susan 7)
  • Hill, Amelia (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • Hill, Amelia -- extracting teeth (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • Hill, Amelia -- missionary (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • Hill, Amelia -- missionary, nurse (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 1)
  • Hill, Miss (Bifelt, Madeline 2)
  • Hill, Miss Amelia (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • Hill, Miss -- good nurse (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • Hill, Miss -- minister, nurse (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • Hill, Miss -- nurse (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 4), (David, David and Kitty 6)
  • Hines, Clara -- missionary (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 9)
  • Hines, Miss (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Hiram College -- graduated in 1972 (Schmitz, Dave 1)
  • historic site -- definition (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • historic site -- evaluation (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • historic site -- preservation (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • historic site -- surveys (Brown, William (1) 3)
  • historic sites (Brown, William (1) 1, 13)
  • historic sites -- good provision (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3)
  • historic studies (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • historical narrative (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • historical site (Brown, William (1) 4)
  • history (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • history -- human (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • history -- market hunters (Reakoff, Jack 6)
  • history -- ninety-nine percent of Alaska was federal land before any of this started (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • history -- preserve history and culture (Henderson, Joe 11)
  • hitting the mark -- excellent technique; complete control (Henderson, Joe 4)
  • Hoagland, Joe (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1), (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • Hoagland, Joe -- old miner
  • Hog River (William, William and Effie (1) 6)
  • Hog River John -- built house (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3)
  • Hog River -- hard traveling (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • Hog River -- Hogatza River (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 12), (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3), (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 3)
  • Hog River -- Hogatza river, cabin; 1950 (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Hog River -- spring camp (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • Holbrook Training Center (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • holiday potlatch (Vent, Mary 4)
  • holidays (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • holidays -- get together (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • Holland, John -- snuck his female dog over to breed (Henderson, Joe 10)
  • Hollier, Susan (Collins, Bruce 8)
  • Holly, Tom (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Holy Cross -- school (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • Holy Cross -- sent by sidewheeler to school (Vent, Bobby 1)
  • Holzworth, John (Swem, Ted 11)
  • Homer (Johnson, Walter (2) 2)
  • Homer, Mekiana (Mekiana, Justus (1) 14)
  • homesites (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • homestead -- Nevada (Brockman, Ross 6)
  • homesteaders (Collins, Bruce 5)
  • homesteading (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • homesteads (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1)
  • Hope, Johnny -- used to carry me when only six (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • Hope, Ludie (Johnson, Walter (1) 10)
  • Hope, Ludie -- auntie (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Hope, Putu (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1, 2), (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Hope, Putu -- have grandchildren up here (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Hope, Sam (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Hope, Sammy (Lounsbury, George 3, 4), (Johnson, Walter (1) 10)
  • Hope, Sammy -- Putu's brother (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Hope -- family (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • hope -- that people will take care of themselves and each other (Williams, Susie 13)
  • Hopis (Brown, William (1) 6)
  • horse -- crossing river (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • horse -- stepped on Tim (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • horses (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2, 10), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • horses -- 7 to 9 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 5)
  • horses -- boarding (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • horses -- chase grizzly bears (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • horses -- horse barn (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • horses -- kick with back feet (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • horses -- one for everyone (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • hospital (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • hospital work (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5)
  • hospital -- Fort Yukon (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6)
  • hospital -- housekeeping, twelve years (Gray, Millie 8)
  • hospital -- Tanana and Mt. Edgecumbe (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • hot plates (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • Hot Springs (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • Hot Springs National Park (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • house -- between Hughes and Allakaket (Williams, Susie 7)
  • house -- built across river for peace, quiet (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • house -- first, 1940 (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • house -- Hughes (Williams, Susie 4)
  • house -- moving from bank; rollers, logs, jacks, winch (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • house -- sod (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • houses -- description, sod (igluruk) subterranean tents -- description, skin (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • houses -- log and sod (Morry, Riley 1)
  • Hudokkaakk'at -- mouth of Old Man Creek (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • Hughes (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6), (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5), (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3), (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3), (English, Bill and Shirley 2), (Gray, Millie 2), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9), (Ned, Stanley 11), (Nelson, Richard 8, 9, 10), (Sam Sr., Tony 1), (William, William and Effie (1) 2, 4, 5)
  • Hughes -- age fourteen (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Hughes -- dog sled down with five dogs, no trail (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • Hughes -- dogs stayed with Lavine (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • Hughes -- earthquake (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • Hughes -- foot race week after giving birth (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • Hughes -- forty miles below (Williams, Susie 5)
  • Hughes -- James family store (English, Bill and Shirley 16)
  • Hughes -- moved there in 1942 (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Hughes -- not much to eat (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • Hughes -- parents near there (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • Hughes -- revived (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • Hughes -- school
  • Hughes -- three years (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • Hughes -- visit relatives upriver (Holly, Susan 7)
  • Hugo family (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 14)
  • Hugo, Henry (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • Hugo, Jack Rice (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 13)
  • Hugo, John (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 10), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • Hulee, Eddie(Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • humans -- part of, not masters (Kauffmann, John 9)
  • Humbolt River Valley (Brockman, Ross 6)
  • Hummel, Ed (Swem, Ted 3)
  • Hunt Fork (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2, 6, 7), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15), (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 1), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11)
  • Hunt Fork -- area from where trees were brought (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • hunt -- in one place (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3)
  • hunter (Mekiana, Debbie 3)
  • hunters (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • hunting (Bifelt, Fred Lee 5), (Brockman, Ross 4), (Brown, William (1) 2), (Collins, Bruce 16), (David, David and Kitty 2, 8), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1, 7, 8), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4) (Holly, Susan 1) (Morry, Riley 2, 5, 10), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 6)
  • hunting camp (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1)
  • hunting trapping (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • hunting -- always following game (Ulen, Tishu 1)
  • hunting -- bear (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • hunting -- bear story (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • hunting -- black bear, moose, sheep, caribou (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • hunting -- black bear; grizzly bear (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • hunting -- bow (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • hunting -- by canoe (Bifelt, Madeline 3)
  • hunting -- caribou (English, Bill and Shirley 5), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 6), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3, 6, 9)
  • hunting -- caribou, behind rocks (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 8)
  • hunting -- caribou, techniques (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • hunting -- children participation (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • hunting -- closed areas, concentrated users (Holly, Susan 6)
  • hunting -- considerations (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 8)
  • hunting -- didn't go, happy when they came home with meat (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • hunting -- drying meat to prevent spoilage (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • hunting -- ducks, muskrat (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1)
  • hunting -- expert at sitting (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • hunting -- fall, individualistic (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 8)
  • hunting -- first time at twelve or earlier; .22 rifle (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 4)
  • hunting -- for others (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 9)
  • hunting -- good down there; invited us (Williams, Susie 7)
  • hunting -- grizzly means courage (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • hunting -- grizzly, techniques (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • hunting -- grizzly, when to hunt (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • hunting -- inexperience with caribou (Schmitz, Dave 2)
  • hunting -- learned from them (Ned, Stanley 2)
  • hunting -- moose (Holly, Susan 4), (Lounsbury, George 8), (Sam Sr., Tony 3)
  • hunting -- moose and caribou (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • hunting -- moose, caribou, sheep (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • hunting -- never directly discuss plans (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 7)
  • hunting -- no chance for school (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • hunting -- overkill (English, Bill and Shirley 21)
  • hunting -- rabbit, chicken, grouse, ptarmigan; hardly any moose (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • hunting -- rabbits (English, Bill and Shirley 5)
  • hunting -- restricted by Park Service boundaries (Mekiana, Justus (2) 1)
  • hunting -- restrictions (Collins, Bruce 3), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 6)
  • hunting -- sheep(English, Bill and Shirley 5)
  • hunting -- sheep, grizzly, black bear (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3)
  • hunting -- sheep; caribou; black bear; moose (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • hunting -- sport (Collins, Bruce 3, 15)
  • hunting -- stories (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • hunting -- technique change (English, Bill and Shirley 21)
  • hunting -- throwing sticks (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • hunting -- use of dogs (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • hunting -- use of rifles (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • hunting -- used to be the best up there (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • hunting -- winter, communal (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 8)
  • hunting -- wounded animals (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • Huntington, Jim (Vent, Mary 3)
  • Huntington, Jim -- in his old Allakaket store (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • Huntington, Jim -- wrote Juneau about school (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • Huntington, Jimmy (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3)
  • Huntington, Jimmy -- Hog River, learning from each other (Vent, Bobby 3)
  • Huntington, Sydney (Vent, Mary 3)
  • Huntington -- started store, 1940s (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • Hunt Fork (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10), (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • Hunts Fork -- alternate village site (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3, 6)
  • huntsfork
  • husband -- crippled by chipped bone in leg (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 6)
  • husband -- didn't like her to eat bear, hutlanee for him (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • husband -- died of TB while she was carrying daughter Isabel (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • husband -- employment (Holly, Susan 4)
  • husband -- first died (Williams, Susie 3)
  • husband -- go to mining camp in summer (Williams, Susie 4)
  • husband -- her grandma (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • husband -- she followed to Alaska (Holly, Susan 1)
  • husband -- South Fork River (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • husband -- stationed at Ladd Airforce Base (Gray, Millie 8)
  • husband -- Tom (Holly, Susan 1)
  • Huslia (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 4), (Bifelt, Fred Lee 1, 3), (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1), (Gray, Millie 2), (Holly, Susan 7), (Ned, Stanley 11), (Nelson, Richard 8, 9, 10)
  • Huslia River (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • Huslia River -- North Fork (Vent, Mary 3)
  • Huslia -- three years (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • Husted, Jim (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Hutchinson, Bill (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3, 4)
  • Hutchinson, Bill -- airplane crash (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3)
  • Hutchinson, Bill -- death (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • Hutchinson, Bill -- tanning (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • hutlanee (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3)
  • hutlanee -- intermarriage (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • hutlanee -- restrictions regarding bear; not enforced on Alatna side (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • Hutlannee -- taboo; rules regarding game (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 7)
  • I
  • ice (Brockman, Ross 8), (Ulen, Tishu 5)
  • ice falling through (Schmitz, Dave 3)
  • ice -- break through (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • ice -- let form (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 5)
  • ice -- thin (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • Ida (Williams, Susie 1)
  • identity -- embracing technology (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 6)
  • Iditarod -- dog injuries (Vent, Bobby 3)
  • Iditarod -- putting together a team of good, honest village dogs (Vent, Bobby 3)
  • Iditarod -- Rainy Pass, Unalakleet, Nome (Vent, Bobby 3)
  • igloos (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • igloos -- sod & stone (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 3)
  • Ikiaqpak (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5, 18), (Mekiana, Justus (2) 1)
  • Ikiaqpak -- caribou (Mekiana, Justus (1) 8)
  • Iliamna (Swem, Ted 12)
  • illness -- from dry meat (Williams, Susie 2)
  • illness -- got warning not to come in (Williams, Susie 2)
  • Imaigñiq (Mekiana, Justus (1) 12)
  • immunizations (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 13)
  • Imnavaich (Mekiana, Justus (1) 6)
  • Imp -- Wilfred Evans' boat (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • impact -- commercial; hurts a lot (Henderson, Joe 7)
  • impact -- negative (Holly, Susan 6)
  • impact -- on federal law (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • impact -- personal; can still hunt and fish (Henderson, Joe 7)
  • impact -- positives; good place for subsistence activities and dog mushing; large area (Henderson, Joe 7)
  • implementation -- patience, compromise, sensitivity (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • impressions (Kauffmann, John 4)
  • inaccessibility (Collins, Bruce 13)
  • inboard (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • income -- $8000 between them (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • income -- firefighting; commercial fishing, etc. (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • income -- need for more opportunities (Bifelt, Fred Lee 9)
  • income -- small (Henderson, Joe 9)
  • Indian Creek (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Indian hunter -- perceptions of (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • Indian Mountain (Sam Sr., Tony 1)
  • Indian Mountain -- he took care of mining camp (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • Indian Reorganization Act (Ned, Stanley 15)
  • Indian River (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • Indian Wars (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • Indian way (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • Indian -- cultures of (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • Indian -- Eva (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • Indians (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • infection -- ear (Bifelt, Madeline 5)
  • influence (Schmitz, Dave 11)
  • influences -- friend; movie "White Wilderness," filmed mostly in Brooks Range (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • Ingstad, Helge (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 13)
  • Ingstad, Helge -- Scandinavian living in area (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 6)
  • inherent tension -- wilderness mandate vs living area (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • inholdings -- placer mines (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Iniakuk Lake (Kauffmann, John 7)
  • injuries -- White had bullet scars (William, William and Effie (1) 10)
  • inlaws -- lived with (Williams, Susie 3)
  • insurance (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1), (Henderson, Joe 7), (Schmitz, Dave 6)
  • insurance -- high price, guides need to take more hunters (Reakoff, Jack 4)
  • interests -- camping, hiking, hunting (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • Interior Department Grumman Goose (Kauffmann, John 4)
  • Interior, Department of (Brown, William (2) 7)
  • interior -- mountain valleys (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • intermarriage (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • international park (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • intimidation (Collins, Bruce 4)
  • intrinsic value (Kauffmann, John 9)
  • introduction -- January 29, 1979 (Brockman, Ross 1)
  • Inulereck, Hugh (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 10)
  • Inupiaq (Bane, Ray (2) 4), (English, Bill and Shirley 17), ( Mekiana, Debbie 6)
  • Iñupiaq people (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Inupiaq -- grandmother taught (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Inupiaq -- how to become (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • Inupiaq -- language learning (Mekiana, Debbie 5)
  • Inupiaq -- learning language (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • involvement -- 1940's (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • Iowa State University (Swem, Ted 3)
  • Irish (English, Bill and Shirley 9)
  • Irving, Dr. (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 15)
  • Irving, Dr. Lawrence (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 15)
  • Irving, Dr. -- grandfather worked with (Morry, Riley 4)
  • Isaac, Alfred (Williams, Susie 7)
  • Isaac, Alfred -- father (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • Isaac, Happy John -- father (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 1)
  • Isaac, Happy John -- Hog River (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3)
  • Isaac, John (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • Isaac, Julia -- mother (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • Isaac -- father's father (William, William and Effie (1) 6)
  • Isabel -- sister (Bifelt, Madeline 5)
  • isolation (Brown, William (1) 12), (Schmitz, Dave 3)
  • isolation -- no post office 'till 1947; no school (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • Issac, Dr. Paul (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 12)
  • Issac, Dr. -- sent Fickus medical supplies (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 12)
  • issues (Holly, Susan 1)
  • issues -- children must understand (Morry, Riley 12)
  • issues -- several issues being worked on when Pepper joined the National Park Service -- Alaska (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • itchalik -- tuttu tent (Mekiana, Justus (1) 3)
  • Itchugaq , Wilbur (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2) (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 9)
  • Itchulok, Wilber
  • Itkillik people (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Itkillik River (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2), (Reakoff, Jack 10)
  • Itqiligmiut (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Itqiligmiut -- go through the Itqiliq (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • ivrulik -- sod house (Mekiana, Justus (1) 3)
  • J
  • Jack, Charlie (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Jackson, Sheldon (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • James (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • James, Johnny (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • James, Les -- Hughes (Bifelt, Madeline 7)
  • James, Les -- wife, weather report to Wien (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • janitoring -- clinic and city hall, 1979 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 2)
  • jigs (Sam Sr., Tony 4)
  • Jim River (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Jim River -- built trapping cabin (Henderson, Joe 1)
  • job (Ned, Stanley 13)
  • job offer -- 1981, first superintendent of Gates of the Arctic National Park (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • job -- cook's helper (Gray, Millie 7)
  • job -- garment industry (Gray, Millie 8)
  • job -- liaison between NPS and local communities; explore area (Bane, Ray (1) 7)
  • job -- like it a lot (Holly, Susan 6)
  • jobs -- foundry (Bane, Ray (1) 1)
  • jobs -- store; bed and breakfast; campground; trapping; dog sled tours (Henderson, Joe 1)
  • jobs -- strong work ethic; variety (Bifelt, Fred Lee 1)
  • jobs -- variety, seasonal (Schmitz, Dave 4)
  • John River (Brown, William (2) 1), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5, 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2, 4, 5 ), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3), (Holly, Susan 7), (Johnson, Walter (1) 14), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1, 3), (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 1), (Reakoff, Jack 2), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 2, 6), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3), (Schmitz, Dave 4, 5, 8), (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • John River Valley (Pepper, Jim (1) 3), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 7)
  • John River -- respected each other's lines (Holly, Susan 4)
  • John River -- stay 'til slush ice (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • John River -- vacant spot (Holly, Susan 2)
  • John, Arctic (Brown, William (1) 13), (Johnson, Walter (1) 3, 4, 9, 12)
  • John, Arctic -- father (Johnson, Walter (1) 9)
  • John, Ester (Johnson, Walter (1) 4, 9)
  • John, Grandma Molly -- Sitka (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • John, Lucy (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • John, Molly (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • John, Peter -- Minto; knows the old way (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • Johnson (Gray, Millie 10)
  • Johnson Administration -- National Monument and Proprosal, 1968 (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • Johnson Administration -- proposed 2 units separated by John River Valley (Kauffmann, John 7)
  • Johnson Proclamations (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Johnson, Bill (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Johnson, David (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • Johnson, Dr. Walter, Wiseman, 1940 (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • Johnson, Dr. -- "athletes and esthetes" (Brown, William (2) 2)
  • Johnson, Ernie (Brown, William (1) 7), (Brown, William (2) 1), (Lounsbury, George 1)
  • Johnson, Ernie -- not enough credit (Schmitz, Dave 13)
  • Johnson, Jim (Lounsbury, George 4)
  • Johnson, Lady Bird (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Johnson, Lyndon (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Johnson, Lyndon -- story (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Johnson, Walt (English, Bill and Shirley 12, 23)
  • Johnson, Walter (English, Bill and Shirley 13)
  • Johnson, Walter -- sold it to them (Henderson, Joe 5)
  • Johnson -- adopted out (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • joint use area (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • Jonas family (Johnson, Walter (1) 9)
  • Jonas, Jacob (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Jonas, Mrs. (Lounsbury, George 2, 6, 7, 10)
  • Jonas, Mrs. -- death (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Jonas -- children (Johnson, Walter (1) 4)
  • Jones (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1)
  • Jones, Anore (Nelson, Richard 5)
  • Jones, Bobby (English, Bill and Shirley 8, 9)), (Johnson, Walter (1) 11, 13), (Lounsbury, George 3, 4, 6), (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Jones, Harry -- first storekeeper (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3)
  • Jones, Keith (Nelson, Richard 5)
  • Jones, Professor Eliza (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • Jones, Randy (Pepper, Jim (1) 4), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • Josephine -- California (Bifelt, Madeline 6), (Gray, Millie 7)
  • Josephine -- California, eight kids
  • journals (Brown, William (1) 11)
  • Julia, Auntie (Williams, Susie 7)
  • July -- molting geese; taking (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • Juneau (Brown, William (1) 8), (English, Bill and Shirley 22), (Nelson, Richard 8)
  • Junior -- thirty-six years for the Federal Aviation Administration (Gray, Millie 7)
  • Justine -- grandmother (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 8)
  • K
  • K'oyitl'ots'ina' (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3)
  • Kakiññaa , Elijah Groovenstein (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Kakinya, Elijah (Brown, William (1) 13), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5, 10), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 7), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2, 4, 13)
  • Kakinya, Elijah -- false ivory tooth (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 14)
  • Kakinya, Abraham (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 7, 14)
  • Kakinya, Elijah -- cultural resource (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • Kakinya, Elijah -- proud man, admirable (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • Kakinya, Mae (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 7, 13)
  • Kakinya, Marie (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3, 6)
  • Kakinya, Ruth -- adopted (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 7)
  • Kaktovik (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 1)
  • Kaltag (Vent, Bobby 2), (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Kantishna River (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Kantishna -- trapping, two winters (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • Kantner, Erna
  • Kantner, Howie (Nelson, Richard 5)
  • Kanuti (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 6), (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • Kanuti area (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4)
  • Kanuti Flats (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1, 9), (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 2), (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • Kanuti Flats -- winter, people traveling lake to lake for blackfish (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge (Schmitz, Dave 7)
  • Kanuti Pass (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • Kanuti River (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9), (David, David and Kitty 2), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • Kanuti -- 1955, last time over (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • Kanutna River (Beetus, Joe and Celia 2)
  • Katmai (Swem, Ted 7, 14)
  • Katmai addition (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Katmai National Monument
  • Katmai Park (Collins, Bruce 5)
  • Katmai -- brown bears (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • Katmai -- fishing (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • Katmai -- signed (Swem, Ted (2) 5)
  • Katmai -- volcanism (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • Kauffmann, John (Bane, Ray (1) 6), (Pepper, Jim (1) 4)
  • Kauffmann, John -- administration of Park (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • Kauffmann, John -- explored much (Bane, Ray (1) 7)
  • Kauffmann, John -- played important role in feasibility study; "key man" (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • Kauffmann, John -- wanted wandering rights (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • Kauffmann -- enjoyable, preservation oriented (Schmitz, Dave 8)
  • Kauffmann -- got out in country; had public means to do so (Schmitz, Dave 8)
  • Kauffmann, John (Schmitz, Dave 8)
  • Kavick, Ben (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 13)
  • Kavik -- translated "wolverine" (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 8)
  • Kavik Creek
  • Kavik Creek -- upper Anaktiktok (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 8)
  • Kay, Bessie (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • Kay, Bessie -- missionary (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 5, 11)
  • Kay, Bessie -- missionary, only teacher (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 2)
  • Kay, Miss -- gave chance to play violin (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Kay, Miss -- said talk English only; believed her, lost our understanding (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Kay, Miss Bessie (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3), (Bifelt, Madeline 2), (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • Keller, Pat -- preacher (Vent, Mary 5)
  • Kelly's Mistake (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • Kenai Fjords National Park (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Kennedy, John F. (Swem, Ted 10)
  • Kennedy, Mary and Philip (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Kennedy, Pres. John (Swem, Ted 5)
  • Kenton, Daniel -- father's brothers
  • Ketcher, Dave (Henderson, Joe 10), (Schmitz, Dave 5)
  • KFAR -- "Tundra Topics", as forecaster of outsiders (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 1)
  • Kiak Creek (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 13)
  • Kiana (Johnson, Walter (1) 9)
  • kids -- teenagers (Schmitz, Dave 4)
  • Killigmiut (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Killigmiut -- Killik people (Mekiana, Justus (1) 1)
  • Killik (Morry, Riley 2)
  • Killik Lake -- west side of Gates (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Killik River (Collins, Bruce 13), (Holly, Susan 7), (Pepper, Jim (2) 1)
  • Killik -- points dated to six to eight thousand years (Schmitz, Dave 12)
  • Killik -- springtime (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Killiq (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Killiq -- Iniqagligruaq (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • kindergarten -- first year at new school (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • King Salmon (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • Kinney, Emily (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • Kinney, Robert (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • kinship -- with land, generation after generation (Schmitz, Dave 14)
  • Kit, Burney (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • Kitligmiu -- grandfather is Kitligmiu (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Kitligmiut (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Kitliq area -- no school (Mekiana, Justus (1) 12)
  • Kitliq -- place (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5)
  • Kittillik -- people that Justus is from (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Kitty -- her younger sister (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • Kk'eeyh Daghaleetna (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Kline, Dave -- Fish and Wildlife (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • knee -- fracture, Kitty (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 15)
  • Knik Arm (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • knowledge -- learned, not instinctive, and must be passed on (Reakoff, Jack 10)
  • knowledge -- more emphasis on real experience, less on college degrees (Bifelt, Fred Lee 7)
  • knowledge -- they know a lot (Williams, Susie 12)
  • Knowles, Larry (Swem, Ted 4)
  • Kobuk (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9), (Brown, William (1) 6, 7, 10, 14), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3), (English, Bill and Shirley 3), (Johnson, Walter (1) 9), (Mekiana, Justus 3), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 1), (Nelson, Richard 8), (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4), (Schmitz, Dave 9), (Ulen, Tishu 1, 3), (Vent, Mary 5), (William, William and Effie (1) 6)
  • Kobuk Eskimos (Gray, Millie 4)
  • Kobuk National Monument (Nelson, Richard 1)
  • Kobuk people (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 5)
  • Kobuk Portage (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • Kobuk Region (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • Kobuk River (Bane, Ray (1) 5), (Bane, Ray (2) 4, 6), (Brown, William (1) 7, 11), (David, David and Kitty 1), (Holly, Susan 7), (Nelson, Richard 1), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3), (Williams, Susie6, 9)
  • Kobuk Valley National Monument (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • Kobuk River -- meeting place (Williams, Susie 9)
  • Kobuk River -- patrol; natural history; archaeology (Schmitz, Dave 12)
  • Kobuk River -- people (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • Kobuk River -- relatives (David, David and Kitty 4)
  • Kobuk -- all grandma's from (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • Kobuk -- final edit (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Kobuk -- Hope came from (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Kobuk -- people (Brown, William (2) 2)
  • Kobuk -- proposal and Environmental Impact Statement (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • Kobuk -- Selawik herd (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • Kobuk -- study (Nelson, Richard 3)
  • Kobuk -- travel by dogteam (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • Kobuk -- traveling to Alatna (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 1)
  • Kockrine, Andy -- mail carrier (Henzie, Moses and Marie 2)
  • Kodiak Island (Nelson, Richard 1)
  • Kogoluktuk (Kauffmann, John 12)
  • Kogoluktuk River -- staking land (Schmitz, Dave 9)
  • Kokrine, Andrew -- half Russian (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Kokrine -- Tony, Bergman, Andrew Jr. (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Kongumavik (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • Kongumavik Place (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • Kopkun -- my husband named after (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • Kopkun -- son that died (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • Korean War (Brown, William (1) 1), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2, 3)
  • Kostmeyer, Peter (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • Kotzebue (English, Bill and Shirley 22), (Johnson, Walter (1) 12), (Sam Sr., Tony 6), (William, William and Effie (1) 6, 9), (William, William and Effie (2) 1), (Williams, Susie 6, 7, 9), (Brown, William (2) 8), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • Kotzebue -- friend from tried to get Steven to guide (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 4)
  • Kotzebue -- manager assistant; park superintendent (Bane, Ray (1) 12)
  • Kotzebue -- Native name for (William, William and Effie (1) 6)
  • Kotzebue -- rainy, foggy (Ulen, Tishu 3)
  • Koyuk (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 13)
  • Koyukon (Bane, Ray (1) 6), (Brown, William (1) 6)
  • Koyukon Natives (Nelson, Richard 11)
  • Koyukon -- traditions (Nelson, Richard 11)
  • Koyukuk (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3), (Bane, Ray (2) 4), (Brown, William (1) 5, 14), (Brown, William (2) 1), (Johnson, Walter (1) 3, 14), (Lounsbury, George 3), (Ned, Stanley 11), (Nelson, Richard 1, 2, 10, 12), (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • Koyukuk People (Ned, Stanley 11)
  • Koyukuk River (Bane, Ray (1) 6), (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3), (Bifelt, Madeline 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2), (Johnson, Walter (1) 6), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1), (Ned, Stanley11), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 2), (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Koyukuk River -- camp on north side (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • Koyukuk River -- he served whole river at one time (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • Koyukuk River -- hunting for rats in spring (Vent, Mary 3)
  • Koyukuk River -- no white people around in old days (Williams, Susie 1)
  • Koyukuk River -- North Fork area (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • Koyukuk Station (Gray, Millie 2, 5)
  • Koyukuk Station -- freighting (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • Koyukuk, Annie and Jimmy (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • Koyukuk, Annie -- father's mother (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • Koyukuk, Grafton and Agnes (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • Koyukuk, Grafton -- Denali Center (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Koyukuk, Grafton -- first cousin, played mandolin (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Koyukuk, Grafton -- stepfather, 1935 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Koyukuk, Jimmy -- father's father (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • Koyukuk, Jimmy -- lived with them (Ned, Stanley 2)
  • Koyukuk, Paul (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Koyukuk, Rita (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • Koyukuk, Walter (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • Koyukuk, Walter -- Grafton's brother (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Koyukuk, Walter -- played guitar (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Koyukuk, William (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 6)
  • Koyukuk, William -- brother (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Koyukuk -- hauling freight (Bifelt, Madeline 7)
  • Koyukuk -- less fish (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 6)
  • Koyukuk -- middle (Johnson, Walter (1) 14)
  • Koyukuk -- Middle Fork (Lounsbury, George 4, 5)
  • Koyukuk -- Middlefork bridge (Lounsbury, George 7)
  • Koyukuk -- North Fork (Brown, William (1) 5), (Lounsbury, George 6, 11)
  • Koyukuk -- remote locations (Gray, Millie 1)
  • Koyukuk -- Southfork (Lounsbury, George 4)
  • Koyukuk -- station (English, Bill and Shirley 2, 12)
  • Koyukuk -- upper (Johnson, Walter (1) 5)
  • Koyukuk -- worked all over (William, William and Effie (1) 10)
  • Kruzenstern (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • KUAC -- friends for Lill (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Kunz, Mike (Brown, William (1) 3, 6)
  • Kurupa Lake (Kauffmann, John 12)
  • Kuskokwim (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • Kuskokwim -- three whites chased Indians away, killed moose to feed dogs (William, William and Effie (1) 10)
  • Kutchin (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • Kutuk Pass (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • Kuuvangmiut (Nelson, Richard 1)
  • L
  • La Rock, Jim -- landscape architect (Kauffmann, John 5)
  • Ladd Field (Mekiana, Justus (1) 9), (Johnson, Walter (1) 2)
  • Laird, Archie (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • Lake Clark (Collins, Bruce 2), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1), (Kauffmann, John 4), (Pepper, Jim (1) 2), (Swem, Ted 7, 8, 12, 14)
  • Lake Minchumina (Brown, William (1) 14), (Collins, Bruce 2)
  • Lake Todatonten -- Todaalltonh Dinh (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • lakes -- unidentified (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • lamb (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • lamp (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • lamp -- seal oil (Bane, Ray (2) 6)
  • land (Pepper, Jim (2) 3)
  • Land and Water Conservation Fund Act -- Congress (Swem, Ted 9)
  • land claims -- first heard in 1970; seventh or eighth grade (Bifelt, Fred Lee 2)
  • land deal -- brought Park and Village closer (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 9)
  • land deal -- proposed (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 9)
  • land issues (Morry, Riley 11)
  • land ownership (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • land selection -- impact of highway on (Morry, Riley 7)
  • land selections -- block D-2 areas (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • land withdrawals -- township and range lines (Kauffmann, John 11)
  • land -- "keep discovering" (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • land -- accessibility (English, Bill and Shirley 23, 24)
  • land -- accessibility
  • land -- culture is based in it (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • land -- discovery of new (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • land -- dividing of (Brown, William (2) 2)
  • land -- divisions (Bane, Ray (2) 4)
  • land -- federal (Brown, William (2) 2), (Collins, Bruce 5)
  • land -- Federal division (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • land -- federally owned (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • land -- fortress of "wild values" (Brown, William (2) 2)
  • land -- human impact (Johnson, Walter (1) 15)
  • land -- important, raised with it, village to village (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • land -- life depends upon (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 6)
  • land -- management (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • land -- National Park caliber landscape (Brown, William (2) 2)
  • land -- National Park is 8.7 million acres of landscape (Brown, William (2) 3)
  • land -- Native management (Bane, Ray (2) 5)
  • land -- Native use (Nelson, Richard 4, 5, 6)
  • land -- not enough in private hands (Schmitz, Dave 10)
  • land -- not exploited (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • land -- park system (English, Bill and Shirley 23)
  • land -- pick berries, cut wood, fishing, trapping (Beetus, Joe and Celia 9)
  • land -- policy (Mekiana, Justus (1) 18)
  • land -- protection of by Natives within area (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • land -- shared by people of all areas (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • land -- spirituality (Nelson, Richard 9, 10, 11)
  • land -- State selections (Brown, William (1) 15)
  • land -- status quo (Nelson, Richard 6)
  • land -- that is our store for fresh food (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • land -- traditional (Brown, William (1) 15)
  • land -- traditional use of (Mekiana, Justus (1) 18)
  • land -- usage (Nelson, Richard 3)
  • land -- value as collateral (Morry, Riley 11)
  • landing strip -- shovel, pick axes (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • Lands Program -- worked as cook, 1972-75 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 2)
  • lands -- cultural (Brown, William (1) 6)
  • landscape architecture (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 2)
  • language (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • language -- English spoken in school; hard (Ned, Stanley 4)
  • language -- loss (Mekiana, Debbie 6), (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • language -- loss of (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • language -- Natives have hard time with English, meanings differ (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • language -- Natives use mix of tongues (Ned, Stanley 10)
  • language -- punished for use of Native tongue (Ned, Stanley 4)
  • lanterns -- coleman (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 3)
  • LaRocka, Joe (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • Larry's Flying Service (Collins, Bruce 15)
  • last supper (Ned, Stanley 12)
  • last supper -- respect for deceased (Ned, Stanley 6)
  • Lathrop High School (Lounsbury, George 2), (Ned, Stanley 1)
  • Lathrop High School -- three years (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • Lathrop -- distractions (Ned, Stanley 7)
  • Latitude -- 67 degrees 37 minutes
  • Laughlin, William (Nelson, Richard 1)
  • Laura -- Ceza's mother (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • lawsuit -- feds vs state -- state won lower John River (Kauffmann, John 7)
  • law -- Alaska State Constitution (Brown, William (2) 7)
  • law -- enormously responsive (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • law -- no code of appeal (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • law -- reinterpretations (Brown, William (2) 7)
  • law -- statutory amendments (Brown, William (2) 7)
  • law -- whites, no historical precedent (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • laws -- come from outside (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • laws -- enforcement (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • laws -- some are bum, some O.K. (Williams, Susie 12)
  • lawyers (Schmitz, Dave 6)
  • lawyers -- took advantage (Bifelt, Fred Lee 4)
  • learning area (Collins, Bruce 7)
  • learning -- from everybody (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • learning -- new words like "contiguous" (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3)
  • learning -- slow; retrospective (Bane, Ray (1) 3)
  • Lee, Allen (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • Lee, Charlie (Bane, Ray (1) 6)
  • Lee, Richard (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • legacy -- arrival in 1981 effected by earlier enforcement oriented approach (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • legal terms (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • leggings -- caribou (Henzie, Moses and Marie 5)
  • legislation (Brown, William (2) 6)
  • legislation -- fitting park to it (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • legislation -- would plan around studies (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Leon (Williams, Susie 1)
  • Leonard, Harry (Henderson, Joe 10), (Johnson, Walter (1) 12), (Lounsbury, George 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11), (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Leonard, Harry -- "real nice country for a long time" (Reakoff, Jack 12)
  • Leonard, Harry -- casket for his dog (Henderson, Joe 10)
  • Leonard, Harry -- inheritance of property (Lounsbury, George 12)
  • Leonard, Savanna (Lounsbury, George 9)
  • Les, James -- 1937, he and his wife arrived for mining (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • lesson -- learn, watch, listen (Williams, Susie 12)
  • letter -- Holzworth (Swem, Ted 11)
  • liaison (Bane, Ray (1) 12)
  • Libbey -- family name (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Libby, David (Brown, William (1) 11)
  • library (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • license from missionary (Mekiana, Justus (1) 10)
  • license -- boat pilot's; Steven only Native to have in 1965 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 2)
  • licensing -- guides, outfitters (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 6)
  • life -- the nice live long (Williams, Susie 11)
  • life -- we all need each other; treat each other good (Williams, Susie 11)
  • lifestyle -- changes (Mekiana, Justus (1) 18)
  • lifestyle -- learned, must want to do it (Reakoff, Jack 10)
  • lifestyle -- not ready to give it up; enjoy it (Holly, Susan 8)
  • lifestyle -- struggle, not private land in Bettles (Schmitz, Dave 11)
  • Light, George -- store (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • Light, George -- store manager (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Linda Creek (Johnson, Walter (1) 5), (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • lining boats -- traveling up river with dogs (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 2)
  • lining rope -- 100 or more (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 11)
  • lining -- low water, mid-June (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • lining -- pulling boats upriver with dogs (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 11)
  • lining -- up river (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • lining -- upriver, below Allakaket (Williams, Susie 2)
  • Linus (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • Linus, Agnes (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Linus, Cathleen (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Linus, Daniel -- helped haul logs (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • Linus, Kathleen -- nice woman, fed us (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • Linus, Lawrence -- he was my best friend (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 6)
  • Linus, Old (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • Linus -- second wife, Cathleen (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • liquor (English, Bill and Shirley 21)
  • Lisa (Williams, Susie 4)
  • listening -- we tell them what we know (Williams, Susie 12)
  • litmus test -- "health of the world" (Kauffmann, John 9)
  • Little Chandler Lake (Mekiana, Debbie 3)
  • Little Peter (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • Little Sammy -- Tony's father, "Old Man" (Sam Sr., Tony 3)
  • live trap (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • Livengood (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9)
  • Livengood Race (Vent, Bobby 3)
  • living -- we have to try to make, don't take our lives (Williams, Susie 13)
  • lobbying (English, Bill and Shirley 22)
  • lobbyists (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • Lobovski, Mike -- took over store; went to Yukon after one year (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • local college -- attended (Swem, Ted 2)
  • local hiring -- encouraged within villages (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • local hiring -- knowledge of land is important in park service (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • local jobs (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 3)
  • local rural resident (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • local rural resident -- defining (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • local view -- provisions shouldn't exist in first place (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • local views -- wild land, why worry? (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • location -- caribou fences every fall and spring (Morry, Riley 2)
  • location -- most beautiful in world (Morry, Riley 12)
  • locations manager -- looking for mix of dogs (Henderson, Joe 3)
  • locations -- well distributed (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • lock-up -- false image (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • lock-up -- shame (Henderson, Joe 7)
  • Lockney, TX (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • lodge -- hauled logs from South Fork & North of Evansville (Gray, Millie 9)
  • Loeschy, Ray (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • log church (Mekiana, Justus (1) 10)
  • log huts (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 3)
  • logging -- sometimes, more in past (Henderson, Joe 9)
  • logging -- Southeast Alaska (Henderson, Joe 1)
  • logs -- finding right ones (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • logs -- hauling (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • logs -- straight grain, no limbs (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • Long Island, NY (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • Loon Pond (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 6)
  • Lounsbury, George (Lounsbury, George 9)
  • Lounsbury, Jim -- made coffin, dug hole in winter (Henderson, Joe 10)
  • Lower 48 (Mekiana, Debbie 5)
  • Lower 48 -- animals in zoos (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • Lower 48 -- checkerboard lands (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • Lower Alatna (Kauffmann, John 7)
  • lower camp (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11)
  • Lozo, Suzie (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Lucy -- married (Gray, Millie 10)
  • lumber -- whipsawed (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • lures (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • lush trap -- construction (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 5)
  • lush -- good, rich fish (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 6)
  • Lydia -- first wife (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • lynx (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • lynx -- females stop producing kittens before rabbit cycle crashes (Reakoff, Jack 9)
  • lynx -- not cut up (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • lynx -- snared one, sat in trap for whole year (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • M
  • Mabel (English, Bill and Shirley 7)
  • machinery (English, Bill and Shirley 22)
  • machinists (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 3)
  • Mackey, Bill and Rick (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • Mackey, Dick -- recommendation (Henderson, Joe 3)
  • Madeline (Williams, Susie 4)
  • magazine -- subscriptions (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Maggaqtuuq (Mekiana, Justus (1) 12)
  • Maggie -- also named (Williams, Susie 1)
  • Maggie -- half-sister (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Mahalik, Dave (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3, 8)
  • Mahalik, Dave (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • mail (English, Bill and Shirley 12), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 1, 4 ), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • mail days (Brockman, Ross 2)
  • mail planes -- delivery (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • mail run -- local hire (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • mail run -- Minto (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • mail run -- one per month (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • mail run -- Simon broke trail (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • mail trail -- Tanana to Allakaket (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • mail -- everything comes this way (Holly, Susan 5)
  • mail -- get around Christmas (Holly, Susan 3)
  • mail -- parcel post (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • maintain roads (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • Make Prayers to the Raven (Nelson, Richard 2, 11, 12)
  • Malcom, Reverend -- Episcopal church (Gray, Millie 6)
  • management -- cooperation (Collins, Bruce 17)
  • management -- education (Collins, Bruce 17)
  • management -- federal mining turnover (Lounsbury, George 13)
  • management -- flexibility (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • management -- mining (Lounsbury, George 13)
  • management -- National Park Service support (Collins, Bruce 17)
  • management -- of Park (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • management -- participatory (Bane, Ray (2) 5)
  • management -- properly done, can last (Reakoff, Jack 12)
  • management -- threats, global (Collins, Bruce 11)
  • management -- tried to remain sensitive (Bane, Ray (1) 12)
  • management -- unpredictability (Collins, Bruce 17)
  • management -- when to get, leave alone (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • management -- when to take or not (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • Manley (Lounsbury, George 14)
  • manuscript -- reading of (Brockman, Ross 7)
  • many potential areas (Swem, Ted 8)
  • mapping -- had to draw the rivers (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 2)
  • mapping -- place names (Bane, Ray (2) 2)
  • maps (Brown, William (1) 3)
  • Maptigaq (Mekiana, Justus (1) 3)
  • Maptigaq -- name (Mekiana, Justus (1) 1)
  • March (Vent, Mary 5)
  • March 17 -- St. Patrick's Day (Sam Sr., Tony 5)
  • March -- close up cabin (Holly, Susan 4)
  • March -- shuttling gear back to town (Holly, Susan 3)
  • mares (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • Mariah, Grandma (Williams, Susie 2)
  • Marian-secretarial work (Gray, Millie 7)
  • marine mammal -- technology (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • Mark, Laura (Bifelt, Madeline 8), (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Mark, Laura and Peter (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • market -- hunters (Johnson, Walter (1) 10)
  • marriage (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 3)
  • marriage license (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • marriage -- 1948 (English, Bill and Shirley 14)
  • marriage -- 1953 (Mekiana, Justus (1) 8)
  • marriage -- 1959 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • marriage -- age sixteen (William, William and Effie (1) 2)
  • marriage -- age sixteen; old way (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • marriage -- Allakaket (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 7)
  • marriage -- arranged (William, William and Effie (1) 2)
  • marriage -- arranged by uncle (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • marriage -- both nineteen (David, David and Kitty 3)
  • marriage -- Christmas Eve 1959 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • marriage -- in Allakaket (Williams, Susie 6)
  • marriage -- March 4, 1953 (Mekiana, Justus (1) 10)
  • marriage -- needed each other's help (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 6)
  • marriage -- subsistence is how we live (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • marriages (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • married -- 1923-24 (Ulen, Tishu 6)
  • married -- June, 1938 (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Marshall (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • Marshall University (Bane, Ray (1) 1)
  • Marshall, Bob (Brown, William (1) 4, 13, 14), (Collins, Bruce 15), (English, Bill and Shirley 9, 25), (Lounsbury, George 9), (Pepper, Jim (1) 12) , (Swem, Ted 12), (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Marshall, Bob -- elation, reverence, ecstasy (Kauffmann, John 8)
  • Marshall, Bob -- idea of Gates to the Arctic came from him, 1929 (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • Marshall, Bob -- influence of "country of solitude" (Kauffmann, John 8)
  • Marshall, Bob -- insensitive (Schmitz, Dave 13)
  • Marshall, George (Swem, Ted 12)
  • Marshall, Jim (Swem, Ted 12)
  • Marshall, Robert (Brown, William (1) 7), (Henderson, Joe 8), (Lounsbury, George 1), (Nelson, Richard 5)
  • Marshall, Robert -- book on Wiseman (English, Bill and Shirley 18)
  • Marshall -- proves point on endless discovering (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • Marshall -- writings about value for wilderness (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • Marston, Colonel Muktuk (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 9)
  • marten (Pepper, Jim (1) 12), (Reakoff, Jack 6), (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • marten -- good meat (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • marten -- hat (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • Martha and Abraham (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • Martin Sliscoe Bench (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • Martin, Guy (Pepper, Jim (2) 1)
  • Mary Jane -- daughter (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • Mary, Pete (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • Mary -- Kenai (Bifelt, Madeline 6)
  • Mary -- mother (Ulen, Tishu 1)
  • Masauluk -- grandmother's Eskimo name (Mekiana, Debbie 4)
  • Mascot Creek (Lounsbury, George 11)
  • Mascot Creek cabin (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • masks (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • masks -- as barter (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • master plan study -- Mt. McKinley (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • masu roots (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • math (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4)
  • Matthew (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Mattes, Merle (Swem, Ted (2) 3, 4)
  • Mautner, Kathy (Nelson, Richard 1, 8, 11)
  • May -- hunting trip (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • May -- store gears up (Henderson, Joe 9)
  • Mayo Clinic -- Minneapolis (Lounsbury, George 8)
  • McCanick Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2)
  • McCarry, Paul -- Interpretive Planner (Kauffmann, John 5)
  • McConnell, Mac (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • McDowell Case -- effect is more attention to Native concerns (Ned, Stanley 16)
  • McDowell Case -- took away subsistence (Ned, Stanley 15)
  • McDowell Decision -- ended guiding areas several years ago (Reakoff, Jack 3)
  • McGee -- mining operation (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • McGee -- mining; got Hagget straightened up (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • McGrath (Brown, William (1) 14)
  • McGuire, Shawn (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • McKennegan's 1885 Exploration (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • McKinley (Swem, Ted 12, 14)
  • McKinley addition (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • McKinley Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • McKinley Park (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 15)
  • McKinnet, Allen (Brown, William (1) 10)
  • McMurray, Carl (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • measles epidemic (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • measles -- Huslia, 1940's (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • meat (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • meat -- caribou head (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 13)
  • meat -- caribou, sheep, black bear, grouse (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • meat -- dry (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • meat -- frozen (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • meat -- storage (Johnson, Walter (1) 10)
  • meat -- surplus (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • media (Bane, Ray (1) 7)
  • medical supplies (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 12)
  • medication -- lack of (David, David and Kitty 6)
  • medication -- old timers had them (Gray, Millie 10)
  • medication -- oral (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 14)
  • medicine (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 12)
  • medicine men -- Frank feared them (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • medicine -- showing how to use what the missionaries left (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 14)
  • medivac (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 5)
  • meeting -- public (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • meetings -- attending to learn (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • meetings -- public (Collins, Bruce 6, 7, 9)
  • meetings -- public versus individual (Collins, Bruce 9)
  • Mekiana, David (Mekiana, Debbie 4)
  • Mekiana, Doris (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 12)
  • Mekiana, Homer (Mekiana, Justus (1) 3, 14), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 4, 6, 11, 12)
  • Mekiana, Homer -- died on Christmas Eve 1967 (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17)
  • Mekiana, Homer -- dogteam (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 4)
  • Mekiana, Homer -- father's father (Mekiana, Debbie 4)
  • Mekiana, Homer -- first postmaster (Mekiana, Justus (1) 14)
  • Mekiana, Homer -- given the store to maintain (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17)
  • Mekiana, Homer -- secretary (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)
  • Mekiana, Justus (Mekiana, Justus (1) 9) (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 8)
  • Mekiana, Justus -- council member (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)
  • Mekiana, Justus -- uncle (Mekiana, Debbie 4)
  • Mekiana, Mary (Mekiana, Debbie 4)
  • Mekiana, Molly (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 12)
  • Mekiana, Rebecca (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 12)
  • Mekiana, Rebecca -- father's mother (Mekiana, Debbie 4)
  • Melcher, Senator (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • memo (Swem, Ted 8)
  • memories -- early (Ned, Stanley 1)
  • memories -- like a dream (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 2)
  • memories -- not as modern then, fewer houses (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • men -- hunting (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 10)
  • men -- made songs in old days (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • Mendelsohn, Dorothy (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • Mendelsohn, Randy (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11), (Ned, Stanley 4)
  • Mendelson, Randy
  • meningitis -- sister died, eleven years old (Bifelt, Madeline 5)
  • Merrill Pass (Kauffmann, John 4)
  • Mertie, John M. (Johnson, Walter (1) 5)
  • messages -- exchanges (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • Messenger Feast (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • metal (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • Meter, Dion -- drown (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Meter, Fred (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Meter, Fred -- death (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Meter, Fred -- killed (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Meters Family (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Meters -- slide show in California (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • microwaves (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • mid 1950's (Swem, Ted 6)
  • Midnight Sun (Brockman, Ross 7)
  • Midus Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2)
  • midwest upbringing (Swem, Ted 1)
  • migration (Morry, Riley 2)
  • migration -- following caribou (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 11)
  • military (Collins, Bruce 7), (Johnson, Walter (1) 3)
  • mill (Brockman, Ross 1)
  • Miller, Anita (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • Miller, Frank (Lounsbury, George 4)
  • Miller, Freddy -- pilot who came for Dubin (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • Miller, Jim (Lounsbury, George 4)
  • Miller, Mrs. (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 13)
  • Miller, Richard (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • Miller, Tennessee (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • Miller, Vern (Lounsbury, George 4)
  • Millie -- oldest, raised kids (Gray, Millie 5)
  • Minano, Mr. -- Japanese (Brown, William (1) 8)
  • mine -- laborers (Brown, William (1) 12)
  • Minealik (Schmitz, Dave 9)
  • miner -- hard work; thirty years (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1)
  • Mineral Act (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • minerals -- copper belts (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • miners (Brown, William (1) 6), (English, Bill and Shirley 6), (Johnson, Walter (1) 8), (Williams, Susie 4)
  • miners -- hunting (English, Bill and Shirley 5)
  • miners -- Klondike (English, Bill and Shirley 4)
  • miners -- white (Ulen, Tishu 1)
  • mines (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • mines -- in SW corner (Brown, William (1) 10), (Brown, William (2) 3)
  • Mining (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1), (Brockman, Ross 7), (Brown, William (1) 5, 7, 9, 10), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8),(Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 3, 7 ), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5), (Johnson, Walter (1) 3, 4, 15), (Kauffmann, John 10), (Lounsbury, George 3), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • Mining Act (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • mining camp -- 1964 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 12)
  • mining claims (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 1), (Kauffmann, John 7)
  • mining ground -- stacked (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • mining sites (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • mining -- 1994 first year not doing it (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 3)
  • mining -- camp -- Wiseman (Johnson, Walter (1) 9)
  • mining -- claims (Brown, William (1) 8), (Lounsbury, George 7)
  • mining -- deep hole (Brown, William (1) 10)
  • mining -- gin poles (Brown, William (1) 8)
  • mining -- Glacier River (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • mining -- going down too (Williams, Susie 8)
  • mining -- gold (English, Bill and Shirley 22), (Johnson, Walter (1) 5), (Lounsbury, George 2, 5, 9, 12)
  • mining -- Jim Poles
  • mining -- laborer; oiler, $2.65/hour (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 12)
  • mining -- mechanization (Brown, William (1) 10)
  • mining -- methods (Johnson, Walter (1) 5)
  • mining -- Native claims (Brown, William (1) 12)
  • mining -- placer (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • mining -- placer gold (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • mining -- potential (Collins, Bruce 11)
  • mining -- recreational (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • mining -- shafts (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • mining -- sluicing (Lounsbury, George 12)
  • mining -- strike (Brown, William (1) 8)
  • mining -- success (Johnson, Walter (1) 11)
  • mining -- summers (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • mining -- technology (Johnson, Walter (1) 5, 15)
  • mining -- turnover (Brown, William (1) 8)
  • mining -- winter (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • mining -- Wiseman (Johnson, Walter (2) 2)
  • mink -- ate baked (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • Minnie Creek (Johnson, Walter (1) 5)
  • minority -- first hand experience as (Bane, Ray (1) 3)
  • Minto (English, Bill and Shirley 15), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • Mintzmyer, Lorraine (Swem, Ted 4)
  • Miscovich, George (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • misfortune -- father injured back after purchase, lost place (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Miss Anchorage (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Miss Boyce (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 9)
  • Miss Creese -- Ft. Yukon Hospital, nurse (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 9)
  • Miss Hill (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Miss North Pole (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Miss Southcentral (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Miss Teen USA Pageant (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • Miss USA Pageant (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Mission (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • Mission 66 (Swem, Ted 5, 6)
  • Mission 66 Program (Swem, Ted 2, 4)
  • Mission -- changes (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • Mission -- he worked there (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • Mission -- stayed one winter (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • Mission -- trading clothes for wood (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4)
  • Mission -- uncle put Effie in (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • Mission -- well built (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • missionaries (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 1), (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • missionaries -- Allakaket (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • missionaries -- came way out there by dog team (Williams, Susie 7)
  • missionaries -- Christmas activities (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 2)
  • missionaries -- discipline of children (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • missionaries -- left 1953 (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • missionaries -- little help (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • missionaries -- naming (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 10)
  • missionaries -- offered to build mission (Williams, Susie 1)
  • missionaries -- took away things (Ned, Stanley 6)
  • missionary (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • Missouri Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • mittens (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • Mo, Tony (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 2)
  • moccasins -- mooseskin and beads (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 5)
  • modernity (English, Bill and Shirley 21)
  • mom -- flying experience (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • mom -- miss Lill while at high school (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6)
  • money (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • money -- bought property on fourth Avenue; bars, cafes (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • money -- bounty on wolf pups (Mekiana, Justus (1) 6)
  • money -- cashed big checks for Attlas, held the money for them (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • money -- left it behind, never found (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1)
  • money -- made $1500 and started store (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • money -- Natives don't have enough to fight (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • money -- need healthy marriage with subsistence (Bifelt, Fred Lee 10)
  • Montigak, Morry (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11, 12)
  • monument addition (Swem, Ted 11)
  • Monument Proclamation -- 1978; dynamite; protests (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • Monument Task Force (Collins, Bruce 2)
  • Monuments Proclamation (Bane, Ray (1) 12)
  • Moonies Lake (Ulen, Tishu 5)
  • moose (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8), (Johnson, Walter (1) 14), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 6)
  • moose hunting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 5)
  • moose hunting -- trusting you'll get one when time comes (Holly, Susan 6)
  • moose population (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • moose -- 1960's availability (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • Moose -- ate at the table (Henderson, Joe 10)
  • moose -- came back (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • moose -- first appearance in Alatna (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 3)
  • moose -- first kill (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • moose -- had never seen before (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • moose -- hunting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • moose -- hunting pressure (Holly, Susan 6)
  • moose -- lack of (Bifelt, Madeline 1), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • moose -- many in 1900 (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • moose -- none on Koyukuk in old days (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 2)
  • moose -- pop the eyes so animal will not see; respect (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • moose -- scarce in past (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • Moose -- the dog (Henderson, Joe 10)
  • moose -- tuttuvuk (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • moose -- using everything, brain, sinew (Henzie, Moses and Marie 5)
  • moose-skin boat -- preserves skin, keep wet (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3)
  • moosehides -- tanning still (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • mooseskin boat (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • mooseskin boat -- haul meat (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • morning prayer (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • Morris, Dora (Collins, Bruce 6)
  • Morris, Jerry (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Morris, Neil (Collins, Bruce 6)
  • Morris, Ryan
  • Morry, Ayapana (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • Morry, Billy (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11)
  • Morry, Billy -- president of council (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)
  • Morry, John (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11)
  • Morry, John -- became Eskimo father (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • Morry, Mark -- brother (Morry, Riley 10)
  • Morry, Old Man (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2, 5, 8, 9)
  • Morry, Old Man -- he and family (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Morry, Peter (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Morry, Riley (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • Morry, Sven (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • Morse Code (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • Morton, Roger (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Moses plays fiddle (Henzie, Moses and Marie 10)
  • Moses, Beatus -- champion, 1961 (David, David and Kitty 5)
  • Moses, Bertha -- end of health aide career (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 4)
  • Moses, Bertha -- resident 10 years, house manager (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 3)
  • Moses, Ceza (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1)
  • Moses, Chief -- used to live there (William, William and Effie (1) 6)
  • Moses, Henry (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5), (William, William and Effie (1) 6)
  • Moses, Henry -- mother's brother; Lucy (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 2)
  • Moses, Henry -- worked on steamboats (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Moses, Johnson (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 7)
  • Moses, Johnson -- Allakaket (Schmitz, Dave 13)
  • Moses, Tony (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 6)
  • Moses, Tony and Beetus; cousins (William, William and Effie (1) 6)
  • Moses -- Henry and Lucy (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • mosquitoes (Brown, William (1) 10)
  • Moss, Senator -- Utah (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • mother (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1, 10), (David, David and Kitty 1, 2), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1), (Ulen, Tishu 4), (Williams, Susie 1,7)
  • mother's mother (Williams, Susie 1)
  • mother -- adopted to (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • mother -- bad back, recovered (Ulen, Tishu 1)
  • mother -- Dalby (Williams, Susie 1)
  • mother -- David David's (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • mother -- deceased (Ned, Stanley 1)
  • mother -- died at forty (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • mother -- died giving birth to twins (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 10)
  • mother -- died of tuberculosis before Millie knew her (Gray, Millie 4)
  • mother -- died when Madeline was eighteen (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • mother -- died when six (Vent, Bobby 1)
  • mother -- died while baby (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • mother -- died, Kitty nine years (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • mother -- drove dogs; pitched tent; trek (Ulen, Tishu 4)
  • mother -- Elizabeth (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • mother -- gave Effie away because other children died (William, William and Effie (1) 2)
  • mother -- Ida (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • mother -- learned from (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 8)
  • mother -- lesson: don't ever say cross words to friends; don't be mean (Williams, Susie 11)
  • mother -- Lilly (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • mother -- Madeline; Ruby (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • mother -- Minnesota (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • mother -- outdoor and nature interests (Swem, Ted 1)
  • mother -- parents (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • mother -- postmaster (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • mother -- raised by (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • mother -- raised seven children not her own (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • mother -- ran camp; drove dogteam (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • mother -- Selawik (Ulen, Tishu 1)
  • mother -- she wasn't decided about the marriage either (Derendoff, Angeline (2) 1)
  • mother -- sickness (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • mother -- skin sewing; moose and caribou (Bifelt, Madeline 9)
  • mother -- snaring (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • mother -- stayed in Anaktuvuk Pass (Mekiana, Debbie 3)
  • mother -- teacher, early 1970's (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • mother -- three children (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 1)
  • mother -- tough, good teacher (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • mother -- wanted her to sew instead (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 4)
  • mother -- wanted to help with the sick and grieving (Williams, Susie 2)
  • mother -- went out hunting (Williams, Susie 1)
  • mother -- went trapping with (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • motor -- first; nine horse Johnson (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • Mount Edgecumbe (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • Mount Edgecumbe -- father went to
  • mountaineer -- Yosemite Anaktuvuk Pass (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • mountains (Brockman, Ross 1, 8)
  • mountains -- description (Brockman, Ross 7)
  • Mounted Police -- looked for O'Connell (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17)
  • mourning -- shared (Ned, Stanley 12)
  • mouth -- tsaalaa kkaakk'at (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • movement -- good signs ( Mekiana, Debbie 6)
  • moving around (Sam Sr., Tony 3)
  • Mowry, Billy
  • Mowry, John
  • Mr. Jonas (Johnson, Walter (1) 9)
  • Mrs. Jonas -- Kobuk (Johnson, Walter (1) 9)
  • Mt. McKinley National Park (Swem, Ted 7)
  • Mt. Doonerak (Brown, William (2) 1, 5), (English, Bill and Shirley 18)
  • Mt. Edgecumbe (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5, 6), (Morry, Riley 2)
  • Mt. Edgecumbe -- 1966; strange place (Ned, Stanley 7)
  • Mt. Edgecumbe -- father went to (David, David and Kitty 7)
  • Mt. Edgecumbe -- fixed legs (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 1)
  • Mt. Edgecumbe -- left after two years (Ned, Stanley 7)
  • Mt. Edgecumbe -- two years (Ned, Stanley 1)
  • Mt. Ingikpak (Kauffmann, John 4)
  • Mt. McKinley (Brown, William (1) 14)
  • Mt. McKinley National Park (Brown, William (2) 1), (Kauffmann, John 3)
  • Mt. McKinley superintendent (Swem, Ted (2) 2)
  • Mt. Rainier (Swem, Ted 10)
  • mukluks (English, Bill and Shirley 6), (Gray, Millie 7), (Johnson, Walter (1) 10), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 9, 11)
  • multi-discipline team approach (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • Murie, Adolf (Swem, Ted 12)
  • Murie, Olaus (Johnson, Walter (1) 8), (Swem, Ted 12)
  • Murphy Dome (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • Murphy, Jim (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • museum -- job, cultural education (Mekiana, Debbie 4)
  • mushing -- trips, March and April (Henderson, Joe 9)
  • music (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • music -- alto singer; guitar; trombone (Gray, Millie 2)
  • music -- drum, large flat, willow stick (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • music -- father buys boat and violin (Sam Sr., Tony 1)
  • music -- got interested while small (Henzie, Moses and Marie 9)
  • music -- men beat drums (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • music -- the idea got in (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • music -- Tony learns from father (Sam Sr., Tony 1)
  • muskrat -- hunting and trapping (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • muskrat -- trapping to make money for motor (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • muskrat -- walking, with dogs (Bifelt, Madeline 3)
  • muskrats -- skinning (Ned, Stanley 2)
  • Musser, John (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • Musser, Rhoda and John (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • Myrtle Creek (Lounsbury, George 4), (Johnson, Walter (1) 5)
  • myth of creation (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • N
  • Nageak, Anna (Brown, William (1) 13)
  • Nagu area (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Naknek Lake West (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • naming -- accepting English names (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 8)
  • naming -- adopting fathers Christian name as last name (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 10)
  • NANA -- vice-president (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • Napaktualuit Mountain (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • Napoleon, Grandma (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • Napoleon -- family (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • Narvaqvagmiut (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Narvaqvagmiut -- Chandalar people (Mekiana, Justus (1) 1)
  • Naske, Claus (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • Naske, Claus -- enormous hostility to conservation areas (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • National Archives (Brown, William (1) 10)
  • national attention (Swem, Ted 6)
  • National Environmental Study Area -- guide on how to do environmental education (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Naional Forest Service (Brown, William (1) 15), (Collins, Bruce 11)
  • National Geographic -- trip chronicled (Schmitz, Dave 8)
  • National Guard (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 3)
  • National Interest Lands (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • National Park land additions(Brown, William (1) 15), (Swem, Ted 10)
  • National Park Service (Bane, Ray (1) 5), (Brown, William (1) 1, 15),(Brown, William (2) 6), (Collins, Bruce 3), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6), (Henderson, Joe 7), (Mekiana, Debbie 2), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 18), (Nelson, Richard 8, 10), (Pepper, Jim (1) 7), (Pepper, Jim (2) 3), (Schmitz, Dave 7), (Swem, Ted 3, 4, 5, 9)
  • National Park Service goal -- try to make legislation work before changing it (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • National Park Service implementation (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • National Park Service lands -- discussion of acreage; disputed figures (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • National Park Service mandate -- small price now or large price in future (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • National Park Service Organic Act (Bane, Ray (1) 11)
  • National Park Service personnel moved to Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Swem, Ted 10)
  • National Park Service responsibility -- implement, not create (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • National Park Service -- 1972 (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • National Park Service -- acceptance (Collins, Bruce 6)
  • National Park Service -- agreement (Swem, Ted 10)
  • National Park Service -- Alaska Region (Brown, William (1) 2)
  • National Park Service -- anti sentiment (Collins, Bruce 9)
  • National Park Service -- bureaucracy (Collins, Bruce 9)
  • National Park Service -- conflicts (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 5), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 8)
  • National Park Service -- correspondence (Swem, Ted 11)
  • National Park Service -- Division of Plans and Objectives; 1971 (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • National Park Service -- do more in Alaska (Swem, Ted 8)
  • National Park Service -- documentation of Native use (Nelson, Richard 4)
  • National Park Service -- environmental education; writing (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • National Park Service -- evolution in Alaska (Swem, Ted (2) 2)
  • National Park Service -- fifty to fifty-five million acres; of three hundred seventy-five acres (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • National Park Service -- first contact with (Swem, Ted 2)
  • National Park Service -- flexible employer (Holly, Susan 6)
  • National Park Service -- game control (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 8)
  • National Park Service -- Gates of the Arctic (Lounsbury, George 13), (Nelson, Richard 4)
  • National Park Service -- geographic studies (Nelson, Richard 9)
  • National Park Service -- headquarters, D.C. historical editor (Brown, William (1) 1)
  • National Park Service -- impact on land and people (Mekiana, Justus (2) 1)
  • National Park Service -- in past, natural but not cultural preservation (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • National Park Service -- increase and improve planning (Swem, Ted 6)
  • National Park Service -- interactions with individuals (Collins, Bruce 9)
  • National Park Service -- interim rules (Collins, Bruce 4)
  • National Park Service -- interpreter of land (Nelson, Richard 10)
  • National Park Service -- new additions (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • National Park Service -- Northeast Region, publication officer (Brown, William (1) 1)
  • National Park Service -- opinions of,(Lounsbury, George 10)
  • National Park Service -- opposed their exclusion (Kauffmann, John 7)
  • National Park Service -- personal conflict (Nelson, Richard 4)
  • National Park Service -- possible agreement (Morry, Riley 12)
  • National Park Service -- prerequisites (Brown, William (1) 3)
  • National Park Service -- ranger (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • National Park Service -- recommendations (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 9)
  • National Park Service -- relations, Anaktuvuk Pass (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 8)
  • National Park Service -- researcher selection (Nelson, Richard 3)
  • National Park Service -- resolution (Swem, Ted 13)
  • National Park Service -- response to Holzworth (Swem, Ted 11)
  • National Park Service -- significance (Brown, William (1) 3)
  • National Park Service -- Southwest Region, regional historian (Brown, William (1) 1)
  • National Park Service -- subsistence studies (Nelson, Richard 2)
  • National Park Service -- summer 1938 (Swem, Ted 3)
  • National Park Service -- task force, enforcement oriented; helicopters; uniforms (Bane, Ray (1) 14)
  • National Park Service -- tight security (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • National Park Service -- turnover (Nelson, Richard 4)
  • National Park Service -- visionary, concerned with American Experience (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • National Park Service -- visit occasionally (Holly, Susan 7)
  • National Park Service -- wanted different kind of park than in Lower 48 (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • National Park Service -- was trying to be understanding; sense of teamwork (Bane, Ray (1) 14)
  • National Park Service -- worked closely with (Swem, Ted 4)
  • National Park -- introduced idea of (Morry, Riley 5)
  • National Parks -- first time established over objection of Congressional Committee (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • National Parks -- poor conditions (Swem, Ted 6)
  • National Rifle Association -- felt parks should be managed differently (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Native adaptations (Brown, William (1) 6)
  • Native Allotment (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Native Allotments (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3)
  • Native Claims Act (English, Bill and Shirley 22)
  • Native corporations (Williams, Susie 12)
  • Native culture (Bane, Ray (1) 2, 8)
  • Native Heritage -- young don't understand, nothing documented (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • Native land selections (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • Native people -- have their spirit (Ned, Stanley 6)
  • Native people -- laws designed for (Schmitz, Dave 9)
  • Native preference (Bane, Ray (1) 9), (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Native preference -- everybody belongs (Bifelt, Fred Lee 10)
  • Native students -- common problems (Ned, Stanley 10)
  • Native Subsistence Commission -- never effectively utilized (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Native villages -- brought out best food for boat (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Native ways (Ned, Stanley 18)
  • Native -- interrelations (English, Bill and Shirley 17)
  • Natives -- 1960's; learned tactics (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Natives -- helped missionaries (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Natives -- how would they make a living without subsistence (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • Natives -- input slowly having effect (Ned, Stanley 15)
  • Natives -- Kauffmann's plans with them thrown out (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • Natives -- land selections (Bane, Ray (1) 6)
  • Natives -- live mostly off land (Ned, Stanley 18)
  • Natives -- no basis for understanding (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • Natives -- occupancy, thousands of years (Bane, Ray (1) 10)
  • Natives -- originally favored establishing refuges (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • Natives -- pilots, captains (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Natives -- ways at home (Ned, Stanley 18)
  • Natives -- worked for him (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1, 3)
  • Natural Landmark Studies (Swem, Ted 2)
  • Natural Monuments (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • nature (Bane, Ray (2) 6)
  • nature -- appreciation (Bane, Ray (2) 5)
  • nature -- romantic idea of (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • nature -- spirituality (Nelson, Richard 10, 11, 12)
  • Navajos (Brown, William (1) 6)
  • navigability (Collins, Bruce 11)
  • navigating -- treacherous, shallow (Gray, Millie 3)
  • navigation -- difficulty (English, Bill and Shirley 12)
  • navigation -- water (English, Bill and Shirley 4)
  • Navy Department (Brown, William (1) 1)
  • Nebraska (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • Neck, Victor (English, Bill and Shirley 20), (Lounsbury, George 4)
  • Ned, Alvin (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • Ned, Francis (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • Ned, Francis -- mother (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • Ned, Lilly -- mother's mother (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • Ned, Ned -- mother's father (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • Ned, Pauline -- mother (Ned, Stanley 1)
  • Ned, Pauline -- mother's niece (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Ned, Simon (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3), (Williams, Susie 2)
  • Ned, Simon -- father (Ned, Stanley 1)
  • needs -- changing; health care; stability (Schmitz, Dave 11)
  • negotiation (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • negotiation -- with National Park Service (Morry, Riley 6)
  • negotiations -- continued after Ring left (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 1)
  • negotiations -- nearing agreement (Morry, Riley 6)
  • Nelson, Dick (Bane, Ray (2) 1, 2), (Brown, William (1) 6)
  • Nelson, Jack -- saloon (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • Nelson, Richard (Bane, Ray (1) 2, 5, 7)
  • Nenana (English, Bill and Shirley 2, 12)
  • Ness, Albert (Johnson, Walter (1) 3, 11, 13), (Johnson, Walter (2) 3)
  • Nevada -- ninety percent is owned by the federal government (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • new area and boundary studies (Swem, Ted 5)
  • new area studies (Swem, Ted 5)
  • new area -- proposal (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • new areas -- National Park Service (Swem, Ted 14)
  • New Portage trail -- Bettles (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • New Year (Sam Sr., Tony 5)
  • New Years -- potlatch (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • New York (Swem, Ted 11)
  • New York Times (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • newcomers (Schmitz, Dave 11), (Reakoff, Jack 10)
  • Newman, Stell (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • Newport, Rhode Island (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2)
  • news (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Nichols, Bob (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • Nichols, Robert -- part-time archaeologist (Kauffmann, John 5)
  • Nictune (Fleagle), Betty (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • Nictune, Clara -- died at 11 yrs old (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 2)
  • Nictune, Kitty (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 2)
  • Nictune, Oscar (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • Nictune, Oscar Sr. (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • Nictune, Oscar -- dad worked for Wilfred (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • Nictune, Oscar -- father (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 1)
  • Nictune, Oscar -- his sister lived here briefly (Gray, Millie 10)
  • Nictune, Wallace and Florence (Holly, Susan 4)
  • Nictune, Wally -- small, seven years old, went too (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • Nigliq -- place (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Nigliq -- place in springtime (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Nigliq -- trading place (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Ninemile Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 6)
  • Nixon (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Noatagmiut (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • Noatak (Brown, William (1) 5, 6, 12), (Collins, Bruce 14), (Sam Sr., Tony 6), (Schmitz, Dave 8), (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • Noatak Basin (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • Noatak Inupiat Preserve (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • Noatak Preserve (Collins, Bruce 17)
  • Noatak Resource Reserve (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Noatak River (Collins, Bruce 13), (Holly, Susan 1, 7), (Schmitz, Dave 5)
  • Noatak Valley (Bane, Ray (2) 6)
  • Noatak's importance -- scientific value, biological diversity, archeology (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • Noatak -- people (Brown, William (2) 2)
  • Nolan (Henderson, Joe 8), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • Nolan Creek (English, Bill and Shirley 7, 8), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7), (Johnson, Walter (1) 3, 5, 8, 11, 13), (Lounsbury, George 3, 4, 9, 10, 11)
  • Nolan River (English, Bill and Shirley 20)
  • Nolan Road -- sheep (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Nolan -- cabin (Henderson, Joe 1)
  • Nolen, Walter (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • nomadism (Schmitz, Dave 11)
  • nomads (English, Bill and Shirley 16)
  • Nome (English, Bill and Shirley 18, 22), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2), (William, William and Effie (1) 9), (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Nome -- mining (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • Nome -- road to (Johnson, Walter (1) 15)
  • non-Native culture (Bane, Ray (1) 8)
  • non-Native -- acculturation (Nelson, Richard 5)
  • non-Natives -- few; missionaries; avoided (Bane, Ray (1) 3)
  • non-Natives -- often running, escaping a too confining culture; individualistic (Bane, Ray (1) 8)
  • non-Natives -- pasted in at the end (Schmitz, Dave 9)
  • non-resident tags (Reakoff, Jack 4)
  • Nordale Hotel -- fire (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 10)
  • North American Classic (David, David and Kitty 5)
  • North Coast -- culture (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • North Fork (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5, 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • North Fork (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5)
  • North Fork -- prior to park formation (Holly, Susan 1)
  • North Fork -- split up in winter time (Mekiana, Justus (1) 10)
  • North Pole (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • North Slope (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5), (Nelson, Richard 10)
  • North Slope Borough (Brown, William (1) 2), (Brown, William (2) 6)
  • North Slope -- oil strike, 1968 (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 7)
  • North Star Polaris (Brockman, Ross 5)
  • North Village -- cultural ethos (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 6)
  • Northeast Areas (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • northeast -- corner of Park (Brown, William (2) 3)
  • Northern Airways -- DC-2 (English, Bill and Shirley 15)
  • Northern Commercial Company (English, Bill and Shirley 1)
  • Northwest Territories -- Ft. Smith to Hudson Bay (Schmitz, Dave 4)
  • Norton, George -- found some of it, drank himself to death in Fairbanks (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1)
  • Norwegian -- was in store at fire (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • Norwegians (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 7)
  • notes (Brockman, Ross 7)
  • Notti, Joe (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • Notti, Joe -- too kind for business (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • Notti -- had barge (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • November -- start catching lush (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 5)
  • November -- trapping; tent camps; trapping -- November (Holly, Susan 4)
  • Nowler, Vincent (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • NPS -- wrongly condemned (Bane, Ray (1) 9)
  • nugget gold (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2)
  • Nuiqsut (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Nuiqsut -- serious access problem (Holly, Susan 1)
  • Nulaiyuk -- grandma married to (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • Nulato (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10), (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3), (Ned, Stanley 11), (Sam Sr., Tony 5), (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Nulato -- church (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • Nulato -- doctor came up (Williams, Susie 2)
  • Nulato -- downriver villages (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Nulato -- first learning English (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3)
  • Nulato -- mother feared priest would steal children (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • Nulato -- outfit from (Vent, Mary 3)
  • Nulato-Bettles run -- steamboat (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Nunamiut (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 1, 13, 14), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2, 3, 5, 15), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • Nunamiut Divide (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • Nunamiut National Park -- introduced idea of
  • Nunamiut National Wildlands (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • Nunamiut Park -- protect land, values (Morry, Riley 5)
  • Nunamiut people (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Nunamiut -- "land people" (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • Nunamiut -- against road to North Slope (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 7)
  • Nunamiut -- Anaktuvuk Pass (Schmitz, Dave 12)
  • Nunamiut -- communal sharing (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 10)
  • Nunamiut -- compromise (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 8)
  • Nunamiut -- creation (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • Nunamiut -- cultural identity (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 7)
  • Nunamiut -- distinguished from other Eskimos (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • Nunamiut -- fear of being supplanted from land (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 7)
  • Nunamiut -- fishing (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • Nunamiut -- identity (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • Nunamiut -- ties to land (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 8)
  • Nunamiut -- two or three groups (Morry, Riley 2)
  • Nunamiut -- views of Park (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 8)
  • Nunamiut -- world view (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 9)
  • nurse -- married priest (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • Nurses Award -- 1989 (Gray, Millie 8)
  • nurses -- public health (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 13)
  • nursing -- started as nurse's aide, 1958 (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 14)
  • O
  • O'Connell, Pat (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17)
  • O'Leary, Diane (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • oats(Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 5)
  • Obiss, Frank (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 6)
  • October -- cabin chores; mixing bait; break trail (Holly, Susan 4)
  • October -- many people left then (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 6)
  • OEO Program -- now VISTA (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • Office of Management and Budget -- agenda (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • Ohio (Gray, Millie 8), (Schmitz, Dave 1)
  • Ohkuliak-name given to Ethel from Simon Paneak
  • oil companies (Collins, Bruce 14), (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • oil revenue -- began declining (Reakoff, Jack 4)
  • oil -- barrels (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 3)
  • oil -- development (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 6)
  • oil -- early 1960's (Morry, Riley 1)
  • oil -- exploration (Brown, William (1) 6)
  • oil -- non-renewable, more damaging (Schmitz, Dave 10)
  • oil -- only reason land settlement took place (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • oil/gas pipelines (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Okokmilaga (Collins, Bruce 13)
  • Olcott, George (Swem, Ted 6)
  • Old Bergman (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3), (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • Old Bettles (Lounsbury, George 4), (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Old Bettles -- clothes sewn for; six years old (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • Old Bettles -- Sam Dubin, first visit (Gray, Millie 3)
  • Old Bettles -- store (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • Old Crow, Canada (English, Bill and Shirley 15)
  • Old Crow -- dad from (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5)
  • Old Cutoff -- Huslia (Vent, Mary 3)
  • old days -- change (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • old days -- comfortable houses (Morry, Riley 1)
  • old days -- difficulty getting shells (Morry Riley 9)
  • old days -- dogs, feed them (Morry Riley 9)
  • old days -- everybody went to church (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • old days -- had potlatch outside (Williams, Susie 9)
  • old days -- had to walk, make effort (Morry, Riley 2)
  • old days -- teach often to sing, dance (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • old days -- travel (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • old days -- tuberculosis (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • Old Henzie -- made trip (William, William and Effie (1) 6)
  • Old Henzie -- Moses Henzie's grandparents (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Old Hickel Highway (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9)
  • Old James (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • Old Koyukuk -- booming place (Sam Sr., Tony 5)
  • Old Maggie (Williams, Susie 1)
  • Old Maggie -- family trapping camp (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 7)
  • Old Man Abraham -- Hughes; gave me rifle, brand new 2520 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • Old Man Attla (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Old Man Camp (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • Old Man Creek (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9, 10), (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • Old Man Creek -- beautiful river, fun going down river (Bifelt, Madeline 3)
  • Old Man Creek -- beginning of April (Bifelt, Madeline 2)
  • Old Man Creek -- whitefish (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • Old Man People -- Kanuti (Ned, Stanley 11)
  • Old Man River (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • Old Man River -- set trap around August (Williams, Susie 3)
  • Old Man River -- spring; birch for snowshoes (Williams, Susie 2)
  • Old Man River -- trapping (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Old Man River -- twelve miles below Allakaket (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • Old Man River -- two months (Beetus, Joe and Celia 2)
  • Old man Sammy (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • old people -- hardly any around anymore (Williams, Susie 13)
  • old people -- listened to (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • old people -- watched fish traps (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 6)
  • Old Sam (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 3)
  • old times -- people really smart, learned from their elders (Williams, Susie 10)
  • old times -- they were smart, did things easy (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • Old Town (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3)
  • old ways (Williams, Susie 13)
  • old ways -- important (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Oldman, Abraham (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Oldman, Johnny (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • Oldman, Johnny -- uncle, teach me a lot (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • Oldman, Martha (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • Oldman, Uncle John (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • old-timers (Johnson, Walter (1) 11), (Lounsbury, George 10)
  • old-timers -- gardening (Johnson, Walter (2) 3)
  • old-timers -- lifestyle (Johnson, Walter (1) 11)
  • Olin, Francis -- grandfather (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 8)
  • Olin, Mary -- mother (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 8)
  • Olson, Mr. (Johnson, Walter (1) 11)
  • Olson, Sig (Swem, Ted 12, 13), (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • Olson, Sig Sr. (Swem, Ted 12), (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • Olson, Sig -- influence (Swem, Ted 14)
  • Olson, Stuart (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • Olson, Stuart -- accident (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • Olson, Stuart -- death (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • Olympic National Park (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • Omaha Regional Office (Swem, Ted 4)
  • Omaha, Nebraska (Swem, Ted 3)
  • one step (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • Onion Portage (Brown, William (1) 7), (Nelson, Richard 3, 5)
  • Ooguk, Jesse
  • Oolah Pass (Henderson, Joe 8)
  • Oolah -- James Tobuk (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 7)
  • open house -- upper floor collapsed (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • open pit mine (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1)
  • opened June 1983 (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 3)
  • Openheim, Mr. and Mrs. (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • opinion (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 1)
  • opportunity -- abandoned cabin in central Brooks (Schmitz, Dave 2)
  • opportunity -- for young people, guiding would help (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 4)
  • optimism -- about unique place and attitude (Henderson, Joe 11)
  • oral history (Brown, William (1) 11)
  • Oriole Mt. (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • outboard motor -- got first one in about 1947 (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • outdoor experience -- childhood (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission (Swem, Ted 9)
  • outdoors -- intrigue (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • outfitters (Collins, Bruce 14)
  • outsiders -- suspicion (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • Owens, Harold (Vent, Bobby 1)
  • owl (Simon, Lydia 2)
  • oxygen (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 4)
  • Ozark National Scenic Riverways (Swem, Ted 4)
  • P
  • Pacer (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • pageant -- questions at (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • Paige, Amy (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Palmer -- Pioneer Home (Lounsbury, George 4)
  • Paneak brothers (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • Paneak, Mabel -- 7 years old (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 9)
  • Paneak, Raymond -- 10 years old (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 9)
  • Paneak, Robert (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11)
  • Paneak, Robert -- 12 years old (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 9)
  • Paneak, Simon (Brown, William (1) 7), (Johnson, Walter (1) 11), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5, 10, 14, 17), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 8, 15)
  • Paneak, Simon -- grandfather (Morry, Riley 2)
  • Paneak, Simon -- vice-president (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)
  • Paneak, Susie(Ross-Oliver,Ethel 2), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 5)
  • Panniaq, Simon (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • paperwork -- need a sherpa (Schmitz, Dave 7)
  • parents (Collins, Bruce 1), (Henzie, Moses and Marie 4)
  • parents -- did not know about them (William, William and Effie (1) 2)
  • parents -- explored areas to trap in winter (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 4)
  • parents -- moved before married (Williams, Susie 4)
  • parents -- reaction to flying (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • parents -- still living (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5)
  • parents -- Tony Moses (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • parents -- worked so hard they didn't make it to old age (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 4)
  • park (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • park access -- now very limited, hence no concern (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • park establishment -- opinions (Collins, Bruce 3)
  • park formation -- debates (Brown, William (1) 2)
  • park laws (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • park management -- learning (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • park management -- planning (Brown, William (1) 4)
  • park patrols (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 6)
  • park planner (Kauffmann, John 5)
  • park planners -- those who neglected political process felt betrayed (Pepper, Jim (1) 4)
  • park planning -- first management effort (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • park presence -- effects of rules on wildness (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • Park Service (English, Bill and Shirley 24), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 6)
  • Park Service Officer -- kill deemed legitimate (Mekiana, Debbie 2)
  • Park Service -- anti sentiment (Collins, Bruce 6)
  • Park Service -- management in Alaska (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • park specialist -- planner (Kauffmann, John 2)
  • park studies -- cultural (Nelson, Richard 9)
  • park usage -- old-timers use (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • park values -- importance (Brown, William (2) 7)
  • Park's For America
  • Park's For America -- identify areas in
  • Park's For America -- info compiled
  • Park -- 1980; enforcement oriented (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • park -- against (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 8)
  • park -- bridling a horse (Schmitz, Dave 6)
  • park -- cannot access from Wiseman in fall when snowpack not formed (Reakoff, Jack 6)
  • park -- changed things (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 8)
  • park -- controversy (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7)
  • park -- development (Johnson, Walter (1) 15)
  • park -- differences from Lower 48 (Collins, Bruce 9)
  • park -- formation (Bane, Ray (2) 1)
  • park -- formation upset husband (Holly, Susan 1)
  • park -- ideal function (Nelson, Richard 6)
  • park -- less skiers (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • park -- no guide hunting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 6)
  • park -- not well liked (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 8)
  • park -- number of people who use (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • park -- opposition to (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • park -- potential functions (Nelson, Richard 12)
  • park -- regulations (Collins, Bruce 7)
  • park -- restrictions (English, Bill and Shirley 23)
  • park -- ruined guiding business (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 1)
  • park -- usage by locals (Reakoff, Jack 10)
  • parka -- don't make (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • parka -- got cloth for (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • parka -- outer, fur side out (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 10)
  • parkas (English, Bill and Shirley 6), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • parkas -- inner, fur side in (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 10)
  • parkies (Gray, Millie 7)
  • Parks For America (Swem, Ted 5, 15), (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • Parks For America -- identify areas in (Swem, Ted 5)
  • Parks For America -- information compiled (Swem, Ted 6)
  • parks -- everlasting (Brown, William (2) 7)
  • parks -- improvement and development (Swem, Ted 6)
  • parks -- traditional approach wouldn't work (Bane, Ray (1) 6)
  • part -- small speaking (Henderson, Joe 3)
  • Patsy, Tony (Sam Sr., Tony 5)
  • Paulson, Ed (Gray, Millie 10)
  • Pearl, Charlie (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • pelvic exams (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 4)
  • pen pals (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • penicillin (Johnson, Walter (1) 12), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 13, 14)
  • Penn State (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • Pennsylvania -- flew back from (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • people (Kauffmann, John 10)
  • people -- Alaska (Pepper, Jim (2) 3)
  • people -- gather this way (Williams, Susie 8)
  • people -- getting along, helping one another (Williams, Susie 12)
  • people -- importance (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • people -- influx of (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • people -- influx of into valleys (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • people -- influx of outsiders (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • people -- know where want to go (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • people -- materially poor, culturally rich (Bane, Ray (1) 3)
  • people -- nice group (Ulen, Tishu 6)
  • people -- relieved by potlatch (Williams, Susie 8)
  • people -- talking ill of others is not nice (Williams, Susie 10)
  • people -- try to take land from us (Beetus, Joe and Celia 9)
  • people -- want access to traditional hunting & fishing areas (Brown, William (2) 6)
  • permafrost (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • permit -- 10 wolf (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4)
  • permit -- 2 wolf (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4)
  • permit -- hunt in park (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7)
  • permits (Ned, Stanley 17), (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • permits -- require to break Native cultural rules (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 7)
  • perpetuation (Kauffmann, John 8)
  • personal use -- haven't seen much (Holly, Susan 7)
  • personality -- everybody's friend; good man (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • personality -- friendly (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 4)
  • personality -- friendly; talker (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1)
  • personality -- good, really took care of people (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • perspectives -- each side has hard time understanding the other (Bane, Ray (1) 8)
  • Pet Lake (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7)
  • Peter's Point (Mekiana, Justus (1) 3)
  • Peter, Grandpa (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2, 6)
  • Peters, Clay -- Parks Committee (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • Peters, Julia (Gray, Millie 6)
  • petitions (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • Petroleum Reserve (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Philadelphia (Pepper, Jim (1) 1), (Swem, Ted 4)
  • Phillips Field (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • philosophy -- conservative (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3)
  • philosophy -- problems not from taking of game, but rather destroying habitat (Schmitz, Dave 10)
  • physiography -- should have determined boundaries (Kauffmann, John 11)
  • Pick River (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • Pickies, Less (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • pike (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • pike -- cooked on stick (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • pilagaqusaaq -- substitute for willows used in summertime (Mekiana, Justus 7)
  • pilgrimages (Brown, William (2) 2)
  • pilot license (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • Pilot, Sally (Vent, Mary 1)
  • pilot -- boats (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • pilot -- twenty-four years, quit 1970 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 2)
  • pilots -- pioneer (English, Bill and Shirley 12)
  • Pingalo, Sammy -- cousin (Ulen, Tishu 4)
  • Pingalo, Sammy -- grandfather, didn't know (Ulen, Tishu 4)
  • Pingel, Mr. (English, Bill and Shirley 9)
  • Pingle, Henry (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • Pioneer Hall (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • Pioneer Hall -- staying at (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • pipeline (Bane, Ray (1) 6), (Brockman, Ross 7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10), (Johnson, Walter (1) 15), (Lounsbury, George 7, 9, 14), (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • pipeline corridor (Schmitz, Dave 7)
  • pipeline corridor -- hunting closed (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • pipeline corridors -- most flexible Bureau of Land Management policy (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • pipeline oil (Bane, Ray (2) 4)
  • pipeline -- 1975; screwed up everything (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • pipeline -- construction (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • pipeline -- controversy (English, Bill and Shirley 19)
  • pipeline -- didn't want it there (Morry, Riley 7)
  • pipeline -- halted for years (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • pipeline -- Middle Fork drainage (Lounsbury, George 7)
  • pipeline -- started work on park after (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • pipeline -- stopped migration (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • Piper Cub (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • Pitka, Catherine (Gray, Millie 5)
  • Pitka, Charlie -- second mail runner (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Pitot, Albert -- moved married to Ludie, captain on steamboat (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • place names -- kids don't travel and learn (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • place names -- map; to be completed with elders (Ned, Stanley 18)
  • placer mining claims (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • places -- communal (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • plane -- Cessna 180 capable of landing (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • plane -- pontoon landing after ice goes out (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • plane -- slow back then (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • planning (Swem, Ted 6)
  • planning team -- Central Broods Range and Noatak (Kauffmann, John 5)
  • planning -- Alaska should be different (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • plans -- cafe; museum; log cabins (Henderson, Joe 5)
  • plant -- identification (Johnson, Walter (2) 3)
  • plants -- collection of (Johnson, Walter (2) 3)
  • plaster mining (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • plastic window (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 3)
  • playing guitar (Sam Sr., Tony 2)
  • pledge of allegience (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • pneumonia -- caused by fall; seven years old (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 4)
  • pneumonia -- lost one brother and one sister (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 10)
  • pneumonia -- medicine, took all spring to recover (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 4)
  • pneumonia -- no medication; leads to tuberculosis (David, David and Kitty 7)
  • pneumonia -- viral (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 9)
  • pocket knives (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • Point Barrow (Johnson, Walter (1) 9), (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Point Barrow -- married to Bessie (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • pokes -- seal (Ulen, Tishu 3)
  • poles -- formed fence (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 5)
  • policies -- explanations (Collins, Bruce 9)
  • policy goal -- grandfather users, phase out non-Natives (Bane, Ray (1) 10)
  • policy -- cooperative management plans thrown out at last minute, defeating purpose (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • policy -- decision-making hard to trace (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • polio (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 13)
  • political pressures -- conservation groups (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • political process -- based on negotiation, like it or not (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • political process -- determines policy (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • politics (Collins, Bruce 17), (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • politics -- acreage (Kauffmann, John 11)
  • politics -- compromises (Bane, Ray (1) 9)
  • politics -- left leaning (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • politics -- many party settlement (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • politics -- Natives involved as necessity, not because they chose it (Bifelt, Fred Lee 2)
  • politics -- not bureaucratic control, but political (Pepper, Jim (1) 6)
  • politics -- passionate, contentious (Pepper, Jim (1) 4)
  • politics -- state vs federal government (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • Pollock, Frank (English, Bill and Shirley 13)
  • Poncho Villa (Lounsbury, George 9)
  • population (Brown, William (1) 8)
  • population -- 57 to 60 people in Anaktuvuk Pass when elected first village council (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)
  • population -- citizenship (English, Bill and Shirley 9)
  • population -- sex disparities (English, Bill and Shirley 7)
  • population -- turnover (Collins, Bruce 7, 8), (English, Bill and Shirley 7), (Johnson, Walter (1) 15)
  • Porchot, Pat (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • Porchot, Pat -- then Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, now state senator (Schmitz, Dave 8)
  • porcupine (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • Porcupine Caribou Herd (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • Porcupine Creek (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • porcupine quills -- dying (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • Porcupine River (English, Bill and Shirley 15), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • porcupine -- August (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • Portage Trail (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • Portland (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • possessions -- deceased's, given away (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • post office (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • post office department (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)
  • Post Office Inspector (Mekiana, Justus (1) 14)
  • post office -- Rausch, Bob (Mekiana, Justus (1) 14)
  • post office -- required college educated person to run it (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)
  • Post Office -- shared (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • post-master (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • postmaster -- Barrow Eskimo (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • potatoes (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • potlatch (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • potlatch -- always brought meat or something (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • potlatch -- bury him, make song (Simon, Lydia 1)
  • potlatch -- changes in (Ned, Stanley 6)
  • potlatch -- food, gifts (Simon, Lydia 2)
  • potlatch -- for all of them (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • potlatch -- funeral; best food, fresh meat (Ned, Stanley 12)
  • potlatch -- given by Chief Moses (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • potlatch -- important (Ned, Stanley 6)
  • potlatch -- long history (Williams, Susie 8)
  • potlatch -- much work; gather; hunt; cook (Williams, Susie 8)
  • potlatch -- not enough to bury dead, still don't forget (Williams, Susie 8)
  • potlatch -- outdoors, big fire (Williams, Susie 9)
  • potlatch -- pay them back (Williams, Susie 9)
  • potlatches -- April (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • potlatches -- funeral and memorial; changes (Ned, Stanley 11)
  • Potter Island (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • pottery -- clay and feathers (Vent, Mary 1)
  • practice -- every night (Sam Sr., Tony 2)
  • pregnancy -- had baby in Allakaket (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • prejudice -- found everywhere (Ned, Stanley 8)
  • prejudice -- runs both ways (Bifelt, Fred Lee 8)
  • premier wilderness park (Kauffmann, John 9)
  • Presbyterian Mission -- organ (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • preservation -- management (Brown, William (1) 1)
  • President Johnson -- killed proposal, reasons provided (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • presidential proclamation for new national monuments (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Presidential Proclamation of Monuments -- 1979, Alaskan opinions (Collins, Bruce 3)
  • press (Collins, Bruce 14)
  • press -- proactive (Collins, Bruce 5)
  • prevention -- long run results (Collins, Bruce 11)
  • priest (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • priest -- seventeen years (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • Princeton University (Kauffmann, John 1)
  • principal -- description of trip (Swem, Ted 2)
  • private inholdings (Kauffmann, John 10)
  • privileges -- rangers vs campers (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • problem -- outsiders lacked understanding (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • problems -- caused by too few numbers of rangers for growing number of campers (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • problems -- examples of and possible solutions (Brown, William (2) 6)
  • proclamations signing (Swem, Ted (2) 5)
  • professional guiding (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • professors -- old people (Ned, Stanley 13)
  • project -- pioneer effort (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • projects -- many attempts, many failures (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3)
  • promotion -- sent pictures of dog lot, they approved (Henderson, Joe 3)
  • propane stove (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • proposal -- letter to Department of the Interior recommending park protection for Alatna, Upper Noatak, Kobuk Rivers (Bane, Ray (1) 6)
  • proposals (Swem, Ted 7)
  • Prospect Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9)
  • prospecting (Brockman, Ross 1), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2)
  • prospector (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1)
  • prostitutes (English, Bill and Shirley 7), (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • provider (Sam Sr., Tony 1)
  • provisions -- almost everything is there (Williams, Susie 12)
  • Prudhoe Bay (Pepper, Jim (1) 7, 8), (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • ptarmigan (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 6), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 4), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1 , 4)
  • public health nurse -- 1948; helped (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • public meetings (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7)
  • public relations (Collins, Bruce 2, 9)
  • Public Roads Admi nistration -- Alaska Highway (English, Bill and Shirley 10)
  • public use (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • publication -- 1964 (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • publications (Bane, Ray (1) 6)
  • pudding -- like candy, precious (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Pueblos (Brown, William (1) 6)
  • Puerto Rico -- San Juan; influence of (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • punishment -- talking of what's wrong and right (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • punishments -- Borax soap, paddle, etc. (Ned, Stanley 4)
  • Putu's son (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Puvlatuuq (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5, 10, 15)
  • Q
  • Qagmaligmiut (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Qagmaligmiut -- Anaktuvuk people (Mekiana, Justus (1) 1)
  • Qagmaligmiut -- go through Anaktuvuk (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Qalutagiaq (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5, 8, 10, 18), (Mekiana, Justus (2) 1)
  • Qalutagiaq -- winter residence before Christmas (Mekiana, Justus (1) 8)
  • Qalutaq (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17)
  • qualities -- of deceased, i.e. good hunter; fast runner; hard worker; kind; helpful (Williams, Susie 10)
  • quaq -- partially frozen meat (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 8)
  • quarters -- taught in washroom; attic (Bane, Ray (1) 4)
  • Quebec (Bane, Ray (2) 5)
  • Queenie -- everybody knew it (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 4)
  • R
  • R.A.H.I. -- summer orientation (Mekiana, Debbie 4)
  • rabbit (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 6), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 4)
  • rabbit skin parka (Vent, Mary 4)
  • rabbits (Bifelt, Madeline 2)
  • rabbits -- snaring (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • Rabeau, Dr. Stuart (Johnson, Walter (1) 12)
  • races -- Anchorage and Fairbanks (Vent, Bobby 3)
  • racing -- after 16 years of dog racing, Lydia wins 1st race, 1986 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 2)
  • racing -- many trophies attributed to hard work and lots of help (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 2)
  • racing -- need dogs that will listen (Vent, Bobby 3)
  • racing -- seven dogs, 1955; got third place (David, David and Kitty 5)
  • racks -- hide drying (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 4)
  • radar screen (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • radio (Brockman, Ross 9), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 3)
  • radio -- news (Brockman, Ross 3)
  • radio -- rangers relay requests; emergencies (Holly, Susan 5)
  • radio -- single side band (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 5)
  • radio -- two way, made business, placed orders in town (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • radios -- currently no large towers in Gates Park (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • rafting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 1)
  • rail lines (English, Bill and Shirley 15)
  • railroad (Brockman, Ross 6)
  • railroads -- Wyoming and Montana (Swem, Ted 1)
  • ram (Brockman, Ross 8)
  • Rampart (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8), (Sam Sr., Tony 1, 3)
  • ranch (Brockman, Ross 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2)
  • Range Station
  • rangers -- cut funds caused less rangers in Gates Park (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • rangers -- of the Park (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • Rausch, Bob (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • raven -- signs to leave Elijah's meat alone (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • Rayburn, George (Johnson, Walter (1) 12)
  • Raymond -- lost 1975 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • reaction -- before formation, locals too casual (Bane, Ray (1) 13)
  • reaction -- negative (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • reaction -- renewed anger (Bane, Ray (1) 14)
  • reactions -- Native and non-Native (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • Readers Digest Book Club (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • reading (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4)
  • reading -- fables (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • Reakoff family (Lounsbury, George 2, 6)
  • Reakoff's (Holly, Susan 7)
  • Reakoff, Jack (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4, 6)
  • Reakoff, Jack -- now old timer at age thirty-five (Schmitz, Dave 13)
  • Reakoff, Mrs. (Lounsbury, George 7)
  • Reakoff, Rick (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • Real Alaska Coalition (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • real estate "time bomb" (Kauffmann, John 10)
  • reality -- didn't live up to ideal (Bane, Ray (1) 15)
  • Reckord, Holly (Nelson, Richard 2)
  • recommendation (Reakoff, Jack 11) , (Swem, Ted 9)
  • recommendation -- some areas, no guiding; no non-residents on the Haul Road (Reakoff, Jack 4)
  • recommendations -- reassess Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (Kauffmann, John 10)
  • record player -- 78's, learned from (Sam Sr., Tony 1)
  • recovered upper Ambler (Kauffmann, John 7)
  • recreation (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4)
  • Red Star Lake -- solo exploration (Schmitz, Dave 5)
  • Redington, Joe -- bought favorite dog (David, David and Kitty 5)
  • Reed River (Schmitz, Dave 12)
  • Reed, Nat (Pepper, Jim (1) 2, 3)
  • Reed, Secretary -- supported inclusion (Kauffmann, John 12)
  • Refault, Bill (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • regional aviation manager (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • Regional Chief of New Area Studies (Swem, Ted 4)
  • Regional Office -- Anchorage (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1, 2)
  • regions -- traditions vary (Ned, Stanley 11)
  • registration -- voluntary (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 6)
  • regulations (Pepper, Jim (2) 3)
  • regulations -- bear kill (Mekiana, Debbie 2)
  • regulations -- biases (Mekiana, Justus (2) 1)
  • regulations -- cabins not available to commercial ventures (Henderson, Joe 2)
  • regulations -- do not allow Eskimo people to survive off land (Mekiana, Justus (1) 18)
  • regulations -- enforcement of rules discourages people from showing visitors park (Henderson, Joe 7)
  • regulations -- made guiding too difficult (Schmitz, Dave 6)
  • regulations -- make difficult to keep customers happy and warm; driven away (Henderson, Joe 7)
  • regulations -- ridiculous (Henderson, Joe 8)
  • regulations -- some difficult; firewood; cabins; spruce boughs (Schmitz, Dave 7)
  • regulations -- state and federal (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • regulations -- state game; apply more to sport hunters than Natives (Ned, Stanley 15)
  • relations -- white/Native (Brown, William (1) 14)
  • relatives -- 10 total children (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 10)
  • religion -- animistic (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • religion -- conflict of beliefs (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • religion -- conversion (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 8)
  • religion -- outsider's discouraged (Ned, Stanley 6)
  • religion -- said to be devil worship (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • religion -- traditional beliefs (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 8)
  • remoteness (Brown, William (1) 12)
  • remove all threats (Kauffmann, John 10)
  • repeater station (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • Repo Brothers (Lounsbury, George 4)
  • research -- ethical issues (Nelson, Richard 3)
  • research -- irrelevant (Collins, Bruce 11)
  • research -- joint venture to find solution (Brown, William (2) 6)
  • research -- ownership of fieldnotes (Nelson, Richard 3)
  • resentment (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • reservoir management -- state level (Swem, Ted 3)
  • residence zone status -- NPS (Reakoff, Jack 10)
  • residence -- south of park (Holly, Susan 2)
  • residence -- Wiseman, 1971 (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • resident zone (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7)
  • resident zone communities -- visiting (Schmitz, Dave 12)
  • resident zone community (Schmitz, Dave 11)
  • resident -- long time, lived with Natives and whites (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • residents -- friendly (Morry, Riley 12)
  • residents -- law abiding (Morry Riley 9)
  • residents -- since July 4, 1985 (Holly, Susan 1)
  • residents -- Wiseman, opposed pipeline (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • resistance -- mother (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 5)
  • resolutions (Swem, Ted 7)
  • resource development -- those compatible with continued subsistence (Bifelt, Fred Lee 10)
  • resource impact -- mention of fear for how all of state may receive use of ATV's if one locale is granted use (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 1)
  • resource locations (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7)
  • resource studies (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • resource -- global (Collins, Bruce 17)
  • resource -- management (Collins, Bruce 9)
  • resource -- preservation (Collins, Bruce 9)
  • resources -- comparatively few conflicts (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • resources -- contention over (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • resources -- knowledge of fish and game (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • resources -- ownership claims (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • resources -- pressure upon (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • respect -- must be mutual and recognize what each has to offer (Bifelt, Fred Lee 8)
  • responsibility (Schmitz, Dave 11)
  • responsibility -- to Natives (Bane, Ray (1) 10)
  • restaurant (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • restrictions (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 8), (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • restrictions -- difficulties for Eskimo (Mekiana, Justus (1) 18)
  • restrictions -- formerly few, no permits, liability insurance (Schmitz, Dave 6)
  • restrictions -- park (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • restrictions -- preceived (Collins, Bruce 4)
  • restrictions -- reluctantly favor (Schmitz, Dave 7)
  • result -- little listened to or used (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • results -- largely satisfactory, some qualifications (Bane, Ray (1) 15)
  • retirement (Brown, William (1) 2)
  • retirement -- said he'd spend all his money; he did (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • revenue -- from resources (Pepper, Jim (1) 9)
  • revenue -- from wildlife refuges (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • revisitation (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • Reynolds, John -- now head of Denver Service Center (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • Richardson Highway (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • rifles (English, Bill and Shirley 21)
  • right of ways (Collins, Bruce 11)
  • Riley, Burke (Swem, Ted (2) 5)
  • Riley, Rachael (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • Ring, Dick (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 2)
  • ritual -- visiting (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2, 11)
  • river access -- lack of (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 9)
  • river house -- 1950's, good times (Williams, Susie 5)
  • river systems: Noatak, Koyukuk, Itkillik, Alatna, Killik, Colville (Kauffmann, John 11)
  • river -- break through (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • river -- captains (Brown, William (1) 11)
  • river -- conditions determine travel (Holly, Susan 3)
  • river -- cross on foot in winter, boat in summer; stay home with homework during freeze and break-up (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • river -- during break-up, couldn't cross for school (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • river -- house on (Williams, Susie 5)
  • River -- ran with boat all the way to Koyukuk Station (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • river -- scared of (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • river -- traveling; boats (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • Rivers, Guy (Lounsbury, George 7)
  • rivers -- hunting along (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • Road Commission (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • road house (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • road -- repair (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 3)
  • road -- use of (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • roadhouses (Brown, William (1) 14), (English, Bill and Shirley 16)
  • roads and rivers -- states claims (Kauffmann, John 10)
  • roads -- destroying habitat (Schmitz, Dave 10)
  • roads -- Haul Road (Brown, William (2) 3)
  • Roady, Dan (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • Roady, Dan -- cabin (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • Robert Kennedy Stadium (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Rock Island Point -- eight miles below Hughes (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • Rocky Bottom -- moose (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • role model -- try to be that for all kids (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 4)
  • rolled oats (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • romanticism (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • Ronny -- her baby (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • Rooney Lake (English, Bill and Shirley 5, 17, 20)
  • Rooney, Jack (English, Bill and Shirley 17, 20)
  • Roosevelt, Mister -- Simon Paneak's son (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 8)
  • Roosevelt, Teddy (Brown, William (2) 1)
  • rope (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • rope -- bear skin (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 9)
  • rope -- cut up for snow shoes, pass around (Williams, Susie 9)
  • rope -- tied mid-boat, balance (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 11)
  • rope -- ugruk skin (Williams, Susie 9)
  • Roseberg, Oregon (English, Bill and Shirley 10, 11)
  • Rosie -- kind one (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • Round Island (Swem, Ted 14)
  • Round Island -- natural landmark area (Swem, Ted 7)
  • route -- Fairbanks, Tanana, Allakaket, Bettles, Wiseman (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • route -- oil interests reselected their own route (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • route -- Tanana to Wiseman (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • routine -- love it, hate it (Holly, Susan 8)
  • Rulland, Frank (English, Bill and Shirley 16), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5, 8, 14), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 4, 5, 8, 9)
  • Rulland, Jane (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 4, 14)
  • Rulland, Vera (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 4, 8, 9, 13)
  • runway maintenance (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3)
  • Runyan, Joe (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • rural development (Ned, Stanley 9)
  • rural preference -- don't agree; should be based on need (Bifelt, Fred Lee 10)
  • Russia -- U.S. promised in 1867 to deal with Native issue (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Rutter, John (Swem, Ted (2) 2, 3)
  • S
  • Sacket, John -- wrote Catherine in 1972 to ask her to teach about land claims in villages (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3)
  • Sackett, Jack (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 2), (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3, 4)
  • Sackett, Jack -- interpreter (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 6)
  • Sackett, Russ (Brown, William (1) 3)
  • Sackett -- didn't keep people up to date (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 2)
  • Sackett -- kind, but not modern (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 2)
  • sacrifices -- Ambler, Kogoluktuk, Shungnak (Kauffmann, John 7)
  • sacrifices -- isolation, cabin fever (Schmitz, Dave 3)
  • sadness -- many deaths (Gray, Millie 6)
  • Sagvagniqtuuq -- wolf pups (Mekiana, Justus (1) 6)
  • salmon (Johnson, Walter (1) 14), (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • salmonberries (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • Salmon River (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • Salmon, Hanna (Gray, Millie 6)
  • Sam family -- Frank & Harding (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • Sam's family -- trained dogs well (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 11)
  • Sam, Big Sophie (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Sam, Elmer (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • Sam, Frank -- sold for $25; friend, brother (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • Sam, Harding -- husband (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • Sam, Jimmy (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5)
  • Sam, Lucien (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Sam, Moses (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5)
  • Sam, Ron (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 13)
  • Sam, Selawik (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2, 3), (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Sam, Sophie (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • Sam, Tony (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Sam -- family (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Sam -- Lill's brother (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • Sammie and Sophie (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Samson -- got sick (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • Samson -- youngest brother (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • San Francisco (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • sanitation -- didn't know about (David, David and Kitty 7)
  • Santini, Congressman (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • satellite dish (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • savik (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 4)
  • sawmill (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2), (Bifelt, Madeline 6, 7)
  • Sawtooth (Swem, Ted 10)
  • Saylor, Congressman (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • Saylor, John -- Pennsylvania (Swem, Ted (2) 5)
  • scale -- beyond what can be shown on map (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • scale -- whole regions, ecosystems (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • scales (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • Scanca, Herman (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 12)
  • schedule -- depended on filling payload with people or freight (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Schloesser, Agnes -- first territorial teacher (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • Schneider, Bill (Brown, William (1) 14)
  • school (Brown, William (1) 8), (Collins, Bruce 1), (Morry, Riley 2), (Reakoff, Jack 7) ,(Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12), (Williams, Susie 6)
  • school teacher (Brockman, Ross 6)
  • school years (Brockman, Ross 9)
  • school -- 1958; Allakaket (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • school -- 1st day (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 2)
  • school -- Allakaket (Williams, Susie 1)
  • school -- built, 1950 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • school -- church, domes (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • school -- couple years, only education (Vent, Bobby 1)
  • school -- denied, flooding prevented (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • school -- didn't go, lived out; enjoyed it (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • school -- don't go out anymore since kids have school; 1940's and 1950's (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 7)
  • school -- drop out (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2)
  • school -- fifth grade; out most of the time (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • school -- forced into by missionaries, teachers, miners (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • school -- get an education (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • school -- grandchildren (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • school -- has its place, but can't get some knowledge from a book (Bifelt, Fred Lee 7)
  • school -- learning chart of basic words (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • school -- learning to read (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • school -- learning to write (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3)
  • school -- little time for; 4th grade (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • school -- maintenance (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • school -- March to May (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • school -- missed (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • school -- missionary building, one through eight (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • school -- new one built, 1980; four classrooms gym (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • school -- October to January (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • school -- one month in 1927 (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • school -- part time, 1945; mother not well then (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • school -- plan to return to finish (Ned, Stanley 9)
  • school -- quit tenth grade (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 2)
  • school -- quit, wasn't ready (Ned, Stanley 9)
  • school -- second grade off and on (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1)
  • school -- September (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 3)
  • school -- sixth grade (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • school -- started at age seven (Ned, Stanley 4)
  • school -- stay in village (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • school -- staying in village (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 6)
  • school -- studied it (Bifelt, Fred Lee 2)
  • school -- third grade (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • school -- two room, frame (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • school -- wanting to go (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 2)
  • school -- white man way (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • schoolhouse (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 3), (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • schoolhouse -- 1st one 1961 (Mekiana, Justus (1) 12)
  • schoolhouse -- coming in from Fairbanks or BIA (Mekiana, Justus (1) 12)
  • schoolhouse -- in Anaktuvuk (Mekiana, Justus (1) 10)
  • schooling -- most important thing today (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 8)
  • schoolkids (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 4)
  • Schwarbler, Jim -- nearest neighbor (Schmitz, Dave 3)
  • Schwarbler, Jim -- stayed on through eighties (Schmitz, Dave 9)
  • scientists (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • scow (Johnson, Walter (1) 6)
  • scow -- description (Johnson, Walter (1) 6)
  • scow -- horses (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • scows (English, Bill and Shirley 2, 3)
  • Scoyen, Eivind (Swem, Ted 14)
  • Scranton, Pennsylvania (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 1), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • script writer -- liaison for (Kauffmann, John 3)
  • scrub trees (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11)
  • seal oil (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • seal oil -- medicine (Ulen, Tishu 3)
  • seal skin (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • Sears Roebuck (Mekiana, Justus (1) 8)
  • season -- mid-June to late August (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • seasonal ranger (Kauffmann, John 2)
  • seasonal round (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • Seattle (Bifelt, Madeline 8), (Brown, William (1) 8, 9), (English, Bill and Shirley 11), (Johnson, Walter (1) 8, 11)
  • Seattle -- proposal (Morry, Riley 5)
  • Seattle-Tacoma Indian School (Gray, Millie 1)
  • Second Annual Alaska Scientific Conference (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 15)
  • second -- teenager (Gray, Millie 11)
  • Secretary Advisory Board (Swem, Ted 12)
  • Secretary of the Interior (Swem, Ted 5)
  • Secretary of the Interior's Advisory Board on National Parks (Swem, Ted 7)
  • Secretary of the Interior -- separate planning group (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • Secretary Udall (Swem, Ted 9)
  • seining (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2), (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • seizures (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 15)
  • Selawik River (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • Selawik -- people around Alatna came from (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • selection -- criteria (Morry, Riley 5)
  • selection -- land (Morry, Riley 5)
  • selections -- park was way to increase acreage (Morry, Riley 5)
  • self esteem -- low (Bifelt, Fred Lee 9)
  • self-teaching -- got to 7th grade (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 4)
  • Sellars, Dan (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • September -- boating supplies in (Holly, Susan 4)
  • September -- first time father came back from fishcamp (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • September -- store slows down; ready for mushing; trapping; setting up camps for trips (Henderson, Joe 9)
  • Septum, Bob (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • Serora National Monument (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • Service Motors (Lounsbury, George 9)
  • Service, Robert (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1), (Swem, Ted 12)
  • service -- military; drafted (Ned, Stanley 1)
  • services -- few attend today (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • services -- provided by Park; concerns better orientation (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • set netting (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • settlement size -- 25-30 people (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Seward (Brown, William (1) 9), (English, Bill and Shirley 2)
  • sewing (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 2), (Bifelt, Madeline 9), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 5)
  • sewing machines (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • sewing -- classes (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • sewing -- learning from grandmother (Henzie, Moses and Marie 5)
  • sewing -- sinew as thread (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 12)
  • sex roles -- adaptive (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 10)
  • sex -- roles (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 10)
  • Sexour, Art -- 20 oz nugget (Lounsbury, George 9)
  • Shadow of the Hunter -- Wainwright (Nelson, Richard 2)
  • Shappell, Oliver (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • shareholders (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3)
  • sharing (Mekiana, Debbie 5), (Williams, Susie 11)
  • sheep (Brockman, Ross 8), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5), (Johnson, Walter (1) 14), (Reakoff, Jack 6)
  • Sheep Creek (Lounsbury, George 4), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3)
  • sheep hunting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 12), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Sheep Mountain (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1, 2)
  • sheep -- delicacy, aura (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • sheep -- hunting (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • sheep -- many (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3)
  • sheep -- meat (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • sheep -- trails (Brockman, Ross 8)
  • Sheldon, Henry (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • Shining Lake (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • shipping -- by air (Morry, Riley 10)
  • Shishmaref -- grandma from there (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • shop -- got sick after two weeks (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 12)
  • Shorty (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • shovel (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 3)
  • Shugnak (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9), (Bane, Ray (2) 2, 4, 6), (Brown, William (1) 11, 12), (Nelson, Richard 8), (Sam Sr., Tony 6), (Williams, Susie 9)
  • Shungnak -- one year (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • Shungnak -- people (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • siblings (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5)
  • siblings -- Christopher, Steven, Louisa, Jessie, Edward, Abraham, Johnson, Isabel, Celia (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • siblings -- Simon, Olivia, Elizabeth (William, William and Effie (1) 2)
  • sickness (English, Bill and Shirley 9), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 12), (Ulen, Tishu 3)
  • sickness -- Dennis' brother, Dick (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • sickness -- flu; lost hearing; eardrums burst, bled (Ulen, Tishu 6)
  • sickness -- gangrene (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 6)
  • sickness -- lost many people (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • sickness -- Medivac (Mekiana, Debbie 3)
  • sickness -- miners sent him out to hospital where he died (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • sickness -- parents hoped to save children by giving away (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 2)
  • Sierra Club (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • Siglin, Roger (Brown, William (2) 6)
  • Signal Corps -- US Army (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • Silver Wings (English, Bill and Shirley 14)
  • Silverado Mining Company (Lounsbury, George 9)
  • Simmonds, Samuel (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 14)
  • Simon Paneak Museum (Brown, William (1) 12)
  • Simon Paneak Museum -- after school (Mekiana, Debbie 4)
  • Simon, Agnes -- mother (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 12)
  • Simon, Edwin
  • Simon, Edwin -- breaking trail (Henzie, Moses and Marie 2)
  • Simon, Edwin -- Huslia (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • Simon, Edwin -- took picture of cabin in 1935 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • Simon, Edwin -- understood too (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • Simon, Lillian (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • Simon, Ned (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 7)
  • Simon, Pollack -- went with to John River (William, William and Effie (2) 3)
  • Simon, Pollock -- tour idea (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 11)
  • sinew -- caribou skin (Vent, Mary 1)
  • sinew -- replaced (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • sinew -- use in sewing (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • singing (English, Bill and Shirley 20), (Gray, Millie 6)
  • single management (Kauffmann, John 10)
  • Sinyalik (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • sister -- Bessie (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • sister -- died (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 1)
  • sister -- Marie Henzie's mother (William, William and Effie (1) 2)
  • sister -- near miss (Mekiana, Debbie 2)
  • sister -- Sara (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • sisters -- died of tuberculosis (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • Sitka (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • Sitka -- Pioneer Home (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • Sitka -- Sheldon Jackson High School (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • Six Mile Bluff (Vent, Bobby 1)
  • Sixty Mile trapline (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • Sixtymile Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2)
  • Sixtymile trapline (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • size -- equivalent to "4 Yellowstones" (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • size -- reasons for boundaries (Brown, William (2) 5)
  • Skagway (Swem, Ted 12, 14)
  • Skagway -- 1962 (Swem, Ted 12)
  • Skagway -- Hickel interested in (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • Skagway -- historical area (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • skiers (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 7)
  • skills -- handling ax, using gun, making camp (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 4)
  • skills -- want to learn hunting, trapping, fishing (Mekiana, Debbie 5)
  • skin boat (Bane, Ray (1) 3), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • skin -- dry in wind (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • skin -- scraping (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • skin -- stretching (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • skinning -- fast (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4)
  • skins (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • skins -- making rammage (babiche) (Henzie, Moses and Marie 5)
  • skins -- sheep, caribou (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3)
  • skins -- snowshoes, sleighs (Henzie, Moses and Marie 5)
  • Slate Creek (Johnson, Walter (1) 5)
  • Slavs (English, Bill and Shirley 9)
  • sled dogs (Brockman, Ross 4), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • sled -- bought by Stuck; broke (Williams, Susie 6)
  • sled -- building (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11)
  • sled -- construction (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 4)
  • sled -- made in tent (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • sleds -- used to make for money (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • sleigh -- built first one at fourteen (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1)
  • slide collection (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • slippers (Gray, Millie 7)
  • slippers -- beaded (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • Slisco, Martin (English, Bill and Shirley 16), (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • smallpox (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 13)
  • Smith, Cowboy (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • Smith, Frank & Mary (Gray, Millie 10)
  • Smith, Mary and Frank -- fiddle player (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • Smith, Philip -- USGS (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • Smith, Rick (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • Smith -- next teacher (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • smoke house (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Smoke, Johnny -- Stevens Village (Henzie, Moses and Marie 2)
  • smokehouse (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • snares -- grass (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • snares -- procedure (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • snares -- rabbit (Williams, Susie 7)
  • snaring (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1, 8), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 8), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • snaring rabbits (Vent, Mary 1)
  • snaring -- description; procedure (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • snaring -- fence for rabbits (Bifelt, Madeline 2)
  • snaring -- ptarmigan, rabbits (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • snaring -- rabbits (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • snaring -- rabbits, ptarmigan (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • sno-go (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • Sno-Go -- 1969, everybody got (Henzie, Moses and Marie 8)
  • snow bridges (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • snow shoes (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • snow shoes -- have trouble making (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • snow -- not a good drinking water source (Mekiana, Justus (1) 11)
  • Snowden, Harry (English, Bill and Shirley 18)
  • snowfall (English, Bill and Shirley 14)
  • snowmachine (Collins, Bruce 13), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10, 11), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17)
  • snowmachine -- risks (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 5)
  • snowmachine -- saved and borrowed money to buy a little Skidoo (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 2)
  • snowmachines -- 1960's, unreliable (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 4)
  • snowmachines -- acceptance, 1970's(Schmitt, Dennis (2) 5)
  • snowmachines -- first (Morry, Riley 10)
  • snowmachines -- ownership of (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 5)
  • snowmachine -- saved and borrowed money to buy a little Skidoo
  • snowmachines -- suspicious of (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 5)
  • snowmachines -- transition to (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 4)
  • snowshoes (Bifelt, Madeline 2), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3), (Johnson, Walter (1) 3), (Schmitz, Dave 3)
  • snowshoes -- construction (Henzie, Moses and Marie 5), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 4)
  • snowshoes -- exercise (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • snowshoes -- today nylon replaces hide; not as good (Henzie, Moses and Marie 5)
  • Soaz, Ben (Vent, Bobby 1)
  • social problems (Bifelt, Fred Lee 9)
  • social reciprocity -- people who helped at funeral are helped at potlatch (Williams, Susie 9)
  • social scientists (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • socks -- rabbit skin (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 5)
  • sod house (Mekiana, Justus (1) 8)
  • sod house -- 18x10, inverted vs, willow frame (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 4)
  • sod houses (Morry, Riley 1)
  • sod houses -- new residence (Mekiana, Justus (1) 8)
  • Soldotna (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 12)
  • Sommers, Johnny and Agnes (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • song (Brockman, Ross 5, 8, 9)
  • song -- bucket (Brockman, Ross 9)
  • song -- Good Old Summer Time (Brockman, Ross 2)
  • song -- Home On the Range (Brockman, Ross 6)
  • song -- learned just one (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • song -- Maggie (Brockman, Ross 9)
  • song -- miner-gold (Brockman, Ross 2)
  • song -- mountains (Brockman, Ross 9)
  • song -- Until We Meet Again (Brockman, Ross 4)
  • song -- yodeling (Brockman, Ross 8)
  • songs (Williams, Susie 9)
  • songs -- chanting(Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • songs -- hard to make now, not many singers (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • songs -- made for the person (Williams, Susie 10)
  • songs -- singing, dancing on boat (Ulen, Tishu 3)
  • songs -- stories (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • songs -- three generation past good songs (Simon, Lydia 2)
  • songs -- used to dance to (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • Sonora, CA -- trip (Brockman, Ross 1)
  • Sophie (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Sourdough Outfitters (Henderson, Joe 2), (Schmitz, Dave 4, 5)
  • Sourdough -- drive for (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • South Flank drainage (Brown, William (1) 7)
  • South Fork (English, Bill and Shirley 20), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1, 7), (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • South Fork David (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • South Fork Henry (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • South Fork Henry -- told many stories (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • South Fork people (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10), (Ned, Stanley 11), (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • South Fork River -- stayed year round (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • South Fork Trail (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • South Fork -- deep snow, lots of moose, 1937 (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • South Fork -- family life, subsistence (Henzie, Moses and Marie 3)
  • South Fork -- forty miles above Allakaket (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • South Fork -- Huslia (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • South Fork -- just returned from trapping there (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • South Fork -- little village, four houses (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • South Fork -- migration (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • South Fork -- moose hunting (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • South Fork -- old village (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • South Fork -- people there (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • South Fork -- used as last name (William, William and Effie (1) 6)
  • Southeast Forests (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Southeast -- mining (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • southwest -- this corner of Park is the preserve (Brown, William (2) 3)
  • sovereignty -- people talk of it because they need more control than they currently have (Bifelt, Fred Lee 7)
  • Spanish-American Veterans (Brockman, Ross 3)
  • Spearman, Grant (Brown, William (1) 12, 13)
  • special interests (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • species ecology (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • spectacular areas in Alaska (Swem, Ted 8)
  • speech -- use high words (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • spelling (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4)
  • spirits (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • spirits -- different between animals and inanimate objects (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • spirituality -- Natives close ties to land and animals (Bane, Ray (1) 8)
  • splitting unwise (Kauffmann, John 7)
  • sport hunting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6), (Pepper, Jim (1) 3, 4)
  • sport hunting -- accepted (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • sport racing -- changes: money, food, sponsors (Vent, Bobby 4)
  • sports -- bow and arrow shoot, foot race, driving nails, three-legged race, wheel barrow race, jumping (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • spring (Brockman, Ross 3), (Henderson, Joe 9), (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • spring camp (Bifelt, Madeline 3), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10), (Ned, Stanley 1), (William, William and Effie (1) 2)
  • spring camp -- always went when growing up (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • spring camp -- May (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • spring camp -- moved Mission lady down there when too much water (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • spring camp -- out till June 10 (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • Spring Creek (Johnson, Walter (1) 5)
  • spring poles (Bifelt, Madeline 2), (Vent, Mary 4)
  • spring pole -- description (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • spring -- leave May 25th (Bifelt, Madeline 3)
  • spring -- muskrat (Beetus, Joe and Celia 2)
  • spring -- muskrats, beaver (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 3)
  • Springer, Ken (Collins, Bruce 8)
  • springtime (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4)
  • springtime -- skis (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • spruce (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11)
  • spruce camp vs willow camp (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11)
  • spruce hen -- like the head (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • spruce hens (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 4)
  • spruce poles (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 13)
  • square dances (Sam Sr., Tony 4)
  • squash (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • squirrel hunting (Brockman, Ross 3)
  • squirrels (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • St. Francis Church (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • St. Michael (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • St. Michaels (English, Bill and Shirley 1)
  • St. Vincent College -- Western Pennsylvania (Pepper, Jim (1) 1)
  • staff size (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • Stagner, Howard (Swem, Ted 2)
  • Stagner, Howard -- Chief Naturalist at Teton (Swem, Ted 2)
  • Stagner, Howard -- Swem worked with years later (Swem, Ted 2)
  • Staly, Walt (English, Bill and Shirley 24)
  • Standish brothers -- Sam, Obrin; Yugoslavians (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Standish, Sam & Obrin (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Standish Brothers (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • star book -- 1935 (Brockman, Ross 5)
  • stars (Brockman, Ross 5)
  • starvation -- many died (Ulen, Tishu 1)
  • State Coordinator for National Park Service (Swem, Ted (2) 2)
  • state fair -- Fairbanks (Collins, Bruce 5)
  • state involvement (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • State of Alaska (Bane, Ray (1) 6), (Schmitz, Dave 7)
  • State of Alaska -- decided to sell animals (Reakoff, Jack 4)
  • state -- 100 million acres of land (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • statehood (Bane, Ray (2) 4)
  • Statehood Act (Brown, William (1) 15)
  • Statehood Act -- impact (Brown, William (1) 15)
  • stations (William, William and Effie (2) 2)
  • statute -- hard fought compromise (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • Stealey, Syd (English, Bill and Shirley 24)
  • steamboat (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • steamboat travel (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • steamboats (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • steamer (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3), (Gray, Millie 1)
  • steamer -- from Nenana (Gray, Millie 2)
  • stepfather -- had four stores (Ulen, Tishu 6)
  • Stefansson, Viljhalmur (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • stepmother -- died, 1947 (Gray, Millie 6)
  • stepmother -- tuberculosis (Gray, Millie 5)
  • Sternack, Dick (Kauffmann, John 7)
  • sternwheelers (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 3)
  • Steve and Kathy (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Steven -- built one (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • Stevens Village (David, David and Kitty 2), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9), (Reakoff, Jack 2), (Sam Sr., Tony 3)
  • Stevens, Jeanie -- friend, best buddy (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • Stevens, Jeanne -- cousin (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • Stevens, Jeannie (Bifelt, Madeline 6)
  • Stevens, Senator Ted -- effective because he understands how it works (Pepper, Jim (1) 6)
  • Stevens, Senator Ted -- flexible system (Pepper, Jim (1) 8)
  • Stevens, Senator Ted -- got things for Alaska (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • Stevens, Senator -- wife killed (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • stickdance (Ned, Stanley 11)
  • Stickinstuck, Art (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 7)
  • Stickman, Fred (Sam Sr., Tony 4)
  • stock market (Lounsbury, George 9)
  • stock market -- portfolio (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3)
  • storage -- food for winter (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • store (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • store -- 1937-1970 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • store -- accounts (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • store -- burned (Bifelt, Madeline 7)
  • store -- father got clothes and food for children for working (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • store -- father's (Vent, Mary 3)
  • store -- first in his father's house (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • store -- hobby, at first (Henderson, Joe 5)
  • store -- lost money, but helped a lot of people (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • store -- new one at end of village (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • store -- started by O'Connell (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17)
  • store -- Steven worked in it (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 1)
  • store -- supplies (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • storekeeper (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1, 2), (Bane, Ray (1) 3)
  • stores (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • stories (Bane, Ray (2) 6), (Henderson, Joe 11), (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • stories -- pulling caribou out of water after it was killed (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • stories -- told while hunting (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • stories -- wintertime hunger (Vent, Mary 1)
  • story -- 1938, wanted ax, got it next day by air (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • story -- boat capsizing (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • story -- doctor's behavior an embarrassment (Bane, Ray (1) 3)
  • story -- father saves Millie from drowning at Koyukuk Station (Gray, Millie 3)
  • story -- hearing aid (Lounsbury, George 7)
  • story -- leave in July (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1)
  • story -- mail
  • story -- rescue (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 5)
  • stove (Mekiana, Justus (1) 7) (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • stove -- sheet iron (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 3)
  • stoves -- oil (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 6)
  • strep throat (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 4)
  • stress -- getting meat (Reakoff, Jack 9)
  • string story (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 14)
  • strip -- lengthened for DC-3 (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • struggle -- "shacked up," Bishop said they should marry (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 6)
  • Stuck, Archdeacon -- good friend (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Stuck, Hudson (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 8)
  • Stuck, Hudson -- Stuck got stuck story (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • Stuck -- brought candy; traveled widely (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Stuck -- had help (Williams, Susie 6)
  • student technician (Swem, Ted 4)
  • students -- fellow villagers; helped (Ned, Stanley 7)
  • studies -- how to conduct (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • study of area (Swem, Ted 15)
  • study -- 1940's (Swem, Ted 15)
  • study -- landmark area (Swem, Ted (2) 2)
  • study -- learn from them (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • stunts (Henderson, Joe 3)
  • Stuttgaurd, Germany -- enjoyed experience (Ned, Stanley 8)
  • Stutzman, Suzie (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 2)
  • subsistence (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4), (Bane, Ray (2) 1), (Bane, Ray (2) 2), (Bifelt, Fred Lee 1), (Brown, William (2) 2), (Collins, Bruce 3, 4, 7, 11, 16, 17), (Johnson, Walter (1)9), (Morry, Riley 11), (Ned, Stanley 9), (Nelson, Richard 12), (Pepper, Jim (1) 3), (Reakoff, Jack 4), (Brown, William (2) 6), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3, 9)
  • Subsistence Advisory Commission -- Gates of the Arctic (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • subsistence advisory groups (Ned, Stanley 16)
  • subsistence culture (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 1)
  • subsistence division (Schmitz, Dave 12)
  • subsistence hunting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • subsistence hunting -- allowed (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 6)
  • subsistence life (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • subsistence lifestyle (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5)
  • subsistence lifestyle -- opportunities (Reakoff, Jack 10)
  • subsistence pattern (Morry, Riley 5)
  • subsistence program -- get information from villages (Ned, Stanley 11)
  • subsistence studies (Bane, Ray (1) 7)
  • subsistence study -- recognized need to accommodate (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • subsistence use (Reakoff, Jack 12)
  • subsistence way of life -- changed (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 3)
  • subsistence -- afraid to lose rights (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • subsistence -- alienation (Nelson, Richard 6)
  • subsistence -- allow continuance, defend against Western encroachment (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 8)
  • subsistence -- as allows for future (Bane, Ray (1) 11)
  • subsistence -- awareness (Bane, Ray (2) 1)
  • subsistence -- backbone of Native life, always there for us (Bifelt, Fred Lee 10)
  • subsistence -- big impact on (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • subsistence -- changes (Collins, Bruce 4)
  • subsistence -- children as part of matrix (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • subsistence -- compromise (Bane, Ray (2) 4)
  • subsistence -- critical issue (Ned, Stanley 15)
  • subsistence -- critical to local people (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 6)
  • subsistence -- cultural difference (Nelson, Richard 5)
  • subsistence -- cultural identity (Bane, Ray (2) 3)
  • subsistence -- cultural viewpoint (Nelson, Richard 5)
  • subsistence -- current administration is anti-subsistence; pro big-guide (Bifelt, Fred Lee 6)
  • subsistence -- cycle (Bane, Ray (2) 3)
  • subsistence -- cycles (Nelson, Richard 7)
  • subsistence -- definition (Collins, Bruce 16)
  • subsistence -- definitions (Bane, Ray (2) 3)
  • subsistence -- economics (Nelson, Richard 7)
  • subsistence -- esoteric (Bane, Ray (2) 2)
  • subsistence -- fishing (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • subsistence -- fishing; berry-picking; moose hunting; trapping; timber (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • subsistence -- flexibility (Nelson, Richard 7)
  • subsistence -- fluctuation (Nelson, Richard 3)
  • subsistence -- food (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1, 4)
  • subsistence -- function (Bane, Ray (2) 2)
  • subsistence -- how we make living (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • subsistence -- hunting (English, Bill and Shirley 5)
  • subsistence -- importance (Bane, Ray (2) 3)
  • subsistence -- incentive (Nelson, Richard 7)
  • subsistence -- keep the traditions (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • subsistence -- leave it the way it is (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • subsistence -- lifestyle (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • subsistence -- living off the land; everyday activity (Bifelt, Fred Lee 5)
  • subsistence -- mapping (Nelson, Richard 3)
  • subsistence -- modification (Collins, Bruce 4)
  • subsistence -- Native mangement (Nelson, Richard 6)
  • subsistence -- need for balance (Johnson, Walter (2) 2)
  • subsistence -- need to protect corridor (Morry, Riley 7)
  • subsistence -- needs (Morry, Riley 12)
  • subsistence -- non-Native (Nelson, Richard 5, 6)
  • subsistence -- not big issue (Bifelt, Fred Lee 6)
  • subsistence -- people from Wiseman involved have been doing so for years (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • subsistence -- permits (Collins, Bruce 17)
  • subsistence -- prior to park, more people living off country (Schmitz, Dave 6)
  • subsistence -- protect (Bane, Ray (1) 9)
  • subsistence -- protecting way of life (Morry, Riley 5)
  • subsistence -- quantification (Nelson, Richard 3)
  • subsistence -- residence (Bane, Ray (2) 3)
  • subsistence -- retain its integrity and country will always support (Reakoff, Jack 10)
  • subsistence -- some people legally defined out of business (Schmitz, Dave 9)
  • subsistence -- spirtuality (Nelson, Richard 12)
  • subsistence -- still need it (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 6)
  • subsistence -- studies (Nelson, Richard 6)
  • subsistence -- study of inland environment use (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • subsistence -- takes up some slack for low income; less than half the poverty line (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • subsistence -- technical (Bane, Ray (2) 2)
  • subsistence -- traditional (Collins, Bruce 4), (Nelson, Richard 4)
  • subsistence -- traveling with Natives (Bane, Ray (1) 3)
  • subsistence -- volatile issue (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • subsistence -- wanted to protect (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • subsistence -- wise use (Reakoff, Jack 5)
  • Suckik Creek (Holly, Susan 2)
  • Suckik, Bessie -- divorced Charlie (Gray, Millie 10)
  • Suckik, Charlie (Gray, Millie 10), (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • suicide (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9), (Bifelt, Fred Lee 9)
  • Sukik, Bessie -- sister (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • Sukik, Big Charlie (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • sulphur (Johnson, Walter (1) 12)
  • Suluuppaat (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5)
  • summer (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • summer camp (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6), (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • summer school (Mekiana, Justus (1) 12)
  • summer student technician (Swem, Ted 3)
  • summer work (Johnson, Walter (1) 13)
  • summer -- fish camp (Bifelt, Madeline 1), (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 3)
  • summer -- mining up at camp (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • summer -- move to town again (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • summer -- open nine to nine (Henderson, Joe 5)
  • summer -- spent at Crevice Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • summer -- temperatures (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • summer -- use of dog packs for hauling meat (Morry, Riley 10)
  • summer -- went back to camp; a few kids died (Williams, Susie 2)
  • summer -- work around Wiseman (Henderson, Joe 9)
  • summer -- working at mining camp (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • summers (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • summertime -- culture education (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • Summit Lake (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • Summit Lakes (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 5)
  • Sumner, Lowell (Swem, Ted 11)
  • Sun, Joe (Bane, Ray (1) 6), (Bane, Ray (2) 2, 6), (Brown, William (1) 11, 12)
  • sun -- lack of (Reakoff, Jack 9)
  • super cub lake (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • superintendent -- has mellowed views (Schmitz, Dave 11)
  • supplies (Johnson, Walter (1) 6, 8)
  • supplies -- Anchorage, Fairbanks (Holly, Susan 5)
  • supplies -- boat (English, Bill and Shirley 2)
  • supplies -- flour, sugar, lard (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • supplies -- fresh foods, oranges, plums, apples (Gray, Millie 1)
  • supplies -- had to come from store (Williams, Susie 2)
  • supplies -- make good use of all (Williams, Susie 9)
  • supplies -- sternwheeler (English, Bill and Shirley 2)
  • supplies -- surface (Johnson, Walter (1) 6)
  • supplies -- too much, too little (Schmitz, Dave 2)
  • supplies -- train (English, Bill and Shirley 2)
  • supplies -- went to Hughes by dog team (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • supply route (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • surface rights -- bothers us (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3)
  • survey pass (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 5)
  • surveying (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 1)
  • surveys (Brown, William (1) 3)
  • survival courses (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • survival tactics (Pepper, Jim (2) 3)
  • survival -- new technologies embraced (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 9)
  • suturing (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 14, 15) (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 15)
  • swamp buggy (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Swarberg, Jim -- chairman (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Swem, Ted (Swem, Ted 6), (Swem, Ted (2) 2, 3)
  • Swem, Ted -- "Keep your eye on the star" (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • Swem, Ted -- chairman of Alaska Planning Group (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • Swem, Ted -- trip to Alaska (Swem, Ted 7)
  • Swem, Ted -- Washington D.C. (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Swem, Theodore R. -- Assistant Director for Cooperative Activities and Planning (Kauffmann, John 5)
  • Swem -- National Park Service representative in Forest Service meetings (Swem, Ted 10)
  • Swem -- no military service (Swem, Ted 3)
  • Swem -- travel (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • Swift Creek (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • Swift, Fred (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • T
  • T and M sites (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • Taaldzaakkaakk'at -- above North Fork (Vent, Mary 3)
  • Taaldzaakkaakk'at -- wintering place (Vent, Mary 3)
  • table -- fold up (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 4)
  • taboo -- daughter will get mad for nothing (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • tagging -- worked for White, $2 per day (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Taltuk (person) -- healer (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • Tanana (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3), (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1), (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 2), (Bifelt, Madeline 8), (English, Bill and Shirley 3, 15), (Johnson, Walter (1)12, 14), (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Tanana Chiefs -- patient hostel, facilities (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 3)
  • Tanana Chiefs -- patient hostel, Fairbanks (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 3)
  • Tanana Chiefs Conference (Ned, Stanley 15)
  • Tanana Chiefs Conference -- accepted job with (Ned, Stanley 9)
  • Tanana Chiefs Conference -- job as staff researcher (Ned, Stanley 11)
  • Tanana Chiefs Conference -- talking for us (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • Tanana Chiefs Conference -- working on regulation proposals (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • Tanana Hospital (David, David and Kitty 6, 7), (Gray, Millie 4)
  • Tanana Hospital -- 1946 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • Tanana Hospital -- 1960 (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • Tanana Hospital -- 1970's (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 5)
  • Tanana Hospital -- overcrowded, 1960's (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 5)
  • Tanana River (English, Bill and Shirley 2)
  • Tanana Valley Fair (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 7)
  • Tanana -- caribou crossed above (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • Tanana -- medicine (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 1)
  • Tanana -- roadhouse (English, Bill and Shirley 16)
  • Tanana -- teacher (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • Tannik World (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • tanning -- caribou, moose (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 8)
  • tanning -- don't get much help anymore; people should learn these things (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 8)
  • tanning -- learning (Henzie, Moses and Marie 5)
  • tanning -- moose (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 8)
  • tanning -- process of, taking up to one month (Bifelt, Madeline 9)
  • tanning -- soaking in soap water (Henzie, Moses and Marie 6)
  • tape recorder (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Task Force (Bane, Ray (1) 6), (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • Task Force recommendations (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • taxidermy (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • Tay, Roger (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • tea (English, Bill and Shirley 6, 17), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • teacher (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3), (Bifelt, Madeline 2), (David, David and Kitty 1), (Morry, Riley 10)
  • teacher -- flew in (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • teacher -- started, 1950 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • teachers -- against use of Native tongue (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • teachers -- Hill and Kay helped (Beetus, Joe and Celia 4)
  • teachers -- not one was helpful or sympathetic (Ned, Stanley 4)
  • teachers -- older people (Ned, Stanley 9)
  • teachers -- true; grandfathers, aunts, uncles, brothers (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • teaching -- offers from Barrow to Ketchikan (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • teaching -- teaching couple (Bane, Ray (1) 4)
  • teamwork -- essential (Holly, Susan 8)
  • teasing -- as an indoor sport (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 11)
  • techniques -- management criticism (Collins, Bruce 11)
  • technology (Collins, Bruce 9)
  • technology -- changes (Bane, Ray (1) 11)
  • technology -- compromise (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 7)
  • technology -- solar panels; mixer; computer; TV; VCR; sewing machine (Holly, Susan 3)
  • Teddy H -- Sam Dubin owned (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Teddy H -- steamboat (Johnson, Walter (1) 6), (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Teddy, H. -- ship
  • teeth (Johnson, Walter (1) 12)
  • telephone lines (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • television -- no time to learn about old stories (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • television -- not good for health (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • temporary editorial clerk (Kauffmann, John 2)
  • tension (Reakoff, Jack 9)
  • tent frames (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 2)
  • tent -- caribou (Ross-Oliver Ethel 1)
  • tent -- description (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 7)
  • tent -- door, grizzly bear (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 2)
  • tents (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11)
  • tents -- description, canvas (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • tents -- round, skin (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 2)
  • Territorial Department of Agriculture (Johnson, Walter (2) 3)
  • Territorial Department of Education (Brown, William (1) 8)
  • territory pension (Johnson, Walter (1) 4)
  • test -- good memory (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 2)
  • tests -- Juneau sent to (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 4)
  • Teton National Park (Swem, Ted 2)
  • Texas -- west (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • Thanksgiving (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7), (Sam Sr., Tony 5)
  • Thanksgiving -- 1968 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • Thanksgiving -- best ever at age thirteen (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • the "boot" -- upper Kobuk, Selby and Narvak Lakes (Kauffmann, John 12)
  • The Island Within (Nelson, Richard 11)
  • "THE ULTIMATE MOUNTAINS" -- title subject to final publisher approval (Kauffmann, John 13)
  • theft -- not a problem (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17)
  • Thibideau, Jules (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • Thomas, Mr. -- missionary who overnighted there (Williams, Susie 7)
  • Thompson, Ben (Swem, Ted 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 14)
  • Thompson, Miss (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • thread -- unraveling towels for (Bifelt, Madeline 9)
  • threats today -- dire, pervasive (Kauffmann, John 10)
  • Three Time Mountain (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • thunder -- 1966, came close to bank, bumped the ground (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • thunder -- he prayed in Native language and said to make little noise far away (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • Tikitchuaq, Grandma (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2, 3)
  • Tikut, Daisy and Wilson -- Kobuk (Schmitz, Dave 13)
  • Till Creek (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 6)
  • Tillman, Warren (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • Timber Creek (Holly, Susan 2)
  • time zones (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Tinuk (Gray, Millie 6)
  • Tinuk, Grandma (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1, 2)
  • Tinuk, Grandma -- gave little moose fat (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Tinuk -- grandmother became mother to children of two widowers (Gray, Millie 4)
  • Title Eight (Bane, Ray (1) 10)
  • tobacco (English, Bill and Shirley 6, 17)
  • tobacco -- stole from dad (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 6)
  • Tobin, August (Johnson, Walter (1) 8)
  • Tobin, Mr. -- son founded Alaska magazine (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • Tobin Creek (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • toboggan (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 3)
  • Tobuk (Johnson, Walter (1) 9)
  • Tobuk, Clara (Bifelt, Madeline 6), (Gray, Millie 4)
  • Tobuk, Clara -- aunt (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • Tobuk, Cora (David, David and Kitty 1), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • Tobuk, Cora -- mother (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 1)
  • Tobuk, David -- pilot (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Tobuk, David -- Wilfred's brother-in-law (Gray, Millie 4)
  • Tobuk, Dora (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • Tobuk, Dora -- mother (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 1)
  • Tobuk, Dora -- visiting her old cabin (Schmitz, Dave 12)
  • Tobuk, Frank (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Tobuk, Frank and Dora (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Tobuk, Frank -- boat pilot (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 2)
  • Tobuk, Frank -- licensed pilot and captain (William, William and Effie (2) 1)
  • Tobuk, Frank -- weak as child; sick (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • Tobuk, Grandpa (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1, 2, 6)
  • Tobuk, Grandpa -- his cousin, her husband (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • Tobuk, James (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Tobuk, James -- learned English, became interpreter (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 7)
  • Tobuk, James -- translating Bible (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 7)
  • Tobuk, Jimmy (Gray, Millie 10), (Johnson, Walter (1) 9)
  • Tobuk, Uncle David -- married girl from Tanana (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • Tobuk, Uncle David -- two years older than father (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 6)
  • Tobuk, Uncle Frank -- 1938 (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Tobuk, Uncle Jim -- made smokehouse, cut fish (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • Tobuk, Uncle Jimmy (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Todaalltonh Dinh (Bifelt, Madeline 5)
  • Todaalltonh Dinh -- translation "big lake" (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • today -- animals are dangerous; grizzly bear (Williams, Susie 5)
  • today -- don't know how to put words in songs (Williams, Susie 10)
  • today -- easier (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • today -- easy to move around; money (Williams, Susie 8)
  • today -- hard times (Williams, Susie 8)
  • today -- high powered rifles (Morry Riley 9)
  • today -- losing that culture (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • today -- more grizzly; nobody eats (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 3)
  • today -- people will take tools, gas, etc. (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1)
  • today -- some elders party too much (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • today -- still ask thunder to go away (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • today -- suicide, knife, car, airplane (Simon, Lydia 3)
  • Togiak Lake (Brown, William (1) 13)
  • tough times -- near starvation (Ulen, Tishu 1)
  • tough times -- raising kids, broth instead of milk (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 2)
  • tough times -- struggle to self-teach English, run house (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 3)
  • tourism (Collins, Bruce 15), (Lounsbury, George 14), (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • tourism -- encourage for economic reasons (Morry, Riley 11)
  • tourism -- good thing if done with respect (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 4)
  • tourism -- more in future (Morry, Riley 11)
  • tourism -- positive; leave no mark (Henderson, Joe 6)
  • tourists (Holly, Susan 7)
  • tower -- 160 feet (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • town -- establishment of (Brown, William (1) 8)
  • town -- school (Bifelt, Madeline 2)
  • town -- stayed out of (Vent, Mary 4)
  • town -- supplies; mail (Holly, Susan 4)
  • tracker (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 5)
  • tracking (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • Tracks in the Wildland (Bane, Ray (1) 6), (Nelson, Richard 1, 2, 11)
  • tractor -- 1937 (Henzie, Moses and Marie 2)
  • tractor -- gas cat (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • trade (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • trader (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • trader -- had role of teaching Native people how to do things (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 2)
  • traders -- 1951 (Mekiana, Justus 17)
  • trading (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3), (Mekiana, Justus 17)
  • trading post (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1)
  • trading post -- father running (Gray, Millie 2)
  • trading post -- Tanana (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • trading -- furs (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • trading -- moose hide; rope; seal oil; fish (David, David and Kitty 4)
  • tradition (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • tradition -- passing between generations (Ned, Stanley 13)
  • traditional (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • traditional means (Holly, Susan 1), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4, 9)
  • traditional use (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 4)
  • trail crewman (Kauffmann, John 2)
  • trail -- break (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2, 3)
  • trail -- old times (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • trail -- one hundred twenty mile (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • trailblazing -- night, D-8, D-9's blading north (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • trails -- don't build (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • trails -- identified before park formation (Morry, Riley 8)
  • trainers -- some of the best in the world (Henderson, Joe 4)
  • training -- had to "hit the mark"; stand; growl; lay down; etc. (Henderson, Joe 3)
  • training -- run them steady, not fast (David, David and Kitty 5)
  • tram (Swem, Ted 12)
  • Tramway Bar (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • Trans-Mississippi West (Brown, William (2) 6)
  • translate -- for mother (Williams, Susie 7)
  • transportation route (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • transportation -- all-terrain vehicles, 1960's (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 4)
  • transportation -- controversy of aircraft within Alaska for subsistence (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • transportation -- development (Nelson, Richard 6)
  • transportation -- gasoline (Morry Riley 9)
  • transportation -- very dependable (Morry, Riley 10)
  • trap -- funnel shaped; foot long, tapered (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 5)
  • trap -- just off streambed (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 5)
  • trap -- use airplanes (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • trapline (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • trapline -- found vacant area (Holly, Susan 5)
  • trapline -- short, few links (Schmitz, Dave 3)
  • trapline -- using four or five dogs (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • traplines (English, Bill and Shirley 17), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4), (Holly, Susan 4)
  • traplines -- less than past (Mekiana, Debbie 5)(Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • trapper (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2), (Mekiana, Debbie 3)
  • trapper's hats (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • trapping (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3), (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1, 8, 10), (Brown, William (1) 2, 5, 7), (Collins, Bruce 16), (David, David and Kitty 2, 8), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 1,7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 4), (Holly, Susan 1), (Lounsbury, George 6), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 10), (Reakoff, Jack 3), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15), (Williams, Susie 5)
  • trapping -- all winter, not quantity, good price (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 6)
  • trapping -- at camp all winter
  • trapping -- Brooks Range, 1973 (Schmitz, Dave 2)
  • trapping -- continuing (Schmitz, Dave 3)
  • trapping -- December to February (Holly, Susan 4)
  • trapping -- father (David, David and Kitty 1)
  • trapping -- father tended line like a farmer (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 1)
  • trapping -- had to break for (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 5)
  • trapping -- if managed, can be done forever (Schmitz, Dave 10)
  • trapping -- Lower 48 (Brown, William (1) 14)
  • trapping -- Lydia went before she had kids (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 8)
  • trapping -- marten, fox, wolverine, mink (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • trapping -- marten, rabbits (Vent, Mary 4)
  • trapping -- mink, marten, otter (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 4)
  • trapping -- muskrats (Williams, Susie 7)
  • trapping -- November 1; lynx; wolverine; wolf; fox; marten; beaver (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • trapping -- open top of house, cover with moss (Bifelt, Madeline 3)
  • trapping -- people should do more (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 8)
  • trapping -- rats (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6), (Sam Sr., Tony 3)
  • trapping -- until Thanksgiving; then again 'till Christmas (Beetus, Joe and Celia 2)
  • trapping -- winters (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • traps -- muskrat (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • travel (Mekiana, Justus (1) 3)
  • travel -- Advisory Board (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • travel -- after high water; night (Ulen, Tishu 3)
  • travel -- airplane (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • travel -- choosing route based on conditions (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • travel -- foot and dog pack (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6)
  • travel -- from Huslia, Hughes (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • travel -- motivations (English, Bill and Shirley 3)
  • travel -- recent (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • travel -- seventy-five miles, three days, take turns leading (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • travel -- to coast for supplies (Williams, Susie 9)
  • travelers (Brockman, Ross 7)
  • traveling -- hard work (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • treatment -- many went outside for (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • treatment -- people had to leave for (David, David and Kitty 7)
  • treatment -- scarce until 1950's (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • Treaty of Potomac (Swem, Ted 10)
  • tree -- cutting (English, Bill and Shirley 23)
  • tree -- uses (English, Bill and Shirley 23)
  • trees (Brockman, Ross 8)
  • trees -- clear cutting (Collins, Bruce 11)
  • trees -- cutting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2)
  • Trexler, Keith -- rewrote master plans (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • trial (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • tribal government (Ned, Stanley 15)
  • trip (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • trip -- 1938; uncle (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 9)
  • trip -- camping in Yellowstone and Teton (Swem, Ted 2)
  • trip -- last one, nine years old (Mekiana, Debbie 3)
  • trip -- out to Kotzebue to Barrow; February to May (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • trip -- three dogs, no trail, long (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • trip -- winter dog sled, 1976 (Schmitz, Dave 5)
  • trip -- Wiseman to Gates: sixty-five mile snowshoe trail (Henderson, Joe 2)
  • triple sulphur (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 14)
  • Tritt, Abel -- taught how to hunt (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • trophy hunting (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 4)
  • trout (Johnson, Walter (1) 14)
  • trout -- lake (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • truck -- horses to Yukon (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • truth -- never lie to people (Williams, Susie 11)
  • Tsaalaa Kkaakk'at -- translation "mouth" (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • Tsaalaatna (Bifelt, Madeline 3, 4), (David, David and Kitty 2), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 10)
  • Tsaalaatna River -- rowed down (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • Tsaalaatna -- muskrat, 1943 (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • Tsaalaatna -- Spring camp (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 3)
  • Tsongass, Paul (Pepper, Jim (1) 5)
  • Tuarak, Nita Sheldon (Nelson, Richard 3)
  • tuberculosis (David, David and Kitty 7), (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 10), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 7), (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • tuberculosis -- chest x-rays (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • tuberculosis -- Cue had it, spent 14 months outside (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • tuberculosis -- deaths (Johnson, Walter (1) 9)
  • tuberculosis -- people didn't know what it was (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • tuberculosis -- people died (David, David and Kitty 7)
  • tuberculosis -- prevalent (Gray, Millie 4)
  • tuberculosis -- sanitarium, Skagway (Johnson, Walter (1) 12)
  • tuberculosis -- story (Johnson, Walter (1) 12)
  • Tulugak (Morry, Riley 2)
  • Tulugak (person) (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • Tulugak -- the raven (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 3)
  • Tulugak Lake (Mekiana, Debbie 1), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • Tulugak Lake -- summer camp (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 13)
  • Tulugak Lake -- summer gathering (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 6)
  • Tulugak Lake -- translated "raven" (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • Tulugak People (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • Tulugaq (Mekiana, Justus (1) 10, 12)
  • Tulugaq Lake (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5)
  • Tulugaq -- gathering place (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5)
  • Tulugaq -- school(Mekiana, Justus (1) 12)
  • Tundra Times (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 14)
  • Tunik hunters (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 2)
  • Turnagain Arm (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • Tuvak, Grandpa (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 1)
  • TV -- don't miss it (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Twelve Mile (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 8), (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • Twelve Mile Bluff (Vent, Bobby 1)
  • Twelve Mile -- camp below (Bifelt, Madeline 9)
  • twenty-two mile (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • twine (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • Tyson, Frank (Gray, Millie 10), (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • U
  • U.S. Army -- Combat Engineering Unit (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • U.S. Census -- 1950 (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 1)
  • U.S. Census -- area covered (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 1)
  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Swem, Ted 3)
  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service -- nine years employment (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • Udall, Congressman (Pepper, Jim (1) 7)
  • Udall, Secretary Stewart (Kauffmann, John 3)
  • Udall, Stewart (Swem, Ted 5, 7, 14), (Swem, Ted (2) 1, 4)
  • Udall, Stewart -- presentation (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • Udall, Steward -- Secretary of the Interior (Brown, William (1) 15)
  • ugruk -- large bearded seal (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 4)
  • ugruk -- skin rope (Williams, Susie 9)
  • Uguvaluk, Raymond -- joking partner (Bane, Ray (1) 3)
  • Ulen, Benny (Johnson, Walter (1) 2, 4), (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • Ulen, Florence (Johnson, Walter (1) 2)
  • Ulen, Joe (Lounsbury, George 6), (Johnson, Walter (1) 8, 10)
  • Ulen, Tishu (Brown, William (1) 14), (English, Bill and Shirley 1, 19), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2), (Johnson, Walter (1) 2, 8, 9, 14), (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Ulen, Tishu -- owner (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Ulen -- children (Johnson, Walter (1) 4)
  • ultimate park experience (Kauffmann, John 8)
  • ultimate wilderness (Pepper, Jim (1) 12)
  • ulu's (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 7)
  • Ulumiut (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Umiaq, Grandma (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 3)
  • Umiaq, Grandma -- gave it to me (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Umiat (Bane, Ray (1) 4), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3), (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • Umiat -- Caterpillar (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • Umiat -- oil problem (Gray, Millie 10)
  • Umiat -- talk in 60's of moving village to (Morry, Riley 2)
  • unamiut
  • uncle (Mekiana, Debbie 3)
  • uncle -- Leo, first house (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • uncle -- Richard (Gray, Millie 2)
  • uncle -- stories from hunting (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • uncle -- Susie's dad (William, William and Effie (1) 1)
  • uncle -- William, William (Ned, Stanley 2)
  • uncles -- Charlie and Richard, teachers (Gray, Millie 1)
  • UNESCO -- Noatak or "world ecological resource" (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • uniforms (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • Union Creek (Johnson, Walter (1) 3, 5)
  • Union Gulch (Lounsbury, George 12)
  • United States Fish and Wildlife Service (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • United States Geological Survey (Johnson, Walter (1) 5)
  • universal view -- old ideas among Natives and non-Natives hurt us all (Bifelt, Fred Lee 10)
  • University of Alaska (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 7)
  • University of Alaska Fairbanks (Johnson, Walter (1) 3)
  • University of Alaska Fairbanks Agricultural Farm (English, Bill and Shirley 15)
  • University of Alaska Fairbanks -- sought a graduate degree in ecology (Schmitz, Dave 1)
  • University of Alaska Fairbanks -- study science and history (Mekiana, Debbie 4)
  • University of Alaska Fairbanks -- two semesters; 1973 (Ned, Stanley 9)
  • University of Alaska Fairbanks -- two years (Ned, Stanley 9)
  • University of Alaska -- Alaska & Polar Regions (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • University of Alaska -- Arctic and Environmental Information and Data Center (Brown, William (1) 2)
  • University of Alaska -- campus (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • University of Alaska -- Fairbanks (English, Bill and Shirley 13, 14)
  • University of Alaska -- Fairbanks, one year (Bifelt, Fred Lee 1)
  • University of California, Berkeley -- BA Anthropology (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 1)
  • University of California, Santa Barbara (Nelson, Richard 1)
  • University of Hawaii (Nelson, Richard 2)
  • University of Illinois (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 2)
  • University of Nebraska -- School of Correspondence (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • University of Rhode Island (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 1)
  • University of Southern California (Lounsbury, George 6)
  • University of Wisconsin -- anthropology major (Nelson, Richard 1)
  • University of Wisconsin -- two years; Dick Nelson (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • Unokuks -- Shamans (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • upbringing -- poor, still poor (Henzie, Moses and Marie 5)
  • upper camp (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 11)
  • Upper Koyukuk
  • Upper Koyukuk River (Johnson, Walter (1) 15), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • Upper Koyukuk -- Middle Fork (Brown, William (1) 3)
  • Uqquumalaat -- traveled here before schoolhouse (Mekiana, Justus (1) 10)
  • US Geological Survey (Brown, William (1) 4, 5, 7, 10)
  • US Geological Survey -- explorers & mappers (Brown, William (1) 14)
  • use areas (Morry, Riley 5)
  • use -- Native or non-Native (Brown, William (2) 7)
  • Utopia (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6), (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • Utopia -- mining (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 12)
  • uvlupak -- translated "today" (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 9)
  • V
  • vacation -- Hawaii (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • Vail Agenda -- self critical NPS document (Bane, Ray (1) 15)
  • Valdez (Johnson, Walter (1) 1)
  • values (Morry, Riley 12), (Ned, Stanley 5)
  • values -- adventure; seeking; changing land; escape (Bane, Ray (1) 8)
  • values -- Allakaket (Ned, Stanley 18)
  • values -- goal of studies (Bane, Ray (1) 9)
  • values -- have to think of everybody in this world (Williams, Susie 13)
  • values -- land part of culture; group expression; place names; meaning is in land (Bane, Ray (1) 8)
  • values -- managers should learn from Native ethics regarding animals and hunting (Bifelt, Fred Lee 7)
  • values -- preserve integrity; self reliance (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • values -- respect; leave others belongings (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 1)
  • values -- share what you know, nobody is better or worse than others (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 8)
  • values -- we're all one people, need to get along (Bifelt, Fred Lee 10)
  • values -- young people party, drink; don't go to camp (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • Vanass, Howard and Barbie -- Ronald's parents (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 2)
  • Vanass, Ronald Eddie -- babysat during 1970 and 1971 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 2)
  • vastness -- eight million acres (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 3)
  • VCR (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Veach, Norman (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • vegetables (Johnson, Walter (1) 10)
  • Venetie (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 5), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 3)
  • Vent, Delbert -- church leader today (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • Vent, Freda (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 4)
  • Vent, Gilbert (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • Vent, Laura (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 4)
  • Vent, Mary (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 8)
  • Vent, Mary -- Tanana (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • Vent, Warner (Sam Sr., Tony 6)
  • Vent, Warner -- married to Alberta (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1)
  • Vermont Creek (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • Vernetti, Dominic -- Koyukuk (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 10)
  • Vernetti, Dominic -- stocked Sackett to start (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 2)
  • Vernetti, Dominick -- storekeeper (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • Veterans Administration Hospital (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 1)
  • Victrola (English, Bill and Shirley 20)
  • victrola record (Brockman, Ross 1)
  • Vietnam (Collins, Bruce 1)
  • Vietnam -- left March 18, 1972 (Ned, Stanley 8)
  • Vietnam -- nobody liked it there (Ned, Stanley 8)
  • village corporation (Bifelt, Fred Lee 3), (Morry, Riley 6, 11)
  • village life -- involved (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • village -- by 1950's living in Allakaket (Ned, Stanley 3)
  • village -- go out to trap, fish, hunt, need that (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • village -- moved (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • village -- moved, 1949-50 (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 4)
  • village -- Point Barrow, 1961 (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • village -- recent, 1950's (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 9)
  • villages -- fourteen; people helped (Bane, Ray (1) 5)
  • villages -- not listened to by bureaucracy (Ned, Stanley 15)
  • villages -- on road, people move in (Ned, Stanley 14)
  • villages -- relation of planning effort to (Pepper, Jim (1) 3)
  • villages -- use the land to live (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8)
  • villages -- went to eleven to teach (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3)
  • violence (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 4)
  • violence -- rocks; threats; refused service (Bane, Ray (1) 14)
  • violin -- first learning (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • violin -- Marie bought it for Moses (Henzie, Moses and Marie 9)
  • vision -- culture to be accommodated (Bane, Ray (1) 10)
  • vision -- partly realized (Bane, Ray (1) 15)
  • visionaries -- John Kauffmann and Bob Belous (Bane, Ray (1) 15)
  • visiting (Johnson, Walter (1) 13), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 4, 7, 10)
  • visitor contact -- access points only (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 6)
  • visitor use (Reakoff, Jack 12)
  • visitor use -- on increase (Ned, Stanley 17)
  • visitor -- usage (Collins, Bruce 14)
  • visitors (Bane, Ray (1) 7), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • visitors -- assumptions made by (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • visitors -- can fly in (Holly, Susan 1)
  • visitors -- contact nice (Holly, Susan 6)
  • visitors -- drive game away (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • visitors -- encouraged to gather information on Park (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • visitors -- give them something, give them tea (Williams, Susie 11)
  • visitors -- Hughes, Huslia (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • visitors -- many return; personal contact (Holly, Susan 7)
  • visitors -- not many to park (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • visitors -- occasionally come up on way to park (Henderson, Joe 8)
  • visitors -- see country but don't develop or disturb (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • visitors -- should recognize why we're here (Morry, Riley 12)
  • VISTA Volunteer -- excitement (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 2)
  • Vista volunteers (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 11)
  • volunteer help (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 4)
  • volunteer -- church money bought food, gas (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (2) 3)
  • Voyageurs National Park (Swem, Ted 4)
  • W
  • wage increase (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (3) 2)
  • wage -- work (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • wages -- 1964; before that a little; 1953 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 12)
  • wages -- shoveling two dollars an hour (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16)
  • Wainwright (Bane, Ray (1) 5), (Johnson, Walter (1) 9), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 5)
  • Wainwright -- primitive then; three year stay deeply affected Banes (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • Wainwright -- subsistence (Nelson, Richard 1)
  • Waldruff, Bob -- trip down Kobuk (Kauffmann, John 12)
  • Walker Lake (Brown, William (1) 5), (Brown, William (2) 1), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2), (Pepper, Jim (1) 3), (Schmitz, Dave 9)
  • Walker, June (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • Walker, June -- seining (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5)
  • walking -- at twelve, walking from Dulbi to Koyukuk (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • wall tent -- lived in for four years, built cabin around (Holly, Susan 2)
  • Wall, Hal (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5, 6)
  • wall -- pockets in hide (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 9)
  • Wallace -- first hunt (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 2)
  • Walrus area (Swem, Ted 7)
  • waltz -- "Nobody's Darlin' But Mine" (Sam Sr., Tony 7)
  • Ward, Jonas -- father's half-brother (David, David and Kitty 4)
  • Ward, Mr. -- coal mines (Brockman, Ross 3)
  • Warner, Sam -- races (Vent, Bobby 3)
  • Warner -- 1950 (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 7)
  • Warren, Neil (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • Wartes, Bill -- missionary, pilot, teacher (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • washeteria (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • washing clothes (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 6)
  • Washington (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • Washington D.C. (Bane, Ray (1) 13), (Kauffmann, John 1), (Pepper, Jim (1) 1), (Swem, Ted 11)
  • Washington D.C. -- assembled (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • Washington D.C. -- lobbying (Morry, Riley 6)
  • Washington D.C. -- writer (Kauffmann, John 2)
  • Washington, D.C.
  • Washington -- learning to fly (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • Washington -- left for July 22 (Ned, Stanley 8)
  • Washington -- National Park Service deputy director of (Pepper, Jim (2) 2)
  • Washington -- try to run our life (Ned, Stanley 15)
  • waste -- lack of; eat or dog food (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • water development -- Missouri River Basin (Swem, Ted 3)
  • water rights -- state claims (Collins, Bruce 11)
  • water -- almost drown, he pull out, teach me (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • water -- packing (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • water -- processes for making (Mekiana, Justus (1) 11)
  • water -- scarce, Hoagland made dam of moss (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 1)
  • waterfowl (Johnson, Walter (1) 14), (Nelson, Richard 3)
  • waterfowl -- not thought of as major food source (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • Watts, Vern (Johnson, Walter (1) 8, 11), (Lounsbury, George 3, 4)
  • Wayburn, Ed (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • weather (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3)
  • weather -- fifty below; windy (Henderson, Joe 2)
  • weather -- sometimes no delivery for a month (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Webb, Melody (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • Webster, Don -- bible translator (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • weddings (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8)
  • Weeks Field -- Fairbanks (English, Bill and Shirley 15)
  • Weinstock, June (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 7)
  • welfare (Beetus, Joe and Celia 8), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 3)
  • welfare -- $210 per month (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • Wells, Ken (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • West, Al (Gray, Millie 10)
  • Western Arctic (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 6)
  • western herd -- come from North (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • western herd -- small (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • Western Pennsylvania Partnership (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick (2) 2)
  • Westerners (Ned, Stanley 18)
  • Westerners -- accumulate things (Ned, Stanley 18)
  • Westerners -- goal to educate about Native life (Ned, Stanley 11)
  • wheat (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 5)
  • wheat -- cut once a year (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 5)
  • wheat -- not imported (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 5)
  • Wheeling (Bane, Ray (1) 1)
  • whip saw -- need to build platform; two people (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • whipsawing lumber (Bifelt, Madeline 4)
  • white owl (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 6)
  • White Pass (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • white people (Mekiana, Debbie 6), (Williams, Susie 4)
  • white people -- have their God (Ned, Stanley 6)
  • white people -- meant jobs cutting wood, etc. (William, William and Effie (2) 2)
  • white people -- they have helped a lot (Williams, Susie 12)
  • white people -- tried to chase Indians off their trapline (William, William and Effie (1) 10)
  • White, Dora -- maiden name (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 1)
  • White, Jack (English, Bill and Shirley 9), (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • White, Sam -- Fish and Wildlife (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • White, Sam -- snuck into their camp, cuffed them, killed their dogs (William, William and Effie (1) 10)
  • White, Sam -- told lots of stories about childhood (William, William and Effie (1) 10)
  • whitefish (Beetus, Joe and Celia 5), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1), (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 3)
  • Whitey (Gray, Millie 10)
  • Whitey -- good worker, good racer (David, David and Kitty 5)
  • Wien Airlines (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3), (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7), (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • Wien Airlines -- made living working for (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 4)
  • Wien Alaska Airline (Beetus, Joe and Celia 1), (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Wien Alaska Airlines -- worked for (William, William and Effie (1) 10)
  • Wien, Noel (English, Bill and Shirley 13, 15)
  • Wien, Sig (Mekiana, Justus (1) 4), (Morry, Riley 2), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 1, 6, 8)
  • Wien, Sig -- nine children are named after him
  • wife -- better at adjusting; part of social fabric; sister (Bane, Ray (1) 3)
  • wife -- Betty Jo (Schmitz, Dave 11)
  • wife -- buys him a $900 violin (Sam Sr., Tony 2)
  • wife -- looking at from air, tears (Bane, Ray (1) 4)
  • wife -- Roma; met in 1976; Bristol Bay (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • Wilcox, Ace (Johnson, Walter (1) 10), (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Wilcox, Mrs. Ace (Johnson, Walter (1) 9)
  • Wild and Scenic Rivers (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • Wild Lake (Brown, William (1) 9), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2), (Holly, Susan 2), (Lounsbury, George 5, 11), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3), (Schmitz, Dave 9)
  • Wild Lake -- area of (Brown, William (2) 2)
  • Wild Lake -- summers (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 2)
  • Wild River (Brown, William (1) 11), (Schmitz, Dave 9)
  • Wild River Lake (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Wild River Valley (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • Wild River -- area of (Brown, William (2) 2)
  • wilderness (Brockman, Ross 7), (Collins, Bruce 15), (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • Wilderness Act -- passed only in previous decade, not surprising most is in Alaska (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • wilderness protection -- desire was present in Alaska (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • Wilderness Society (Swem, Ted 12), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • Wilderness Society Meeting (Swem, Ted 12)
  • wilderness -- can defeat the purpose if humans are kept out (Schmitz, Dave 10)
  • wilderness -- defacto (Pepper, Jim (1) 2)
  • wilderness -- defining as non-exclusive of man (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 5)
  • wilderness -- fight for (Reakoff, Jack 2)
  • wilderness -- land not void of man; ten thousand year occupation (Schmitz, Dave 14)
  • wilderness -- value to humans (Kauffmann, John 9)
  • wildland -- defined (Nelson, Richard 5)
  • wildlife (Johnson, Walter (1) 14)
  • wildlife management (Ned, Stanley 9)
  • Wildlife Refuges -- allow oil development, timber, etc. (Pepper, Jim (1) 11)
  • Wildlife Technician (Swem, Ted 3)
  • wildlife -- learned how to care for, what, when to take (Ned, Stanley 2)
  • Wilfred (Gray, Millie 4)
  • William, Art -- family there (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • William, Arthur (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 6)
  • William, Bessie (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • William, Henry (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • William, Janie (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • William, Joe Jr. (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • William, Joe -- brother (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • William, Lavine -- friendly with dogs (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • William, Little -- Huslia (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 10)
  • William, Robert (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • William, Uncle (Williams, Susie 4)
  • William, Uncle Joe (Bifelt, Madeline 5)
  • William, Uncle Joe -- close to him, good singer, speech maker; bawl us out to make us understand (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • William, Uncle Joe -- he talked too; everything he said was true; made some mad (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 5)
  • William, William (David, David and Kitty 2)
  • William, William -- grew up with; cousin (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • William, William -- was at Bettles (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • William -- quit too (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 7)
  • William -- worked for White (William, William and Effie (1) 10)
  • Williams, Effie (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 7)
  • Williams, Jeanie -- adopted one out to David's sister (David, David and Kitty 3)
  • Williams, Jenny (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • Williams, Jenny -- cousin (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • Williams, Jenny -- near her house (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 5)
  • Williams, Jenny -- parents there (William, William and Effie (1) 4)
  • Williams, Joe Sr. -- father (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 12)
  • Williams, Joe Uncle -- big help (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 2)
  • Williams, Joe -- died three years prior to interview (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 12)
  • Williams, Joe -- grandfather (Ned, Stanley 2)
  • Williams, Joe -- priest for 16 years (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 12)
  • Williams, Lavine (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 7)
  • Williams, Lavine -- adopted by old people (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Williams, Shirley (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 7)
  • Williams, Susie and Lavine -- 1933 (Williams, Susie 4)
  • Williams, Susie -- adopted one of her children (Bifelt, Madeline 8)
  • Williamson, Dr. Frank -- Smithsonian (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • Willingski, Chris (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2)
  • Willis, Frank (Brown, William (2) 8), (Swem, Ted 8, 14, 15), (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • willow poles-20, 8ft, rawhide arches (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 3)
  • willow ring -- hit hole with spear (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 12)
  • willow tree -- resurgence in (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3)
  • willow -- gathering takes a lot of human, dog energy (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 6)
  • willows (Mekiana, Justus (1) 16), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 2), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 7)
  • willows -- as fuel (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 11), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 6)
  • willows -- collecting (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 11)
  • willows -- put between poles to form fence (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 5)
  • willows -- trees sought out for camp (Mekiana, Justus (1) 7)
  • Wilson, Sam -- a leader (Sam Sr., Tony 6)
  • Wilson, Sam -- brother, violin (Sam Sr., Tony 6)
  • Wilsons Creek, MI (Swem, Ted 4)
  • winching -- buckets (Brown, William (1) 8)
  • wind (Schmitt, Dennis(1) 11), (Ross-Oliver,Ethel 10)
  • Wind, Biner (English, Bill and Shirley 8)
  • Windmills (Lounsbury, George 3)
  • Winfield, Ernie -- hunting; trapping (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • Wingfield, Ernie (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • winter access -- snow machines, dog teams (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 9)
  • winter supplies (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 8)
  • winter- time -- use to haul wood, hunt, trap (Morry, Riley 10)
  • winter -- freeze-up (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 4)
  • winter -- hauling meat (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1)
  • winter -- hunting, trapping, cutting wood (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 3)
  • winter -- kids work on fish traps (Williams, Susie 3)
  • winter -- move out thirty miles toward Tanana (Bifelt, Madeline 2)
  • winter -- stay home (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • winter -- Stuck traveled (Williams, Susie 6)
  • winter -- too hard on customers (Henderson, Joe 9)
  • winter -- trap beaver, lynx, fox, marten (Beetus, Joe and Celia 6)
  • winter -- trapping, hunting, visiting town for Christmas (Bifelt, Madeline 1)
  • winter -- went out trapping and never came back; lost (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • winter -- working for NPS one week per month (Holly, Susan 3)
  • winters -- logging season closed (Henderson, Joe 1)
  • wintertime -- activities (Mekiana, Debbie 1)
  • Wirth, Connie (Swem, Ted 5, 6, 12, 15)
  • Wirth, Connie -- memo to (Swem, Ted 14)
  • Wirth, Connie -- took slides (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • Wisebroad, Dr. Richard -- ecologist (Kauffmann, John 5)
  • Wiseman (Brockman, Ross 7), (Brown, William (1) 8, 13), (Collins, Bruce 7, 15), (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2, 3), (English, Bill and Shirley 1, 2, 12, 17, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 2, 3), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (5) 2) (Henzie, Moses and Marie 2), (Holly, Susan 7), (Johnson, Walter (1) 2, 3, 8, 9, 14, 15), (Lounsbury, George 2, 3,4, 5, 7, 10, 11, 12), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 1), (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 1), (Reakoff, Jack 1, 7), (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 3), (Schmitz, Dave 12), (Ulen, Tishu 1, 4, 5), (William, William and Effie (1) 5), (Williams, Susie 6)
  • Wiseman Road (Henderson, Joe 5)
  • Wiseman -- "Nobody wants to leave once you've been there awhile" (Ulen, Tishu 6)
  • Wiseman -- 1978, moved back (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • Wiseman -- airport (Johnson, Walter (1) 7)
  • Wiseman -- airstrip (English, Bill and Shirley 13)
  • Wiseman -- beauty; moonlight; shadows; mountains (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • Wiseman -- change(Lounsbury, George 9)
  • Wiseman -- climbing mountains in 1972, 1982 (Johnson, Walter (2) 4)
  • Wiseman -- don't want to grow into big tourist trap (Henderson, Joe 11)
  • Wiseman -- early factions (Lounsbury, George 6)
  • Wiseman -- first trip (Ulen, Tishu 2)
  • Wiseman -- four or five teams (William, William and Effie (1) 5)
  • Wiseman -- freight; low water (Henzie, Moses and Marie 2)
  • Wiseman -- full time for two years (Henderson, Joe 1)
  • Wiseman -- future (Johnson, Walter (2) 2), (Lounsbury, George 14)
  • Wiseman -- gold discovery (English, Bill and Shirley 4)
  • Wiseman -- hard trail (William, William and Effie (1) 7)
  • Wiseman -- history (Johnson, Walter (1) 3, 4, 5 ), (Lounsbury, George 2, 9)
  • Wiseman -- history of town is the attraction (Henderson, Joe 8)
  • Wiseman -- intimacy (Johnson, Walter (1) 10)
  • Wiseman -- Japanese (Brown, William (1) 8)
  • Wiseman -- Leonard's reactions to change (Lounsbury, George 9)
  • Wiseman -- lifestyle (Johnson, Walter (1) 3)
  • Wiseman -- mapping (Brown, William (1) 4)
  • Wiseman -- mining (English, Bill and Shirley 21), (Johnson, Walter (1) 3, 4, 11 )
  • Wiseman -- mining district (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • Wiseman -- mining gold (Johnson, Walter (1) 2)
  • Wiseman -- Mr. Webster (Brown, William (1) 8)
  • Wiseman -- Native population (Lounsbury, George 7)
  • Wiseman -- new residents (Reakoff, Jack 11)
  • Wiseman -- pilots (English, Bill and Shirley 13)
  • Wiseman -- Pioneer Hall (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • Wiseman -- population (Johnson, Walter (1) 2, 4, 10 11), (Johnson, Walter (2) 1)
  • Wiseman -- population composition (English, Bill and Shirley 4)
  • Wiseman -- population decline (English, Bill and Shirley 22)
  • Wiseman -- post office (Lounsbury, George 14)
  • Wiseman -- rich history (Reakoff, Jack 12)
  • Wiseman -- roadhouse (English, Bill and Shirley 16), (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • Wiseman -- size (English, Bill and Shirley 11)
  • Wiseman -- store (English, Bill and Shirley 1), (Lounsbury, George 14)
  • Wiseman -- supplies (Johnson, Walter (1) 6)
  • Wiseman -- tent (Edwards, Ann and Elma Sam 2)
  • Wiseman -- tourism (Johnson, Walter (2) 2)
  • Wiseman -- trading post (Johnson, Walter (1) 2)
  • Withrow, Al (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 7), (Gray, Millie 10), (Holly, Susan 4)
  • Withrow, Al and Bessie (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 4)
  • wolf bounty (Mekiana, Justus (1) 5)
  • wolf hide -- $75-$100 (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4)
  • wolf hunting -- illegal (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4)
  • wolf trap (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • wolf -- Arctic John; hunting (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • wolf -- challenge to get (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 5)
  • wolf -- kills (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 8)
  • wolf -- radio collaring (Collins, Bruce 11)
  • wolf -- skinning (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 4)
  • wolverine (Reakoff, Jack 6)
  • wolves (Fickus, Bill and Lill (2) 8), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 3)
  • wolves -- being circled by (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • wolves -- breeding with dogs (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 4)
  • wolves -- entering village (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 4)
  • wolves -- have human feelings (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 15)
  • wolves -- hunting (Mekiana, Justus (1) 17)
  • wolves -- inua, only animal with one (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 13)
  • wolves -- pups (Mekiana, Justus (1) 6)
  • wolves -- search for (Brockman, Ross 7)
  • woman -- not supposed to talk about bear; say name (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • women roles -- winter (English, Bill and Shirley 14)
  • women's auxiliary -- quilting (Gray, Millie 6)
  • women -- learn to sew, make mukluks (David, David and Kitty 8)
  • women -- make more songs now (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • women -- mothers, sewing, preparing meat (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 10)
  • women -- not supposed to talk about bears (Attla, Catherine and Steven (1) 7)
  • women -- roles (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 10)
  • wood cutting (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3), (Bifelt, Madeline 1), (Henzie, Moses and Marie 1), (Holly, Susan 4), (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 5), (Vent, Mary 4), (William, William and Effie (1) 8)
  • wood cutting -- April (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • wood cutting -- ax, sledgehammer, hand saw (Gray, Millie 3)
  • wood cutting -- families cut up to one hundred cords to sell, no chainsaw (William, William and Effie (2) 2)
  • wood cutting -- September and October (Reakoff, Jack 8)
  • wood -- carrying (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4)
  • wood -- collecting (English, Bill and Shirley 7)
  • wood -- cut in summer, get later (Morry, Riley 1)
  • wood -- cutting (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 4)
  • wood -- cutting contract (Vent, Bobby 1)
  • wood -- cutting for Koyukuk store (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • wood -- cutting twenty-one cords for school (Vent, Bobby 2)
  • wood -- dogs in harness, never used sleigh (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • wood -- saw (Beetus, Joe and Celia 3)
  • Wood-Tikchik (Swem, Ted 8, 14), (Swem, Ted (2) 3)
  • Wood-Tikchik area (Swem, Ted 7, 12)
  • Wood-Tikchik Lake (Swem, Ted 7)
  • woodcutting (Johnson, Walter (1) 10)
  • woodcutting -- technology (Johnson, Walter (1) 10)
  • words -- high words lost (Beetus, Joe and Celia 7)
  • words -- sing old words, high words (Simon, Lydia 2)
  • work hours (Swem, Ted 7)
  • work opportunities (Nictune, Wallace and Florence 5)
  • work -- 16 years old (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 3)
  • work -- full time from April end through September (Holly, Susan 4)
  • work -- hard, long hours (Gray, Millie 3)
  • work -- hard; self-employment (Holly, Susan 8)
  • work -- long and hard (Henderson, Joe 3)
  • World War II (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 1, 3)
  • World War II -- dad wounded (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 1)
  • worldview -- learned multiplicity of (Bane, Ray (1) 3)
  • wound loss (Reakoff, Jack 4, 5)
  • Wrangell (Collins, Bruce 12, 17), (Morry, Riley 2)
  • Wrangell Institute (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 15)
  • Wrangell Park (Collins, Bruce 5)
  • Wrangell-St. Elias (Pepper, Jim (1) 2, 4), (Swem, Ted 12, 14)
  • Wrangell-St. Elias National Park (Reakoff, Jack 10)
  • Wright, Al (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 11)
  • Wright, Tommy (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 7)
  • writing -- learning in town (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 4)
  • WWI -- was in that war (William, William and Effie (1) 10)
  • WWII (English, Bill and Shirley 10, 22), (Swem, Ted 3)
  • WWII -- 1941 (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • WWII -- army (Johnson, Walter (1) 3)
  • WWII -- reserve (Johnson, Walter (1) 2)
  • Wyoming -- bow hunt ratios (Reakoff, Jack 5)
  • X
  • x-rays -- each year (Henzie, Moses and Marie 7)
  • Y
  • Yakutat (Reakoff, Jack 1)
  • Yale cabin (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • Yaska, Butch -- son of (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • Yaska, Joe (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • Yaska, Minnie (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • Yaska, Patrick (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 2)
  • year book -- correspondence kids (Fickus, Bill and Lill (3) 1)
  • Yellowstone (Swem, Ted 14)
  • Yellowstone National Park (Bane, Ray (2) 4), (Stutzman, Suzie and Ring, Dick 2)
  • YMCA (Schmitz, Dave 4)
  • Yosemite (Collins, Bruce 10), (Swem, Ted 14)
  • Young, Don (Pepper, Jim (1) 4)
  • Young, Steven B. -- Center for Northern Studies (Kauffmann, John 6)
  • younger brother -- learned to fly (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 4)
  • youth -- don't listen (William, William and Effie (1) 3)
  • Yugoslavia (Lounsbury, George 5)
  • Yukon (William, William and Effie (1) 10)
  • Yukon-Charley Rivers National Park (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 6)
  • Yukon-Charley Rivers National Park and Preserve (Brown, William (2) 8)
  • Yukon Flats -- canoe; muskrat hunting; trapping (Reakoff, Jack 7)
  • Yukon Frontiers (Brown, William (1) 5)
  • Yukon River (Brown, William (1) 5, 9), (English, Bill and Shirley 2, 4), (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 6)
  • Yukon River -- lots of white people (Williams, Susie 1)
  • Yukon River -- open water (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • Yukon Sled (Bifelt, Madeline 3)
  • Yukon sled -- hard to haul (William, William and Effie (1) 9)
  • Yukon stove -- replaced (Bifelt, Madeline 10)
  • Yukon -- horses (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 9)
  • Yukon -- late spring (Sam Sr., Tony 5)
  • Yukon -- summers (Derendoff, Angeline (1) 3)
  • Yukon -- Tanana (Brown, William (1) 14)
  • Yukon-Charley Rivers (Brown, William (1) 2), (Pepper, Jim (1) 4, 6)
  • Yukon-Charley Rivers National Park and Preserve (Brown, William (2) 6)
  • Yukon-Koyukuk (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 9)
  • Yutana barge (Fickus, Bill and Lill (4) 3)
  • Z
  • zones -- subsistent resident zone (Brown, William (2) 7)
  • "Arkansas Traveler" (Sam Sr., Tony 7)
  • "Born on Snowshoes" (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 7)
  • "CEMAL" Industry Group -- unsupportable claims (Pepper, Jim (1) 10)
  • "communal family"
  • "community existence" (English, Bill and Shirley 17)
  • "community of interest" (English, Bill and Shirley 6)
  • "cookie people" -- accepting the ways of others (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • "cooking people" -- defined, lost ability to live off land (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 4)
  • "custodians" (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • "Deep Hole Tobin" (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • "End of the Frontier" (Bane, Ray (2) 4)
  • "fringe of the fringe" (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • "generosity of spirit" (English, Bill and Shirley 24)
  • "honey bucket" (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (2) 9), (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • "Hunters of the Northern Ice" (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • "hyperadaptability" (Brown, William (1) 12)
  • "Keep it Tough" (Kauffmann, John 9)
  • "lock up" (Collins, Bruce 3, 5)
  • "lost gold" (Lounsbury, George 4)
  • "molder" of American character (Kauffmann, John 9)
  • "Mountain Animal" -- translated name of Koyukon substitute for bear (Bergman, Lindberg and Lydia (1) 11)
  • "Norseman" -- plane, refueled in Hughes (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 3)
  • "paper construct" (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 8)
  • "paper people" (Schmitt, Dennis (2) 8)
  • "sense of community" (English, Bill and Shirley 25)
  • "sporting girls" (English, Bill and Shirley 7)
  • "Still a Homeland" (Brown, William (1) 6)
  • "stringers" (Brown, William (1) 9)
  • "The Great Mother Load" (Brockman, Ross 1)
  • "The Last Frontier" (Collins, Bruce 4)
  • "the right thing" (Collins, Bruce 17)
  • "wilderness" (Collins, Bruce 12)
  • "wilderness" -- defined (Johnson, Walter (2) 1), (Nelson, Richard 5)
  • "Windy Bill" (English, Bill and Shirley 8)
  • "You're darking me" (Schmitt, Dennis (1) 12)
  • 12.5 Mile (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 8)
  • 10 ft. diameter (Ross-Oliver, Ethel 3)
  • 1930 -- book published (Swem, Ted 11)
  • 1930 -- moved to Anchorage (Attla, Catherine and Steven (3) 2)
  • 1939 (Mekiana, Justus (1) 2)
  • 1940 -- graduated (Swem, Ted 3)
  • 1960 -- arrived in Alaska, all plans to leave out the window (Bane, Ray (1) 2)
  • 1961 -- move to Washington D.C. (Swem, Ted 5)
  • 1964 -- Swem promotion (Swem, Ted 14)
  • 1970's -- caribou crash (Moses, Johnson and Bertha (1) 9)
  • 1971 -- worried about it (Attla, Catherine and Steven (2) 3)
  • 1972 (Swem, Ted (2) 1)
  • 2 unit area (Swem, Ted (2) 4)
  • 40 miles (Mekiana, Justus (1) 15)
  • 5 mile camp -- gravel (Fickus, Bill and Lill (1) 10)
  • 7 council members needed (Mekiana, Justus (1) 13)