Nels and Rose Hedlund lived in Chekok and Pedro Bay, Alaska. They have both passed away since the Lake Clark Project Jukebox was created in 1999. For many years they made their living off the land by trapping, hunting, and fishing. During this interview, they locate places on a map, and talk about their uses, their Dena'ina names, and what these names mean. They discuss the history of trade and warfare between the Dena'ina and the Yup'ik in the region, and Nels describes the route traveled by Yup'ik people migrating into the Iliamna area from the Kuskokwim River. They also discuss their own subsistence and trapping activities.
H98-27-11, Tape 1
Nels and Rose Hedlund talk with Priscilla Russell and Andy Balluta on July 27, 1985 in Chekok, Alaska about...
1) Rose Hedlund's personal background and the areas where she has lived.
birthplace\ Chekok\ Anchorage\ Dillingham\ Mulchatna\ Pedro Bay\ travel -- seasonal\ trapping\ family -- members\ Hedlund, Rose -- aunt\ Zacher, Mary|
2) Camping and subsistence activities during her childhood.
camping\ berry picking\ fish -- availability\ hunting -- birds\ hunting -- rabbits\ moose -- lack of\ caribou -- lack of\ reindeer -- herd\ Iliamna\ reindeer -- purchase\ reindeer -- meat\ subsistence -- resources|
3) Her father trapping and the different routes he used.
Hedlund, Rose -- father\ trapping\ trapping -- income\ trapping --routes\ Pedro Bay\ Big Point\ Young's Creek\ Knutson Bay\ Dena'ina place names|
4) Trapping and her marriage to Nels Hedlund.
trapping\ Mulchatna River\ marriage\ children\ dog team\ Mosquito Cabin\ Mosquito River\ people -- Dutna|
5) Trapping routes and Yup'ik place names.
Trapping -- routes\ Mulchatna River\ Mosquito River\ Pile Bay\ transportation -- aviation\ Yup'ik place names\ Swan River|
6) Their marriage and travels together.
Hedlund, Rose -- father\ marriage\ marriage -- length\ army -- discharge\ travel|
7) Traveling and trapping early on in their marriage.
marriage\ travel\ Dillingham\ Mulchatna River\ Mosquito River -- cabin\ travel -- seasonal\ transportation -- boat\ dogs\ fishing -- seasonal\ trapping\ ?Vale, Red\ Yup'ik -- trapping\ trapping -- beaver\ Nushagak River\ Old Stuyahok\ Mulchatna River\ Koliganek\ Mulchatna River|
8) Locations in the Lake Clark and Iliamna Lake region.
Nushagak River\ Mulchatna River\ hunting -- moose\ reindeer -- herd\ Mosquito River\ reindeer station\ travel -- lack of\ transportation -- dogs\ people -- Newhalen\ Koktuli River\ Dutna Lake\ Kokhonak\ Yup'ik -- trapping\ territory -- Yup'ik\ territory -- Dena'ina|
10) Territory boundaries between Yup'ik and Dena'ina people.
Bethel\ travel -- route\ Kwethluk River\ Tikchik Lakes\ Koliganek\ Nushagak River\ Yup'ik -- trapping\ Klutuk\ Aniak\ King Salmon River\ Mulchatna River\ Jensen, Mary -- grandmother\ Balluta, Andrew|
11) The abandonment of a Dena'ina village on the Mulchatna River.
flu epidemic\ Wilson, Katie\Wilson, Katie -- brothers\ Paule, Andy\ Mulchatna River\ Kijik\ Twin Lakes\ Holitna River\ Kuskokwim River\ Jensen, Mary|
12) Trapping territories and boundaries between Yup'ik and Dena'ina people.
territory -- Yup'ik\ territory -- Dena'ina\ trapping\ Stuyahok\ reindeer station\ Mosquito\ Stuyahok Creek\ Mulchatna\ Koktuli\ village -- relocation\ New Stuyahok\ Dena'ina place names\ Ekwok\ Yup'ik place names|
13) Place names and descriptions of those locations.
Koktuli\ birds -- swan\ Quguktuq\ Yup'ik place names\ Jack Rabbit Hills\ Mulchatna River\ Swan River\ Swan Lake|
14) Yup'ik and Dena'ina place names and descriptions of those locations.
Koktulik\ travel -- portage\ Chulitna River\ people -- Nondalton\ Portage Village\ Yup'ik place names\ Iliamna\ Dena'ina place names\ Newhalen|
15) An old, abandoned Dena'ina village and the story of a famous warrior who came from there.
village -- old\ warrior\ story\ running -- speed\ bidarki -- destruction\ story -- Yup'ik version\ people -- Russian|
16) Dena'ina and Yup'ik territory boundaries.
Iliamna Lake\ Newhalen\ Kokhanok\ Kuskokwim River\ Bethel\ Kwethluk River\ travel -- route\ Mulchatna River\ Koktuli\ Chulitna\ Tazimina River\ portage\ old village -- Yup'ik\ Tommy Creek\ cache posts\ Nushagak\ language -- similarities|
17) Movements of different groups of people into the area.
Newhalen\ people -- Aleut\ Kodiak Island\ Katmai\ people -- Yup'ik\ language -- Yup'ik\ Perryville\ Kuskokwim River\ Mulchatna River\ Tazimina\ Kwethluk River\ Bethel\ travel -- route\ ?, Nick|
18) Movement of Yup'ik people into the area.
Olympic, Nick\ Newhalen\ people -- Yup'ik\ warfare -- Yup'ik|
20) The importance of fish to the people of the area.
fish -- importance\ fish -- availability\ fish -- brook trout\ fish -- Dolly Varden\ fish -- rainbow trout\ Koktuli\ Tommy Creek\ fish -- whitefish\ fish -- candlefish\ Mink Creek\ village -- remains\ graveyard|
21) Locating Mink Creek on a map.
Mink Creek\ Chekok Creek\ Canyon Creek\ Knutson Mountain\ Fox Bay\ Knutson Bay\ village -- site|
22) Prehistoric village sites.
house -- large\ Townsend, Joanne\ research -- archaeological\ Katmai -- eruption\ fish ponds\ Chekok\ Knutson Bay\ Canyon Creek|
23) Dena'ina names for important places in the Chekok area.
Canyon Creek\ Roadhouse Mountain\ Dena'ina place names\ Moose Lake\ Chekok\ Nick\ Kuskokwim River|
24) The last village on the Mulchatna River that was abandoned.
Chekok\ Hedlund, Rose -- grandmother\ Singha, Agafia\ Mulchatna Village\ Alokonak\ Telaquana\ fish -- availability\ game -- availability\ Lapp, Lillian -- grandmother|
25) Naming practices and the uses of nicknames.
Chekok\ Singha, Agafia\ Nondalton\ Kankanton, Simeon\ husband -- second\ naming\ nicknames\ Koktelash, Pete|
26) The abandonment of Chekok village.
flu epidemic\ Kuskokwim River\ Hedlund, Nels -- mother\ disease -- impact\ disease -- deaths\ village -- relocation\ Kaskenak\ Naknek\ Kijik\ Bristol Bay\ Iliamna\ Nondalton\ village -- old|
27) The flu epidemic and the demise of the old villages.
Hedlund, Rose -- sister\ Kuskokwim River\ Bethel\ Napakiak\ village -- burning\ Mulchatna\ disease\ serum\ Nome\ Chekok -- old village\ ?, Walter\ people -- Kuskokwim\ people -- Newhalen\ village -- remains|
28) Origin and identity of people in the area and the languages they speak.
Newhalen\ Kokhonak\ language -- Aleut\ language -- Yup'ik\ Kwethluk\ Kuskokwim\ Delkittie, Buck\ Foss, Bert\ Kodiak\ Old Sava\ Unalakleet\ Port Heiden\ Perryville\ Eskimo -- southern\ Naknek|
29) People who speak the Yup'ik language.
Olympic, Nick\ village -- abandonment\ Katmai -- eruption\ Naknek River\ language -- Yup'ik\ Naknek\ Cusma, Vladimir\ Cusma, Maxim\ Jensen, Gus\ Jensen, Annie\ Eagle Bay\ language -- Dena'ina|
30) Reindeer herding in the Lake Clark area.
Eagle Bay\ reindeer station\ reindeer -- herding\ Reindeer Bay\ Kukaklek\ Old Iliamna\ Nondalton\ Cusma, Maxim\ reindeer -- care\ reindeer -- distribution\ Lapland|
31) Introduction of reindeer herding and reasons for its failure.
Lap -- people\ ?, Hollis\ Bethel\ Kuskokwim River\ Skagway\ reindeer -- herd\ Nondalton\ Kijik\ wolf\ caribou\ reindeer station|
32) Problems involved in herding reindeer.
Bethel\ Lap -- people \ reindeer -- herders\ reindeer herds -- size\ wolf\ caribou\ Kuskokwim River\ meat -- reindeer\ trade -- meat|
33) Problems trading reindeer meat and conflicts between Yup'ik and Dena'ina people.
trade -- meat\ reindeer -- herding\ reindeer -- meat\ Kuskokwim River\ people -- Lapp\ reindeer -- market\ trade -- Yup'ik\ warfare -- Yup'ik|
34) Trade and warfare between Yup'ik and Dena'ina people.
trade -- Yup'ik\ Kuskokwim River\ Muck River Guys\ boats -- canoe\ canoe -- birch bark\ Bethel\ seal oil\ hides -- seal\ Stony River\ Nushagak\ Yukon River\ warfare -- reasons|
35) Reasons for warfare between Yup'ik and Dena'ina people.
warfare -- reasons\ Kuskokwim River\ fishing -- competition\ Stony River\ Dena'ina -- origins\ Hedlund, Rose -- grandmother\ Hedlund, Rose -- grandfather\ Telaquana\ Mulchatna\ Balluta, Alec -- grandfather|
36) Old Iliamna village origins and relocation.
trade -- coastal Dena'ina\ trade -- inland Dena'ina\ warfare\ Jensen, Gus -- mother\ Iliamna\ Old Iliamna\ village -- relocation|
37) Dena'ina place names and the locations of old villages.
Old Iliamna\ Iliamna River\ Dena'ina place names\ Newhalen|
38) Dena'ina village place names and their meanings.
Dena'ina place names\ people -- Aleut\ story -- fighting\ bidarki -- swamping\ Old Iliamna\ Old Sava\ Russians\ Russians -- descendants|
39) Old village sites from the Russian period.
Russian period\ Old Iliamna -- relocation\ fish -- availability\ warfare -- defense\ Old Kijik\ school\ church -- Russian Orthodox\ graveyard -- Russian Orthodox|
40) Fish camps and difficulties faced when fish did not come.
fish ponds\ fish camp\ fish -- importance\ fish -- trout\ Breece, Hannah\ fish trap\ canneries -- fish|
41) One year when large trout came next to the shore instead of salmon.
fish -- numbers\ fish -- bundles\ fishing -- net\ smokehouse\ fish -- Dolly Varden\ beach\ fish -- salmon\ movement -- reasons|
42) People traveling to saltwater for subsistence resources.
travel -- seasonal\ clams -- gathering\ hunting -- seal\ people -- coastal\ people -- inland\ people -- Tyonek\ trading\ Kuskokwim River\ Lime Village\ Constantine, Gustingen|
43) Areas they used to travel to and trap in.
trapping -- areas\ Mulchatna River\ Tazimina Lakes\ Moose Lake\ Dena'ina place names\ hunting\ National Park Service\ transportation -- dogs\ trapping -- beaver|
44) Trapping and sewing skins.
beaver -- population\ trapping -- beaver\ travel -- walking\ transportation -- three wheeler\ travel -- snowmachine\ crafts -- selling\ sewing -- skin\ mukluks\ dolls\ hats\ mitts\ sewing -- teaching\ Hedlund, Rose -- daughters\ fishing -- net\ fishing -- spear|
45) The Karshekoff family and their relatives.
Karshekoff, Stephen\ Karshekoff, Marka\ uncle Tonka\ Laura -- Nickoli's niece\ Zackar, Martha\ Karshekoff, Alexie\ Karshekoff -- grandfather\ Rickteroff, Sava\ Kodiak Island\ people -- Russian\ people -- Aleut\ relatives\ names|