Picture of Samuel Demientieff
Samuel Demientieff spoke at the annual meeting of OLCG teachers on December 6-7, 2003 in Fairbanks. The theme of the meeting was snow and ice.

Tape Number: H2001-113-12

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Born -- Holy Cross\ Lower Yukon River\ 1943 -- Fairbanks\ Chena River\ Ron's Service Station -- Wendel St\ water -- Chena River\ hauled freight -- Tanana, Chena, Yukon Rivers\ Nenana to Galena Air Force Base\ worked on rivers\ Iditarod\ Innoko\ Koyukuk\ Alatna\ tributaries -- Yukon River\ ice changes and breakup\ structure of ice\ types of ice\ effects on river banks\ freeze up times\ KFAR radio\ cold spells -- cold snaps\ global warming\ winter 2002 -- dramatic changes\ Fairbanks -- rain in January\ Chena and Tanana rivers -- flooded\ overflow -- slush|

Types of Ice
3 Terms\ bank ice form -- fall\ thin sheet of ice\ new ice\ glass ice -- sharp\ important for freighting -- can damage wooden boats|

Slide 1
frazil ice\ slush ice -- no resistance\ fall time -- forms\ frazil pans\ snow in fall -- slush ice\ outboard motor -- no resistence|

Slide 2
Frazil pans\ bank ice\ shear ice\ slow moving rivers\ Chena\ Kantishna\ Melozitna or Tozitna -- off of Yukon River\ Tolovana River\ ice forms smoothly\ Tanana River -- fast moving\ sheet ice -- jumbled ice|

Slide 3
Anchor ice -- lake\ ice forms on edge of water and bottom\ winter -- temp changes\ Chinook days -- temperature rise\ water raises -- warm days\ Chena River changes\ center ice -- bulge\ overflow increases -- edges of river\ ice structure changes\ anchor ice -- remains\ dangerous ice conditions\ spring -- hunting season\ anchor ice -- floats to surface|

Slide 4
Anchor ice -- rivers\ mud filled -- anchor ice\ ice jams\ accumulates mud and dirt|

Slide 5
Anchor ice\ description of the picture\ water flowing along the river bank|

Slide 6
Anchor ice\ jumbled ice -- break up\ along the river bank|

Slide 7
Spring time -- people going out\ mud accumulated on the ice|

Slide 8
Small stream -- current in middle\ border or bank ice\ slack ice -- middle of river|

Slide 9
sheet ice -- Kuskokwim River or Alatna or Koyukuk\ no snow\ shear channel\ no jumble -- froze smooth|

Slide 10
candled or honeycombed ice -- spring time ice\ bottom of the river -- freezes and melts\ weak ice -- shatters\ different structures|

Slide 11
Current -- river bank edge\ freeze up jam -- jumbled ice\ snow will cover jumbled ice|

Slide 12
small stream -- ice jam\ jumbled ice|

Slide 13
layers of ice\ smooth ice -- fall time\ first snow fall -- weight\ ice drops -- overflow\

Slide 14
Dynamics of ice on the Kuskokwim|

Slide 15
Yukon River -- Kuskokwim\ narrow parts of river\ pans of ice\ anchor ice\ villages flood\ Holy cross\ Air Force -- break up river ice with bombs\ Holy Cross -- Yukon River\ father -- boat and barge operator\ Nick Demientieff -- told him where to drop bomb\ channel and pressure\ Kuskokwim River slides|

Slide 16
Ice jam -- upstream side\ Kuskokwim River\ narrow area of river|

Breakup in Fairbanks
Weekender -- pictures of Old Fairbanks\ Candy Brockman's pictures\ Chena River -- activities\ dog mushing, hockey, winter carnival\ power plants -- 1950's\ effluent water -- warm water\ Fort Wainwright -- Chena River\ open water -- University Dr.\ Tanana River -- mouth of Chena\ open water -- December\ mushing\ Cushman St. bridge\ weather changes -- warmer now\ Chena River -- freezing changes\ Nenana breakup\ ice thickness -- consistent throughout the years\ ice structure -- different|

Ice Awareness
Tanana -- Chena Rivers\ Fairbanks\ edges -- dangerous\ River ice\ overflow -- bulges\ Fairbanks area -- Tanana and Chena Rivers\ current\ Tanana -- slack water along edges\ freezes quickly -- anchor ice\ sandbars\ shear ice\ jumble ice\ steam -- frost\

Tanana River
Channels -- change\ sand bar -- air chamber\ erosion -- can break through ice\ January -- rain in Fairbanks\ open water on the Tanana\ glare ice\ moose -- broke through ice\ global warming -- effects all mammals\ Yukon River\ swift water areas\ warming trends\ knowledge -- safety\ river bank\ hollow areas -- listen for it\ jumbled ice\ ice pick\ ice chart|

Lack of snow -- effects\ texture and strength\ Nenana thickness -- consistent\ current under the ice\ less snow -- deeper ice\ structure change\ snow on ice -- insulates ice\ Thanksgiving\ slush -- middle of river\ wet -- hypothermia\ aware of weak ice\ curriculum -- elders|


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