Martha Stackhouse
Martha Stackhouse was interviewed by Bill Schneider and Sidney Stephens in Fairbanks, Alaska on December 5, 2003.

Tape Number: H2001-113-09

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Bill Schneider and Sidney Stephens talk with Martha Stackhouse in Fairbanks, AK about…

1) Background information
workshop -- climate change\ effects of ice -- subsistence\ global warming -- North Slope\ sea ice conditions\ open water -- middle of winter\ ice in the past -- thin ice now\ impact on whaling\ butchering site -- harder to find in spring\ wind and currents\ South wind -- ice comes in\ North or North East wind -- ice goes out\ glacial ice -- scarce now\ no drinking water during whaling\ sea ice -- glacial ice\ color of ice|

2) Changing ice conditions
Christmas time -- ice comes in now\ years ago -- ice came in earlier\ waves and storms\ open water -- only a mile of ice\ thin ice -- caution youngsters about ice conditions\ whaling time -- stay on trails\ lagoon -- Barrow\ Browerville to Barrow -- lagoon is dangerous\ inland rivers -- freezing later\ ice fishing -- later in the year\ beach erosion\ Nalukataq site -- blanket toss\ site moved -- Browerville\ beach is eroding -- fall storms and lack of sea ice\ built walls -- protect beach road\ elders -- new changes|

3) Spring conditions and changes to the willows
thawing and freezing trends\ spring -- colder longer\ whaling season -- longer\ geese hunting season -- Nalukataq festival\ summer -- willows are bushier\ 6 or 7 foot willow branch -- inland\ Kotzebue -- North Slope\ uqpik (singular; uqpiich, plural) -- Inupiaq word for willow|

4) Atmospheric changes
more snow -- warmer winters\ December, January -- not as cold now\ open water\ more snow -- winter storms\ rare -- summer rains constant\ July -- greener tundra\ fewer sunny days\ berries -- Atqasuk, Point Hope\ Point Hope relocation\ erosion -- stories\ Inupiaq hour -- fall storms\ 80s|

5) Bird and animal movements
swans\ cranes further north -- nests near Barrow\ breeding place -- ground squirrels\ lynx caught\ change -- animal habitation\ animals -- search for food|


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