Picture of Kenneth Frank
Kenneth Frank interviewed by Bill Schneider with Sidney Stephens in Fairbanks, Alaska on February 2, 2002.

Tape Number: H2001-113-05

Click here to go back to the main menu

Click on an outlined section below to access the transcript page with audio.

1) Observations on environmental and climate changes.
Elders\ growth of trees\ Brooks Range\ story -- lost lake up on Brooks Range\ spruce trees\ tree line -- going up into Brooks Range\ climate -- warming up\ moose -- moving up over Brooks Range\ coast people\ moose seen by coast people\ Venetie area\ Ice Age\ glacier\ Vivee nih
jireegha' -- Native name\ mountain for lookout hill\ grass area\ tundra\ trees -- limit view of area\ birch\ cottonwoods\ Fort Yukon\ Christian Village\ early days -- 1900\ southside of Arctic Village\ caribou -- moving up on the Yukon river\ trees -- smaller in old days\ today -- big trees\ caribou -- fat|

2) Other changes that Kenneth observed and the observations of the Elders.
1962\ gasoline lamp\ flies\ early days -- people more obsevant\ birds -- people kept track of them\ blue color bird -- new bird\ Arctic Village\ magpie\ Fairbanks|

3) Elders say that time is going faster today than in the old days.
summer\ fall\ time -- going by quicker\ scientific time\ early days -- people didn't worry about time\ today -- watching time\ watch\ clocks\ start something -- stay until finished\ time system\ time -- going at same pace\ time -- see it differently\ seasons\ temperatures -- early days extremely cold\ cold weather today -- once in a while|

4) How cold is cold?
cold weather\ breath\ dogs -- predict cold weather\ dogs -- flip over\ trees\ willow\ birch\ cotton\ spruce\ trees frost up\ coats\ parkas\ extreme cold\ trees put on their coats\ parka -- gweheenk'oo gwitsi'i' dagwa ch'aa nanaa zhik\ environment -- plays a role in protecting the trees\ cold\ fire\ burn wood\ extreme cold -- will burn tree|

5) Are there other weather differences beside the change in cold spells? (Sidney Stephens asks)
Arctic Village\ months -- named after the events that are happening\ thirteen months\ full moon\ Shreenahn\ Passover\ ahtr'aii zhrii -- wind month\ wind -- comes in early day\ moose\ wolf\ losing ground\ five mile loop\ different areas\ lose spots\ today -- no wind\ cold weather\ weather -- getting warmer\ moose -- relocate themselves\ moose -- affected by lack of wind\ February -- Veegwaadhat\ Ah'traii zhrii -- wind month

6) What about the snow levels, are they changing? (Sidney Stephens asks)
snow -- same height\ this year -- didn't get snow until after December\ start -- October\ snow -- usually get all the snow by November and early December\ rain\ harsh for animals\ caribou, moose -- depend on plants\ rabbits -- depend on snow to survive\ snow -- insulation\ powered snow|

7) Changes in the environment, changes in animals, and stories about large animals.
traditional story\ grandparents\ uncle -- Nathaniel\ shot -- water animal\ moose -- looked like moose with rubber skin\ animal -- got away\ horn -- looked like moose horn but different\ large animal\ elder -- heard thunder\ ice beaking sound\ creek -- broken up\ animal -- went up river\ grandfather -- told story\ animals that come from lakes\ fish with human head on it\ lake -- don't go to it\ fish -- will kill you\ detour lake\ lake -- around Arctic Village\ dzeeluk -- for mermaid\ Chandalor Lake -- Cheht
j'ee van\ great grandfather\ historic sites\ dwelling\ good fish lake\ Little Squaw Lake -- Vivee chiriinlit|

8) Story about David Salmon and how clear things use to be in the old days.
Salmon, David\ Black River\ head water\ mountain range\ White Mountain\ eastside\ Salmon Village\ Salmon, William -- David's father\ valley -- see the whole area\ Yukon Flat\ westside of Venetie\ ddhah dzak\ Johnny -- lived like big chief\ Chief -- Khaikwaii\ wealthy person\ people respect territory\ Christian Village\ Salmon, William -- tell stories\ Fort Yukon\ Birch Creek\ Salmon, David -- knows the country from his father's stories\ foggy\ today -- things are blue\ early days -- very clear\ air -- environmental damaged\ stars\ today-- see just bright stars\ stories of stars\ change in environment\ atmosphere|

9) Using the moon, stars, sun, and northern lights as predictors.
early days -- ceremonies with moon\ story -- little boy\ signs -- for weather\ today -- sun and moon give signs\ warm\ cold\ wind\ tells everything\ grandparents -- watched for signs\ signs -- color around the sun\ snow\ rain\ wind\ moon -- rings around the moon sometimes different colors\ abrasions -- mean something\ signs\ snow -- ring around the moon\ sundog -- vehghyuu gwaak'a'\ shree nit
j'yaa digweel chaa -- Native Name\ hardship -- seven to eight sundogs\ war\ starvation\ something will happen in a family\ horn -- sundog tangled up\ northern lights -- tell you it will get cold\ northern lights -- red\ sign -- war, bloodshed\ Gwitch'in people\ believe\ survive\ be ready\ teepee -- ch'adhah zheh gwach'ok\ round house\ doorway will open\ people will go in the direction for survival\ signs -- still working\ signs -- used for calendar\ animals -- do something for a certain sign|

10) Do summers seem to be about the same as they usually been? (Sidney Stephens asks)
fall time -- warm\ snow -- it takes longer\ every year different\ losing lakes\ lakes -- caving in\ permafrost melting\ Arctic Village\ lakes -- become dry\ historical times -- good fishing\ Native Name -- those young white fish (name of lake)\ permafrost -- breaking ice\ getting warmer\ skin -- have abrasions|

11) The melting of permafrost on river banks.
glaciers -- melting\ uncle -- told of big ice\ 1930 area -- big ice in old place\ caribou -- go there in summer\ no mosquitoes\ 10 years ago -- little patch of ice\ Red Sheep Creek big ice up there getting smaller\ people -- do not watch events\ environmental direction\ political issues|

12) Things that can be done in the classroom with children to look at and monitor the environment.
winter\ what they need to survive\ red berries -- Native Name\ berries -- low to ground\ berry -- important for people\ ripe berries -- sheep is ready to be hunted\ sheep -- up in mountains\ caribou -- coming\ ground squirrel -- observe\ mosquito\ getting ready\ caribou calves -- small and good for clothes\ dry meat\ fall\ winter\ winter solstice\ mid winter -- hardest time\ cold\ food -- to survive\ warm -- do not need food to survive\ December -- Native Name, time of hardship\ arctic border lands\ surveys\ documenting\ yearly cycle|

13) Names of the months and the environmental descriptions.
different areas -- called different months\ Venetie\ Arctic Village\ Fort Yukon\ January -- Ch'anjaa\ oldest month\ wedging month\ wedging out meat\ hind legs\ muscle\ February -- Veegwaadhat, passover month, wind month\ March -- Chiizhin zhrii, eagle month\ April -- Ch'itreéizhii, one of the hawk months\ May -- Gwiluu zhrii, snows melts during the day, at night freeze over\ June -- Vananch'iighoo, duck lays eggs\ July -- Vananeets'anch'anzhii, ducks grew new feathers\ August -- di'ilii, caribou and moose have velvet on their horns\ September -- Dinjik zhrii, moose month\ October -- Vadzaih zhrii, caribou month\ November -- Divii zhrii, sheep month\ December -- Ch'atsal. hardship month, food scarce, night long\ September -- mating\ first summer start\ mosquito -- watch\ warm\ bear -- turn over\ change over\ cranes\ swallows -- fly up in the air\ swallows and cranes -- leave together\ crow\ pack sack is heavy -- tr'eekhwaa yahchik\ hunt for moose\ moose -- hard to locate in bush\ crow -- will tell you where moose is\ crow -- use for hunting\ crow -- tells you when the wind is coming\ scratch each other\ dill\ going to be windy -- deetrya' nih
joodrii\ helpful to culture\ grandmother\ vision\ cousin\ grandmother -- Frank, Sarah\ animal killing -- predicted|

 Click here to go back to the top of the page


© Copyright Information | Jukebox Home Page